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BY    WAY    OF    REMEMBBANCE:    2    PETEB    1:    IMS. 



=—   CALCUTTA.   =— 

■Utb  APRFL  1800  TO  THE 
—   PRESENT   DAY.   — 



Skcretary — Deacon    ok   the    Church, 






■a  OS 


Tub  Lall  Bazar  Baptist  Obapel,  Caloatta,  was  opened  for  Divine 
Service  on  the  1st  January  1809.  In  1907  it  was  realized  that  its 
centenary  was  rapidly  approachingt  and  as  I  was  the  Secretary  Deacon  and 
had  charge  of  the  records  of  the  Church,  it  occurred  to  me  that  a  History 
of  the  Church  for  the  intervening  hundred  years  should  be  written  for 
the  information  of  the  members  of  the  Church  and  as  a  contribution  to 
Baptist  history  generally.  1  was  persuaded  that  a  great  deal  of  very 
interesting  information  would  be  forthcoming  which  was  unknown  to  the 
majority  of  the  present  members,  as  well  as  to  outsiders  in  this  country 
and  to  Baptists  in  Great  Britain  and  America.  It  was  suggested  that 
while  upon  this  work  a  list  should  be  compiled  of  all  the  individuals 
whose  names  have  been  on  the  Church  Rolls  during  the  100  years. 

As  all  the  extant  Church  Rolls  and  Minute  Books  were  in  my 
custody  there  seemed  no  alternative  but  for  me  to  undertake  the  work  ; 
but  it  was  with  great  diffidence  that  1  consented  to  put  my  hand  to  it. 
However,  as  the  subject  was  one  in  which  1  was  much  interested  for 
several  reasons  and  had  had  some  experience  in  research  work,  I  thought 
1  might  be  equal  to  the  effort. 

The  book  makes  no  pretensions  to  literary  merit,  but  is  a  bare  state- 
ment of  the  facts  ascertained.  For  this  reason  it  may  not  be  very  attractive 
to  some  readers,  as  it  is  intended  to  serve  as  a  book  of  reference  here- 
after, my  object  being  to  bring  out  the  facts  stated  prominently  before 
they  pass  into  oblivion.  It  does  not  profess  to  be  complete,  but  may 
serve  for  others  to  build  upon.  Some  readers  may  notice  omissions  of 
which  I  am  unconscious  while  others  may  even  consider  it  '*  padded.*'  Snch 
a  mass  of  very  interesting  information  has  been  collected  that  it  has  been 
difficult  to  compress  it  even  into  its  present  dimensions,  which  some 
probably  may  consider  excessive.  While  I  was  about  it  1  thought  it 
best  to  put  down  all  the  information  I  had  collected  on  any  one  subject 
so  as  to  obviate*  the  readers  having  to  go  through  all  the  books  I  had 
consulted  in   order   to  get   at   the   information  so   collected.     A  large 


correspondence  has  also  had  to  be  carried  on  in  order  to  get   information 

from  one  and  another  and  references  have  had  to  be  made  to  the  Secretaries  { 

of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Societies  in  London  and  Boston,  who  have  cheer  ^ 

fully  and  readily  furnished  snch  information  as  it  was  in  their  power  to  give.  ^ 

As  will  be  seen   from  the    Bibliography  in   Appendix    8  there   are 
four  Minute  Books  and  four  Church  Rolls  extant  in  Calcutta,  which  have    ' 
been  gone  through  more  than  once  and  the  necessary  notes  made  from 
them.     There  is  also  a  small    Cburch    Roll    book   extant  at    Serampore, 
containing  lists  of  the  members  of  the   several   churches   planted   by  the 
Serampore  Missionaries  which  seems  to  be  in    Dr.  Carey's   own    small 
handwriting;  under    the  heading    *' Church    at  Serampore,   Bengal"  are    I 
entered  the  names  of  the  Calcutta  members  as  well,  but  this  unfortunately   -^ 
stops   at   April  1811.     1   have,   however,  had    a  copy    made  of  this  list  i 
which  contains  242  names  in  all.  f] 

The  earliest  Church  Roll  extant  in  Calcutta  is  one  which  was  prepared 
in  1825,  so  that  it  has  been  a  very  laborious  matter  to  prepare  a  Church 
Roll  for  the  early  years  of  the  Church's  History.  The  names  of  148  mem- 
bers who  joined  the  Church  prior  to  1825  having  been  brought  forward  in 
the  roll  of  that  year,  it  became  necessary  to  prepare  an  independent 
roll  from  the  very  beginning,  and  in  doing  this  it  was  found  that  at  least 
660  persons  must  have  joined  the  Church  between  the  24th  April  1800, 
the  date  of  the  formation  of  the  Church,  and  the  16th  June  1825,  when 
Drs.  Carey  and  Marshman  severed  their  connection  with  it.  Unfortunate- 
ly it  has  not  been  possible  to  trace  clearly  the  date  of  baptism  of  some  per- 
sons who  are  known  to  have  been  members. 

In  the  old  books  it  is  stated  that  Serampore  and  Calcutta  were  two 
branches  of  one  Church  and  also  that'  "  the  united  churches  formed  one 
station."  They  are  always  linked  together  as  ^'  Serampore  and  Calcutta  " 
and  are  never  mentioned  separately.  It,  therefore,  became  necessary  to 
go  back  to  the  24th  April  1800,  the  date  on  which  the  Serampore  Mission- 
aries first  banded  themselves  into  a  Church  at  Serampore.  Such  being 
|.he  case,  the  history  of  the  Baptist  Mission  in  Bengal  for  the  first  quarter 
of  the  nineteenth  century  has  had  to  be  read  up  very  carefully.* 


fBEFACE.  Vli 

Many  books  have  had  to  be  consulted  as  will  be  seen  by  a  reference 
to  the  Bibliography  which  forms  Appendix  8  as  I  determined  not  to  accept 
a  fact  or  a  date  on  the  authority  of  only  one  book  where  others  were  avail* 
able.  Notably  among  the  books  consulted  have  been  the  Circular 
Letters  of  the  Serampore  Missionaries  and  the  Periodical  Accounts  of 
ike  Baptist  Missionary  Society^  but  other  books,  such  as  the  biographies 
of  the  early  missionaries  and  standard  works  like  Marshman's  FAfe  and 
Times  of  Carey ^  Marshman  and  Ward,  and  W.  H.  Carey's  Oriental 
Christian  Biography  have  also  been  consulted. 

I  firmly  believe  that  illustrations  enhance  the  value  of  a  history,  so 
I  have  spared  no  pains  or  expense  in  getting  together  those  which  I  con- 
sidered woald  add  to  the  interest  of  the  book  and  I  am  happy  to  say  that 
I  have  been  more  successful  than  I  had  ever  hoped  to  be  when  I  first  took 
ap  this  undertaking.  I  would  have  liked  to  have  put  in  about  half  a  dozen 
'  more,  but  refrained  from  inserting  them  from  pradential  reasons  lest  it 
might  be  thought  that  copyright  had  been  infringed  as  it  has  not  been 
possible  to  correspond  with  all  the  publishers  concerned.  It  was  even 
anggested  to  me  to  risk  this,  but  1  did  not  care  to  do  so. 

I  desire  therefore  here  and  now  to  express  my  sincerest  thanks  to 
all  who  have  so  cheerfuly  and  readily  complied  with  my  request  for  por- 
traits or  for  information.     I  must  here  make  special  mention  of : — 

1.  Messrs.  Thacker,  Spink  &  Oo.  for  placing  at  my  disposal  the 
blocks  of  five  illustrations  from  their  published  works,  one  of  which  they 
got  oat  specially  from  England  for  me. 

2.  The  Secretary  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society,  London,  for 
a  similar  favor  in  regard  to  six  of   their  blocks  from  different  publications. 

3.  The  Secretary  of  the  American  Baptist  Missionary  Union  for 
three  electrotypes  from  their  blocks  about  Dr.  Judson.  They  did  not  like 
to  risk  sending  the  originals  so  far  so  had  duplicates  made  specially  for  me. 

4.  The  Librarian  of  the  Imperial  Library,  Calcutta,  for  so  readily 
permitting  me^to  have  a  photograph  taken  off  of  Mr.  Colesworthy 
Grant's  sketch  of  Bev.  J.  Penney  teaching  the  children  of  the  Bene- 
volent Instftution. 


5.  The  Principal  of  the  DoTston  College,  Calcutta,  for  a  similar 
favor  in  regard  to  the  portrait  of  Mr.  J.  VV.  Ricketts,  the  East 
Indian  Patriot,  from  an  oil  painting  of  him  which  is  in  the  Library  ot 
that  college.  Unfortanately  it  has  not  come  off  very  well,  but  it  is  better 
than  nothing. 

6.  Rev.  H.  Anderson,  the  Indian  Secretary  of  the  Baptist  Mis- 
sionary Society,  for  all  the  kind  services  he  has  rendered  in  a  variety  of 
ways,  and  more  especially  in  reading  through  the  typed  matter  before, 
and  the  proofs  when  passing  through  the  Press,  and  for  valuable 
remarks  and  suggestions  made  thereon. 

7.  Mr.  E.  W.  Madge  of  the  Imperial  Library  for  the  following 
photographs  : — 

(a)    That  of  Mr.  H.  L.  V.  Derozio,  the  East  Indian  Poet. 
(6)         „       „  the   tomb  of  Sir   William   Jones  from  a  negative 
by  the  late  Mr.  Alfred  Palmer. 

(c)  „       „  the   tomb  of    Hindu  Stuart  from   a  negative   by 

Mr.  0.  F.  Hooper. 

(d)  ,         „  the  Serampore    Cemetery    from    a     negative   by 

Mr.  Walter  Bnshnell. 
Mr.  Madge  has  also  very  kindly  helped  me  in  many  other  ways  which 
are  too  numerous  to  be  specified. 

8.  Mrs.  S«  J.  Leslie  o!  Barrackpore  for  a  large  parcel  of  old  books 
from  the  library  of  the  late  Miss  Leslie,  which  she  was  kind  enough  to 
give  me  and  which  have  been  invalnable. 

9.  Mrs.  Walter  Bushnell  for  permitting  me  to  take  off  photographs 
from  the  oil  paintings  of  the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  William  Robinson. 

10.  Messrs.  Farquhar  and  Barber  of  the  Y.M.C.  A.  College  Branch, 
Calcutta,  have  furnished  me  with  much  valuable  information  regarding 
the  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society  and  the  picture  of  the  Hall. 

11.  Mr.  S.  0.  Sanial,  M.A.  of  the  Calcutta  Parliament,  who  very 
kindly  furnished  me  with  all  the  information  regarding  Mr.  L.  Mendea 
connection  with  the  three  newspapers  mentioned  in  the  biographical 
sketch  of  him  in  Chapter  LII. 


I  had  formalated  my  pUos  for  this  book  when  I  saw — 

1.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Stnart's  history  of  the  Beechen  Grove  Gharcb, 
Westford,  Herte,  and 

2.  The  Rev.  R.  0.  Roberts'  Baptist  Historical  Sketches  in 

from  each  of  which  I  culled  some  useful  hints.  In  fact  from  the 
latter  I  conceived  the  idea  of  LI II  chapter  which  I  thought  wonld 
be  a  very  good  subject  to  include  in  the  book. 

Appendix  1  contains  an  alphabetical  list  of  all  the  members  of  the 
Ohnrch  from  the  24th  April  1800  to  the  present  date,  which  includes 
over  1,700  names.  The  married  names  of  ladies  are  entered  in  italics 
for  facility  of  reference  so  that  the  individual's  date  of  admission  can  be 
traced  either  by  her  maiden  or  her  married  name.  Obviously  the  list  must 
be  more  or  less  incomplete  and  inaccurate  in  regard  to  some  of  the 
entries  in  it,  though  every  effort  has  been  made  to  render  it  as  complete 
•nd  as  aocnrate  as  dih'gent  research  can  make  it. 

I  mast,  therefore,  ask  the  forbearance  of  the  reader  to  any  defects 
^^at  may  be  noticed  in  the  work  as  it  has  been  done  singlehanded  and 
r^pi  my  first  attempt  at  what  may  be  considered  a  pretentious  work.  With 
I  .  ||B  its  imperfections  and  defects,  however,  I  venture  to  send  it  forth  to 
« .  %eak  for  itself,  so  that  every  reader's  heart  may  be  thrilled  with  grati- 
;  Me  to  God  for  all  that  Redid  "  in  the  good  old  days  "  of  the  Lall 
Bazar  Church. 

j         8  Grant's  Lane,    ] 

tji  Calcutta,         i  EDWARD  STEANE  WENGER* 

'■  '     December  1908.    ) 


Namber.  Pages. 

List  of  Illastrations  ... 
Preface    ... 
I. — Introduction  ...  ...  ...  1-8 

II.— The  Beginning  ...  ...  ...  9-12 

III.-^Krishna  Pal.  the  beloved  ...  ...         13-20 

IV. — The  commencement  of  the  work  at  Calcutta   ...         21-25 
V — The  early  efforts  to  erect  the  Chapel  at  Calcutta         26-39 
VI. — Some  of   the   Subscribers  to  the  Building  Fund        40-44 
VII. — The   progress  of  the  cause   in  1809   after  the 

opening  of  the  Chapel  ...  ...         45-49 

VIII. — Biographical  sketch  of  Mr.  William  Cnmberlandi 

a  Deacon  of  the  Church  ...  ...         50-55 

IX. — Biographical  sketch  of  the  Rev.  Owen  Leonard, 

a  Deacon  of  the  Chnrch  ...  ...         56-60 

X. — The    v7ork   among  soldiers  from  January  1810 

to  December  1815...  ...  ...         61--68 

XI. — The   redoubtable  Mrs.    Wilson,   a  Hundustani 

woman  of  pluck     ...  ...  ...         69-71 

XII. — The    story    of     the     conversion    of    Michael 

Carmoody,  a  soldier  ...  ,...         72-75 

XIII. — The  story  of  the  conversion  of  Alexander  Wilson, 

a  soldier  ...  ...  ...         76-78 

XIV. — The  general  work  carried  on  between  January 

1810  and  December  1815        ...  ...        79-90 

XV.— The   Rev.     Dr.    Adoniram     and     Mrs.     Ann 

Hasseltine  Jndson...  ...  ...       91-111 

XVr.— The  Rev,  Luther  Rice  ...  ...     112126 

XVII.— The  simple-minded  Mrs.  Jore       ...  ...     127-129 

XVIII.— The  Co-Pastorship  of   the  Revs.  John  Lawaon 

and  Eustace  Carey  •.%    \^^A.^5i 


XIX.— Mr.  J.  W.  Ricketts,the  East  Indian  Patriot...  146-151 
XX.— The  story  of  Mahomed   Bakar  a  Mahomedan 

convert                   ...                 ...                 ..,  152-153 

XXI. — Manshi    Snjaat   All,  Mahomedan   convert   and 

Christian  preacher...                 ...                 •«.  154>161 

iXXII. — Close  or  open  Communion  which  ?                   ...  162-164 

XXIII. — Licenses  and  Passports                 ••.                 •••  165-171 
XXIV.— Title    Deeds   and    TruBt  Deeds  of   the   Chapel 

property                 ...                 ...                 ...  172-184 

XXV. — The  dark  days  between  October  1819   and  June 

1825  ...                 ...                 ...                 ...  185^188 

XXVI.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  William  Robinson  ...  189-213 

XXVII.— The  Work  in  the  Villages            ...                 ...  214-229 

XXVIII.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Bayne         ...  280-283 

XXIX.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Evans        ...  234-245 

XXX.— The  Benevolent  Institution          ...                  ...  246-256 

XXXI. — The  three  Serampore  Missionaries,  Carey,  Marsh- 
man  and  Ward  and    their   Associate    Mack  257-285 
XXXII.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev,  James  Thomas        ...  286-305 
XXXllI.— The  Indian  Mutiny   ...                  ...                  ...  306-319 

XXXIV.— The  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society          ...  320  337 

XXXV.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  John  Sale                ...  338-353 

XXXVI.— The  acting  Pastorate  of  the    Rev.  George  Kerry  354-359 

XXXVII.— The  story  of  the  Williams'  Estate                   ...  360-364 

XXXVIII.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  John  Robinson       ...  365-384 

XXXIX.— The  work  among  sailors  in  Calcutta                ...  385  807 

XL.— The  acting  Pastorate  of  the  Kev.  Dr.  Rouse  ...  398-405 

XLI.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  H.  G.  Blaokie       ...  406-410 

XLII.— The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  G.  H.  Hook           ...  411-446 

XLIII. — The  Parsonage  and  its  Donor   Mr.   H.  Dear  of 

Monghyr                ...                 ...                 ...  447-454 

XLIV, — The  oldest  Church  member  and  her  sister       ...  455  459 

XLV.— A.  chapter  of  varieties                    ...                 ...  460-466 

XLVI.— The    Title    Deeds    and    Trust    Deeds  of"  the 

Parsonage             ...                 •••                 ..t  467-468 


XL VII. — The  sarTGy  of  the  entire  premiBes  ..•  469-476 
S.LVIII. — The  chaoges  made  in  the  exterior  and  interior  of 

the  Chapel  and  Parsonage        ..  •••  477-493 

XlilX.— The  Oooly  Bazar  (or  Hastings)  Chapel  ...  494-500 

L. — Vernacular  Chapels  and  Schools  ...  ...  501-504 

LI.— Some     Calcutta    Cemeteries    and  the  Mission 

Cemetery  at  Serampore             ...  ...  505^528 

LII.— The   Officers  of  the  Church         ...  ...  524-532 

lilll. — The     members   of     the  Church     who  became 

Missionaries           ...                 ...  ...  533  570 

LIV. — The  Pauperism  Committee           ...  ...  571-575 

Appendices  ...                ...                 ...  ...      I — LX 

Index             ...                 ...                 ..•  LXI — LXXI 




Whbrb   Placed. 





The  chapel  as  it  looked  when  opened  on  Ist 

January  1809.     (By  kind   permission    of 

the  Baptist  Missionary  Society,  London.) 
Portrait  of   Krishna   Pal,  the  first   native 

(Serampore)  convert.     (From  a  miniatare 

by  the  Rev.  John  Law  son) 
The  Old  (or  Mission)   Charch,  Galcatta,  as 

it  was  in  1788.    (By    kind  permission    of 

Messrs.  Thacker,  Spink  &  Oo.,  Galcatta.) 
St.  John's    Cathedral,    Calcutta,   as  it    was 

in  1788.     (By  kind  permission  of  Messrs. 

Thacker,  Spink  &  Co.,  Calcutta) 
A  scene  in  the  Chitpore  Road,  Calcutta,  in 

the  early  years  of  the  19th  century.     (By 

kind    permission    of     Messrs.    Thacker, 

Spink  &  Co.,  Calcutta) 
View  of  the  east  face  of  Government    House, 

Calcutta,  as  it  was  in  the  early  years  of  the 

19th  century     ... 
Portrait   of   Mr.    H.    L.   V.   Derozio,   the 

Anglo-Indian  Poet,    (By  kind  permission 

of  Mr.  E.    W.   Madge   of   the   Imperial 

Interior  of  a  part  of  Fort  William,  Calcutta, 

as  it  was  in  the  early   years   of  the    19th 

View  of  the  Old  Alipore  Bridge  as  it  was 
in  the  early  years  of  the  19th  centnry  ... 
Portrait  of'the  Rev.  Dr.  Judson  at  the  age 
of  28?  (By  kind  permission  of  the 
Aiperican  Baptist  Missionary  Union)    ... 


























Portrait  of  Mrs.  Ana  H.  Judson,  who  was 
baptized  in  the  Chapel  with   Dr.   Jadson. 

The  Ordination  Service  of  the  five  Mission- 
aries— Judson,  Newell,  Nott,  Gordon  Hall, 
and  Kice.  (By  kind  permission  of  the 
American  Baptist  Missionary  Union)  ... 

Shetch  of  the  brig  Caravan  in  which 
Dr.  and  Mrs,  Jndson  and  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Newell  came  out  to  India  in  1812.  (By 
kind  permission  of  the  American  Baptist 
Missionary  Union) 

Facsimile  of  Dr.  Carey's  handwriting 

The   Baptistery    in    which     Dr.    and    Mrs 
Jndson  were  baptized  by  Mr.  Ward  on  6th 
September  1812.    (By  kind  permission  of 
the   Baptist  Missionary  Society,  London.) 

The  Judson  Memorial  Tablet  (with  ins- 
cription) which  is  in  the  Chapel 

Facsimile  of  the  latter  part  of  a  letter 
written  by  Dr.  Judson  to  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
0.  T.  Cutter  from  Chummerah  on  the 
11th  February  1833.  (The  original  is  in 
the    possession    of  the  present  writer)  ... 

Portrait  of  the  Rev.  John  Lawson 
(enlarged  from  a  miniature  done  by  him- 
self which  is  in  the  possession  of  the 
present  writer) 

Portrait  of  the  Rev.  Eustace  Carey,  who  was 
Co-Pastor  with  the  Rev.  John  Lawson  ... 

Portrait  of  Mr.  J.  W.  Ricketts,  the  East 
Indian  Patriot.  (By  kind  permission  of 
the  Principal  of  the  Doveton  College, 
Calcutta,  from  an  oil  painting  which  is  in 
the  Library  of  that  College) 

Portrait  of  Munshi  Sujaat  Ali  as  he  was 
when  baptized.  (From  a  hand-painted 
portrait  which  is  in  the  possession  of  the 
present  writer) 

Where  Placed. 

















146  . 


166  * 



Where  Placed 








Portrait  of   Manshi    Sajaat  Ali  in  mid  life. 
(By  kind  permission  of  Mr.  Robert  Bel* 
chambers  from  a  hand-painted  portrait   in 

his  possession) 




Portrait  of  Manshi  Sujaat  Ali  in  old  age  ^. 




Portrait  of  the  Rev.  W.  Robinson  (By  kind 

permission  of  Mrs.  Walter  Bushnell)     ^.. 




Portrait  of    Mrs.    W.  Robinson   (previously 

Mrs.  Lish)   (ditto) 




Heading  of  the  Government    Gazette,  dated 

8th  October,  1829 




Interior  of  the  Benevolent  In8titution,Oalcutta 




Portrait    of    the    Rev.    J.    Penney    when 
teaching.     (By    kind   permission    of  the 
Librarian   of   the    Imperial  Library  from 

Mr.  0.  Grant's  sketch) 




Portrait  of  the   Rev.  Dr.  Oarey.    (By   kind 
permission    of    the    Baptist     Missionary 

Society,  Londonll 




View   of    the   Flagstaff  Ghat,  Barrackpore, 
opposite  the   Serampore   College,     as    it 
was  in   the     early   years     of    the    19th 

century              •••                  •- 




Portrait  of  the   Rev.   Dr.  Marshman.    (By 
kind   permission   of     the    Baptist    Mis- 

sionary Society,  London)   ••• 




Difference  between   Chinese  wooden  blocks 
and   moveable    metal     typeft    introduced 

by  Mr.  Lawson 




Portrait  of  the  Rev.  W.   Ward.    (By   kind 
permission    of  the   Baptist      Missionary 

Society,  London) 




Portrait  of  the  Rev.  John  Mack  from  an  oil- 
painting   (throagh  the  kindness  of    the 

Baptist  Missionary  Society,  London) 




Portrait  of   Mr.  J.    C.  Marshman,    C.S.I., 

in  earl^  life      ••• 




Where  Placbd, 








Portrait  of  the  Rev.  James  Thomas 




Portrait  of  Mrs.  Thomas 




The  Lectare  Hall  of  the  Calcutta  Christian 
Javenile   Society  in    Bow    Bazaar  Street, 
Calcntta.  (By  kind  permission  of  Messrs. 
Farquhar  and  Barber  of  the  Y.  M.  C  A. 

College  Branch) 




Portrait  of  the   Rev.  J.  and    Mrs.  Sale    as 
they  were  when  Mr.  Sale  was   the   Pastor 

of   the  Charch 




Portrait  of    the  Rev.  G.  and  Mrs.  Kerry  as 
they  were  when  Mr.  Kerry  was  the  acting 

Pastor  of  the  Charch 




Portrait  of  the  Rev.  John  Robinson 




Portrait  of  Mrs.   Robinson 




Portrait  of    the    Rev.   Charles   Jordan  who 

was  Co-Pastor  with  the  Rev.  J   Robinson 




View    of    the    shipping  in    Calcntta     from 

Garden  Rea(?h  House  as  in    1835 




Portrait  of  Mis.    Selina  May*  who    was    a 
fellow-worker  with  Mrs.   Lydia  M.  Rouse 

in  the  sailor  work  in  Calcutta 




Sketch  of    Mrs.  May   conducting    a  service 

on  the  ship  Battle  Ahhey    ,.. 




Portrait  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Rouse 




Portrait  of  Mrs.  Lydia  M.  Rouse             ••• 




Portrait  of  the  Rev.  H.  G.  Blaokie 




Portrait  of  Mrs.  Blackie 




Portrait  of  the  Rev.  G.  H.    Hook,  the  pre- 

sent Pastor,  as  he  was  in  1885 




Sketch  of  the  open-air  service  at   the  Chapel 

gate  with  awning; 




View  of  the  North  Verandah  of  the  Parsonage 




View  of  the  South  Verandah  of  the  Parsonage 




Portrait  of  Mr.  H.  Dear,  of  Monghyr,  the 

donor  of   the  Parsonage 




Portrait  of  Miss  C.  V.  Gonsalves,  the  oldest 

Charch  member,  as  she  was  in  1870 





Whbbb  Flaobd. 








Portrait  of  Mrs.  W.  Thomas,  the   sister   of 

Miss  0.  V.  Qonsalves 




Plan  of  the  entire  premises     ... 

xLvii    : 



View  of  the  exterior  of  the  Ohapel  as  it  is  at 

the  present  time  and  has  been  since  1886 




View  of  the  exterior  of  the  Ohapel  with  flat 
roofed  portico  as   it   was   from    1854  to 
1886.  (Bj  kind  permission  of  the  Baptist 

Missionary  Society,  London) 




View    of    the     interior  of    the   Schoolroom 
and   Lectare   Hall   as    at     the     present 

time,  facing  south 




The   old  reading   desk    whioh  has   been    in 

use  since  1809 




View   of  the  East  end  of  the  interior  of  the 

Chapel,  with  mat  fan 




View  of  the  West  end  of  the  interior  of  the 

Ohapel,  with  mat  fan 




View  of  the  interior  of  the  Ohapel  as  at  the 
present  time,  showing  gallery  and  electric 





The      Oommnnion     Service      which      was 
presented  to   Dr.  Oarey   by  Government. 
(It  is  a  dnplicate  of  the  set  at    St.  John's 

Chnrch,  Oalcatta) 




View  of   the  main  walk  in  the   South    Park 

Street  Oemetery,  Calcutta  ••• 




Tombs  in  the  Old  Presidency  Burial  Ground, 
Calcutta.   (By  kind  permission  of  Messrs. 

Thacker,  Spink  &  Co.,  Calcutta) 




The  Old  Powder  Magazine  with  some  of  the 
graves   in    the    Old    Presidency     Burial 
Ground,  Calcutta.   (By  kind  permission  of 

Messrs.  Thacker,  Spink  &  Co.,  Calcutta 




Tomb  of  Sir  Wm.  Jones  in  the  above  ceme- 
tery.    (By  kind  permission  of  Mr.  E.  W. 
Mad^e  from  a  negative   by  the   late    Mr. 

Alfred  Palmer) 







Whbrb  Placed. 










Tomb  of   Hindoo  Staart  in  the  Sonth  Park 
Street  Oemetery,  Galea tta.   (By  kind  per- 
mission  of   Mr.   E.   W.    Madge  from  a 
negative  by  Mr.  C.  F.  Hooper) 

Interior   and  exterior  of  one  of  the  Bev.  B. 
May's  native  boys'  schools  ... 

Main  walk  in   the    Scotch  and   Dissenters' 
Cemetery,  Oalcatta 

Main     walk  in   the  Lower  Circolar  Boad 

Cemetery,  Oalcatta 
Main   wslk  in  the  Serampore  Mission  Ceme- 
tery,  (By  kind  permission  of  Mr.  E.  W. 
Madge  from   a  negative   by   Mr.  Walter 

Inscriptions   on    the  Carey    Tomb    in   the 
Mission  Cemetery  at  Serampore 

Portrait  of   Deacon  Mendes.  (By  kind  per- 
mission of  his  danghter,  Mrs.  Derozario) 





Substitute  thefoUoming  list  of  ERRATA  for  that  previously  printed. 

Page.  Line*  For 




*'  Cathedral"  (in  Liat  of  lUustrations) 




above            ^               ditto                ) 

South  Park  Street 




Jotin  V.  M 




on  the  next  page 



"Cathedral "  (in  the  description  under  the 
Plate  on  this  page) 




Omit   the   words   '*  By   this  effort**  and 
commence    the    sentence    with    **  The 



7th  February  (in   the  description   under 
the  Plate  facing  this  page) 

nth  February 



7  years 

6  years 








not  long 



1876 24  years 

1875 23  yeaiK 







19th  August 

9th  August 



Omit  the  whole  line 







W.  L.  Denham 

W.  H.  Denham 



Omit  the  word  "the"  before  "building  " 



Es.  961-0 

Rs.  96-0 



Insert  the  word  "  been  "  before  **  filled  " 



below  of 

overleaf  of  the 











Omit  the  word  '*  and  "  before  "  he  '* 



Madame  D'Aiblay 

Madame  D'Arblay 



Insert  the  word  *•  he"  before  ** passed" 







Omit  the  words  "  of  the  "  repeated  for  the 
second  time. 


Insert  the  following  as  line  7 :  with  their 
infant     and     the     Rev.    W.    Robinson 
narrowly  escaped  with 


Insert   the   following  as  line  24  :  with  all 
the  Sailors  in   Port,   who  could   be  in- 
duced to  attend  the 



Coyners  (in  Appendix  1) 




Marten   (        ditto          ) 




McHugh,  Mr.  8. 

McHugh,  Mr.  J 




It  is  necassary  at  the  outset  to  have  some  idea  of  the  general 
religious  and  other  conditions  that  prevailed  in  India  when  the 
attempt  was  made  first  by  Mr.  Thomas,  the  Christian  Surgeon- 
missionary  alone,  and  afterwards  along  with  Dr.  Carey,  to  bring 
tbe  Gospel  tidings  to  the  inhabitants  of  Bengal. 

It  may  hardly  be  credited  at  the  present  day  that  when  Mr. 

Thomas,   the  pious  surgeon    of  an     Indiaman,    was   out  here     in 

1783,   he  tried  to  find     some     who     feared     God,  but  faikd   to 

discover  any.     It  is  on  record  that,  in  consequence,  he  inserted 

the  following  advertisement  in  the  India  GazctU    of  1st  November 

1783  :— 

Religious   Society. 

"A  plan  is  now  forming  for  the  mora  effectually  spreading 
the  knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ  and  His  glorious  Gospel  in  and 
about  Bengal:  any  serious  persons  of  any  denomination,  rich  or 
poor,  high  or  low,  who  would  heartily  approve  of  joining,  or  gladly 
forward  such  an  undertaking,  are  hereby  invited  to  give  a  small 
testimony  of  their  inclination,  that  they  may  enjoy  the  satisfac- 
tion of  forming  a  communion,  the  most  useful,  the  most  comfortable 
and  the  most  exalted  in  the  world.  Direct  A.  B.  C,  to  be  left 
with  the  Editor." 

On  the  next  day  he  received  the  following  answers: — 

(1)     "  If  A.  B.  C.  will  open  a  subscription  for  a  translation 

of  the  New  Testament  into  the  Perdan  and  Moorish  languages^ 

(under  the  dire</tion  of  proper  persons),  he  will  meet  with  every 


assistance  he  can  desire,   and  a  compstent  number  of  subscribers 
to  defray  the  expense. 

(2)  '*  The  Rev.  W.  Johnson,  having  read  the  advertisement  of 
A.  B.  C.  in  this  day's  paper,  takes  the  earliest  opportunity  of 
expressing  his  satisfaction  at  a  proposal  for  the  more  effectually 
propagating  and  making  known  the  truths  of  the  Christian  reli- 
gion in  this  country  of  superstition,  idolatry  and  irreligion,  and 
for  the  setting  forth  the  excellence  of  that  holy  institution,  so 
replete  with  the  means  of  rendering  mankind  happy  both  here 
and  hereafter,  most  cordially  offers  his  services  for  promoting  and 
encouraging  so  laudable  an  undertaking,  and  will  think  himself 
happy  if  he  can  be  at  all  instrumental  in  bringing  it  to  any 
degree  of  success.  Mr.  Johnson,  from  the  above  reasons,  there- 
fore, wishes  an  opportunity  of  conferring  with  the  advertiser  on 
the  occasion." 

Mr.  Thomas  never  found  out  who  the  writer  of  the  annoymou^ 
letter  was,  but  Mr.  Johnson  was  the  Chaplain  of  the  Pre- 
aidency  Church,  and  Mr.  Thomas  had  heard  him  preach.  As 
he  did  not  answer  him,  the  matter  dropped.  All  the  same,  there 
were,  unknown  to  Mr.  Thomas,  two  or  three  in  the  land,  who 
had  the  love  of  God  in  their  hearts,  but  these  were  all.  So 
insignificant  was  the  Gospel  plant  in  those  days  in  this  country. 

Dr.  Carey  towards  the  end  of  his  earthly  course  used  often 
to  say  to  his  younger  brethren : 

"You  see  that  things  are  still  very  bad  here,  and 
are  ready  to  draw  the  inference  that  nothing,  or  next 
to  nothing,  has  been  accomplished,  but  you  are  mistaken. 
You  cannot  see  any  change  to  speak  of,  but  I,  who  can  look  back 
to  the  end  of  last  century,  see  a  wonderful  change  *f or  the  better. 
I  remember  repeatedly  meeting  some  three  or  four  Christian  friendi 
and  hearing  them  say,  that  with  one  or  two  exceptions,  besides 
ourselves,  they  were  not  aware  that  a  single  converted  character 
was  to  be  found  either  in  the  Military  or  Civil  Service,  or  in  the 
nominally  Christian  community  throughout  the  whole  of  the 
Bengal  Presidency,  but  you  yourselves  can  see  that  things  are 
very  different  now."  • 


Th&  Hon'ble  Frederick  John  Shore,  Ji;idge  of  the  Civil  Court 

and    Criminal    Sessions  in    the  District   of   Furrukhabad,   in.  his 

paper  "  On  the  conversion  of  the  people "  of  this  country  to  Chri»- 

tianity,  which  bears  date  30th  August  1835,  and  is  published  in 

Volume  II.  of  his  "Notes  on  Indian  Affairs,''  writes  thus:     "The 

habits  of  the  English  in  this  country  till  within  the  last  £wenty 
yaars,  were,  as  far  as  religion  is  concerned,  far  below  the  heathen 
by  whom  they  were  surrounded.  These  (the  latter)  at  least  paid 
attention  to  their  own  forms  and  ceremonies,  but  the  English 
appear  to  have  considered  themselves  at  liberty  to  throw  aside 
all  consideration  on  thd  subject;  they  lived  indeed,  without  God 
in  the  world,  as  if  there  were  neither  a  heaven  nor  hell.  Their 
conduct  has  been  repeatedly  alluded  to  by  the  natives,  in  reply 
to  those  missionaries  and  clergymen,  who  have  attsmpted  to  make 
converts  among  them. 

"  There  is,  indsed,  little  in  the  conduct  of  the  English,  whether 
the  Government  or  individuals  be  concerned,  which  should  induce 
the  people  of  India,  to  respect  the  religion  professed  by  us.  The 
Government  has  hitherto  been  ona  of  the  most  extortionate  and 
tyrannical  in  piactice,  (however,  banevolent  and  philanthropi- 
cal  may  have  been  its  professionsi  and  intentions),  that  has  ever 
existed  in  India.  Money  has  been  the  object,  and,  to  realize  this, 
justice,  and  the  interests  of  the  people,  have  been  sacrificed ;'  money 
is  the  God  of  individuals,  who  have  been  but  too  prone  to  trsad 
in  the  steps  of  the  supreme  authority,  and,  to  such  an  extent 
has  the  worship  of  Mammon  been  carried,  that  the  common 
language  of  thd  Natives  in  speaking  of  us,  is  "  As  for  the  English 
if  you  have  a  hungry  dog  you  must  f  £ed  him ;  there  is  nothing 
to  be  got  out  of  an  Englishman  without  paying  him  well  in  some 
way  or  other." 

There  is  more  to  the  same  effect  in  that  paper,  but  the  above 
extract  must  suffice.  It  speaks  for  itself  and  shows  what  the 
state  of  things  was  in  the  early  days  of  th3  Baptist  Mission  in  this 
country.  The  state  of  things  in  England  itsslf  was  scarcely  any 
better  as  a  perusal  of  Chapter  IV.  Volume  I.,  of  the  Centenary 
History  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society  (1899)  will  show. 

Now,  to  turn  to  those  in  authority.  Mr.  John  Marshman  at 
the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society  which 
was  held  in  London  on  the  30th  April  1857,  whsn  moving  the 
approval   of  tfie  Beport,  mentioned   a  number  of  historical  fafet^ 


illustrative  of  the  change  which  had  taken  place  in  the  mind 
of  the  Government  of  India  in  regard  to  Missions.  He  stated 
that  in  1792  Mr.  Wilberforoe  proposed  the  following  Resolution 
during  the  discussion  of  the  East  India  Charter  in  the  House  of 
Commons  :— 

"  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  House  that  it  is  the  psculiar 
and  bounden  duty  of  the  Legislature  to  promote,  by  all  just  and 
prudent  means  the  interests  and  happiness  of  the  British 
I>omlnions  in  the  East,  and  that  for  these  ends  such  measures 
ought  to  be  adopted  as  may  gradually  tend  to  their  advancement 
in  useful  knowledge,  and  to  their  religious  and  moral  improvement.'' 

This  Resolution  excited  the  strongest  opposition  in  the  Court 
of  Directors  and  in  the  Court  of  Proprietors.  The  latter  Court 
met  in  a  frenzy  and  drew  up  a  Petition  deprecating  in  the  strong- 
est manner  the  passing  of  Mr.  Wilberforca's  Resolution  and  it 
was  cancelled  before  the  third  reading  of  the  Bill.  Mr.  Marshman 
quoted  the  following  extract  from  one  of  the  speeches  made  in 
the  India  House  on  the  occasion  by  one  of  the  most  influential 
and  important  members  of  the  Court  of  Directors : — 

"He  thanked  God  that  if  the  conversion  of  the  Natives  was 
the  avowed  object  of  the  Clause — as  he  believed  it  to  be  its  real, 
though  concealed,  aim — the  effecting  it  would  be  a  matter  of 
impracticability.  He  was  fully  convinced  that  suffering  Clergy- 
men, under  the  name  of  missionaries,  or  any  other  name,  to  over- 
run India,  and  penetrate  into  the  interior  parts  of  it,  would,  in 
the  first  instance,  be  dangerous,  and  prove  utterly  destructive  to 
the  Company's  interests,  if  not  wholly  annihilate  their  power  in 
Hindustan.  That  so  far  from  wishing  that  they  might  make 
converts  of  10,000,  50,00TT,  or  100,000  natives  of  any  degree  of 
character,  he  should  lament  such  a  circumstance  as  the  most  serious 
and  fatal  disaster  that  could  happen." 

Mr.  Fox,  the  great  leader  of  the  Whig  party,  had  objected 
to  the  >vl»ole  measure,  because  he  thought  the  present  age  far 
too  enlightened  to  think  of  making  proselytes.  Mr.  Marshman 
then  referred  to  the  restrictions  put  upon  Dr.  Carey  and  his 
co-ad jutors  whose  operatfons  were  for  a  time  entirely  forbidden. 
This  system  had  been  more  or  less  pursued  for  many  years.  Now, 
how  changed  was  the  state  of  affairs,  the  Grovernment  recognizing 


that  the  true  end  for  which  it  existed  was  not  for  a  selfish  purpose 
but  for  the  welfare  and  improvement  of  tha  inhabitants  and  that 
the  missionaries  werd  most  important  auxiliaries.  In  proof  of 
this  he  alluded  to  the  offer  of  support  made  by  the  Government 
to  the  Church  Missionary  Society  to  establish  a  Mission  among 
the  SantaJs.  Mr.  Marshman  referred ,  in  conclusion,  to  the  remark- 
able change  which  had  taken  place  in  Hindu  customs  and  pre- 
judices, a  change,  to  be  largely,  though  not  wholly,  attributed  to 
the  effects  of  Missions. 

From  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that,  at  the  very  time  that 
Dr.  Carey  was  exerting  himself  to  start  a  Mission,  the  Court  of 
Directors  was  determined  that  no  missionaries  should  enter  the 
country.  The  Company  which  had  been  more  or  less  indifferent 
to  Missions  in  its  trading  days,  now  became  decidedly  hostile 
under  the  groundless  fear  of  political  complications  arising  from 
religious  teaching  and  they  were  obsessed  with  this  nightmare 
for  many  years.  From  the  year  1793  may  be  reckoned  the  dark 
period  of  twenty  years  in  the  history  of  Christianity  in  India. 

The  following  extract  from  Stahams  "Indian  Recollections," 
London,  1832,  bears  on  this  subject : — 

"The  moral  aspect  of  Calcutta  is  much  more  pleasing  now 
(1832),  that  it  wasi  thirty  or  forty  years  ago.  When  tha  first 
Baptist  Missionaries  visited  this  city  of  palaces,  they  could  find 
no  Christian  friends  with  whom  they  could  unite  in  the  devotional 
exercises  of  the  sanctuary;  and  in  1803  when  they  first  opened 
a  house  for  religious  worship  in  Calcutta,  very  few  persons  amongst 
the  European  residents  paid  any  attention  to  the  sacred  duties 
of  the  Sabbath — ^so  much  so,  that  it  is  now  often  asserted  in  Cal- 
cutta, that  the  only  visible-  sign  of  its  being  the  Sabbath  day  was 
the  hoisting  of  the  flag  at  Fort  William,  and  by  the  same  signal 
floating  upon  the  ships  in  the  river.  If  indeed  any  difference  was 
made,  it  was  only  to  commit  sin  the  more  greedily,  river  parties 
and  nautches  being  the  order  of  the  day.  Since  that  psriod  the 
conjoined  efforts  of  pious  clergymen  in  the  Establishment  and 
the  missionaries  of  the  Baptist  and  London  Missionary  Societies 
have,  under  the  Divine  blessing,  produced  the  most  important 
change  in  the  habits  and  thoughts  of  the  European  and  Indo- 
British  inhabitants.     At  the  period   above  referred  to    only  two 


places  of  Christian  worship  existed  in  Calcutta.,  the  Presidency 
and  the  Mission  Churches,  and  these  were  very  thinly  attended. 
The  Kov.  Messrs.  Brown  and  Buchanan  were  the  first  amongst 
the  Honourable  Company's  Chaplains  to  seek  the  good  of  souls ;  and 
the  following  extract  from  the  memoirs  of  the  former  will  prove 
the  statament  to  be  correct: — Mr.  Brown  found,  on  his  arrival 
in  Calcutta,  in  1786,  that  a  deep  ignoranca  in  religious  subjects, 
and  a  carjlcss  indifference  to  Christian  duties,  were  but  too  pre- 
valent there:  living  witnesses  can  tsstify  that  the  Lord's  Bay^ 
that  distinguishing  badge  of  a  Christian  people,  was  nearly  as 
little  regarded  by  the  British  as  by  the  natives;  the  most  noted 
distinction  l)eing  hardly  more  than  the  waving  of  the  flag  at 
headquarters,  excepting  as  it  was  the  well  known  signal  for  fresh 
accessions  of  dissipation.  In  short,  it  would  hardly  be  believed 
in  Calcutta  now,  how  the  Sunday  was  openly  neglected  then. 
Some  instancies  might  be  adduced  that  are  absurd,  others  ridi- 
culous. 'Is  it  Sunday?'  Yes,  "for  I  see  the  flag  is  hoisted"  was 
ratlu^r  cuHtoniary  breakfast,  table  phraseology  on  Lord's  Day 
mornings.  A  lady,  on  being  seriously  spoken  to  on  her  utter  dis- 
regard of  the  day,  maintained  that  she  always  religiously  observed 
it,  'for,'  said  she,  'every  Sunday  morning  I  read  over  the  Churcli 
service  to  myself,  while  my  woman  is  c?ombing  my  hair! '  Another 
lady  l)eing  urged  to  attend  Divine  Service  said,  'sh3  had  been 
more  than  twelv:*  years  a  resident  of  Calcutta,  and  twice  married ; 
but  it  had  been  out  of  her  power  in  all  that  time  to  go  to  church, 
because  she  ha/1  never  had  an  offer  from  any  beau  to  escort  her 
ihore  and  hand  her  to  a  pew.'  She  was  perfectly  serious  in  urging; 
thisdiiTiculty,  andon  its  being  removed,  by  an  immediate  offer  from 
a  gentleman  who  was  present  to  usher  her  into  the  church, 
she  accopt/od  the  engagement  to  go  on  the  following  Sunday.  It 
was  frequently  urged,  that  there  would  b?  no  use  in  keeping  holy 
the  seventh  day  in  a  heathen  country,  since  the  common  people 
not  being,  as  in  England,  Cliristians,  the  example  was  not  needed. 
Tlie  domestic  morning  work-table  was  nearly  as  regularly  sur- 
rounded (^n  Sunday  forenoons  as  the  card-table  was  on  Sunday 
evenings.  One  lady,  who  inde2d  professed  to  feel  scrupulous  respect- 
ing the  use  of  her  own  needle  judged  neverthelass  it  would  b^ 
absurd  to  restrain  that  of  her  liusbanB's  'daughter,  since  she  was 
the  child  of  a  nativs^  mother  and  could  be  nothing  better  than  the 
dunrr  (tailor)  and  she,  therefore,  ought  and  should  do  her  needle- 
work the  sam?  as  they  do  on  Sundays  equally  with  any  other  day. 

"Thc«o  specimens  drawn  from  domestic  life  previous  to  1794, 
are  tak.^n  from  the  three  classes  of  superior  European  society  in 
CWciitta,  th*  families  of  the  Civil  and  Military  services  and  the 


Agants.  And  if ^  as  is  usually  thought  to  be  true,  the  femak  sex 
is  the  most  noted  for  piety  in  every  land,  the  state  of  the  male 
part  of  the  British  i^ciety  in  India,  it  must  be  supposed,  was  <itill 
less  favourable  to  the  interests  of  the  Christian  religion  at  that 
period.  In  truth,  no  business  any  more  than  pleasure,  was  dis- 
continued on  the  Lord  6  Day.  This,  then,  was  ths  state  of  reli- 
gious feeling  among  the  Europeans  and  Indo-British  inhabitants 
of  Calcutta  forty  years  ago/'  As  Statham's  book  was  published  in 
1832,  forty  years  back,  would  t^ke  it  to  1792  just  before  Dr.  Carey 

In  the  Calcutta  Christian  Observer  of  1856,  there  is  a  remark- 
able letter  from  Dr.   Duff,  which  he  begins  thus: 

"  Change,  change,  change,  has  begun  to  lay  its  innovating 
hand  on  many  of  India's  most  venerated  institutions  as  well  as 
on  the  habits  and  usages  connected  with  the  outer  and  inn^r  life 
of  myriads  of  its  inhabitants,''  and  then  he  proceeds  to  contrast 
the  differences  between  1830  and  1856,  i.e.,  since  his  arrival  in 
the  country,  under  the  following  heads : — 

1.  Time  occupied  in  passage  to  or  from  India.,  *.c.- -Sailing 
vessels  via  the  Cape,  with  steamers  via  Red  Sea. 

2.  Post  and  Telegraphs. — Formerly  12  months  elapsed  before 
a  reply  could  be  received  from  Home;  now  a  much  shorter  period 

3.  Trade. — Formerly  restricted  by  special  License;  now  open 
to  all. 

4.  For  merit/  no   properly   made  roads. — Now  excellent   ones, 
fj.     Travelling — .Three  or   four  miles   an  hour     by   a  palki; 

now  by  horse  vehicles  at  double  or  treble  that  rate. 

6.  Railways . — None  then;  now  125  miles  opened  from  Cal- 

7.  Post. — Formerly  country  letters  and  papers  were  slowly 
carried   at  exorbitant*   rates  of   postage,   whereas  now  they  are 

*The  following  are  instances  of  this: — 

1.  On  23rd  November  1798,  Dr.  Carey  wrote  from  Mudna- 
batty,  to  Rev.  S.  Pearce  of  Birmingham  that  some  one  had  sent 
him  by  Post*  a  Volume  of  Scott's  Sermons  from  Madras  without 


carried  swiftly  by  horse  vehicle  at  a  panny  stamp  for  India  and 
sixpence  for  Home. 

8.  Telegraphs, — None  then;  but  recently  introduced  for 
conveying  messages. 

9.  Then  no  Coal  mines;   now  there  are  some. 

As  TO  Calcutta, 

1.  The  printing  Press  was  only  beginning  to  be  known; 
now  upwards  of  50  native  presses  exist. 

2.  The  English  language  was  only  beginning  to  be  recognized 
as  important;  now  thera  are  tens  of  thousands  to  whom  English 
is  familiar. 

3.  Then  only  one  Grovernment  College  for  higher  English 
education;   now  several. 

4.  Then  no  Hindu  educated  in  English  literature  had  be- 
come Christian;    now  many  have. 

5.  Than  the  Government  of  India — Home  and  Foreign — 
looked  askance  at  missionaries  and  for  the  most  part  ignored  their 
labours  as  either  fanatical  or  worse;  whereas  now  they  have 
formally  and  officially  recognized  them  as  banef actors  of  India, 
and  adds: 

"Noting  these  changes  within  the  past  25  years  it  is 
difficult  to  grasp  what  changes  may  be  effected  in  the  years  to 
come,''  so  that  if  the  contrast  is  taken  back  to  1793  and  brought 
down  to  1908  the  difference  must,  obviously,  be  perceived  by  even 
the  most  casual  or  indifferent  observer. 

a  letter  and  he  had  had  to  pay  32  rupees  as  postage  for  it  on  its 
arrival  there. 

2.  On  2nd  June  1810  an  officer  wrotd  to  Dr.  Carey  from 
Nagpore  asking  for  Hindustani  Scriptures  by  the  Cuttack  route, 
and  added : 

"If  by  that  route  I  shall  be  able  to  obtain  a  single 
book  of  the  Hindustani  Scriptures  for  the  expense  of  J^O  or  60 
rupees  postage,  I  shall  be  made  va^ry  happy  and  shall  esteem  myself 
exoeadingly  obliged  to  you.  The  expense  also  of  conveyance  my 
Agent  will  pay  you." 


The  Beginning. 

It  was  small,  as  such  things  usually  are,  but  the  work 
developed  and  grew  apace,  and  even  within  Dr.  Caray's  own  life- 
time, went  beyond  his  highest  expectation. 

There  is  no  need  to  go  into  all  the  troubles  and  anxieties  that 
Mr.  John  Thomas  and  Dr.  Carey  experienced  jointly  and  separately 
during  the  first  few  years  of  their  residenca  in  this  country.  They 
were  nearly  of  the  same  ago,  the  former  having  been  bom  on  16th 
May  1757,  and  the  latter  on  17th  August  1761.  They  ware  full 
of  zeal  and  determination,  and,  moreover,  in  the  prime  of  life 
when  they  landed  towards  the  end  of  1793.  In  course  of  time 
they  took  charge  of  Indigo  Factories  and  carried  on  the  Lord's 
work,  and  when  Mr.  Fountain  arrived  in  1796  he  joined  in  the 
indigo  work.  In  September  1798  a  printing  press  was  purchased 
and  set  up  at  Mudnabatty. 

But  the  arrival  of  Messrs.  Marehman,  Ward,  Brunsdon  and 
Grant  in  October  1799  brought  about  a  change,  the  significance 
of  which  they  did  not  appreciate  to  the  full  at  the^time. 

These  new  missionaries  found  a  hospitable  shelter  at  Seram- 
pore  under  the  Danish  flag.  Mr.  Grant,  however,  died  within 
a  fortnight  of  their  arrival.  When  the  new  missionaries  realized 
the  great  hostility  of  the  British  Government  to  Mission  work 
and  the  encouragement  that  was  held  out  to  them  by  the  Governor 
of  Serampore,  thsy  felt  that  it  would  be  better  for  Dr.  Carey  to 
come  dowp  to  them  than  for  them  to  go  up  to  him.  After  some 
demur.  Dr.  Carey  was  led  to  sell  off  his  indigo  factory  at  Kidder- 
pore  in  the  District  of  Malda  and  all  its  belongings;  and,  after 
packing  up  his  printing  press,  he  accompanied  Messrs.  Ward  and 
Founta:in  to  Serampore,  where  he  arrived  on  16th  January  1800. 
Having     been*    received     by    the     Governor — Colonel    Bie — in    a 


friendly  manner   on  the  following    day  the    missionaries    formed 
their  plans  for  work. 

They  set  apart  the  24th  April  1800  as  a  Day  of  Thanks- 
giving for  the  establishment  of  the  Mission  under  such  favourable 
circumstances ;  for  the  Divine  goodness  towards  them  and  also  for 
the  receiving  into  the  Church  tha  newly  arrived  missionaries. 
After  the  termination  of  the  Thanksgiving  service,  the  missionaries 
organised  a  Church.  Dr.  Carey  was  chosen  Pastor  and  Mr. 
Fountain  and  Dr.  Marshman  were  appointed  Deacons.  The 
address  from  the  Society  to  the  missionaries,  dated  7th  May  1799, 
was  read,  together  with  a  letter  from  Rev.  S.  Pearoe,  and  the  sub- 
stance of  an  address  by  Mr.  Booth.  Before  they  separated  they 
voted  an  address  of  thanks  to  the  Governor  of  Serampore  for  the 
support  they  had  received  from  him  and  the  Danish  authorities 
at  a  period  when,  but  for  their  kindness,  three  of  their  number 
would  have  been  sent  back  to  England.  It  is  on  record  that 
*' it  was  a  good  day.''  Towards  evening  Dr.  Carey  preached  from 
Romans  xii.  12,  "rejoicing  in  hope,"  and,  to  heighten  their  enjoy- 
ment, letters  from  England  arrived  in  the  midst  of  these  solemn 

The  following  hymn,  written  by  Mr.  Fountain,  who  wa^  fami- 
liarly known  in  the  Mission  Circle  as  the  Chief  Musician,  as  he 
could  sing,  was  sung  during  the  exercises  of  the  day : — 

Missionary  Thanks. 

This   day    be  sacred   to    the    Lord 

While  we  in  grateful  lays 
Recite  the  wonders  of  His  love, 

And  tune  our  hearts  to  praise. 

Each  individual  here  can  say, 

(And  feel  his  bosom  glow) 
Mercy  and  goodness  from  the  Lord. 

Have  followed  me  till  now. 


But  private  thoughts  be  banished  hence. 

To-day  our  souls  expand: 
We  bless  our  God  for  Gospel  grace, 

Shown  to  a  Heathen  land. 

We  see  His  providence  fulfils, 

What  prophets  long  foretold, 
The  growing  interest  of  our  Lord 

With  joy  our  eyes  behold. 

Yet  lat  this  joint  request  be  heard, 
Which   we  to-day  present 

May  we  be  faithful  in  the  work 
For  which  we're  hither  sent. 
The  work  went  on  step  by  step  as  the  days  passed  over  thsir 
heads,  but  on  ths  20th  August    of  the  same  year  tJie  Chief  Musi- 
eian  was  called  up  higher  to  sing  the  song  of  Moses  and  the  Lamb. 
Within  the  month  of  October  both  Dr.   Marshman  and  Mr. 
Ward  began  to  preach  to  the  Natives  in  Bengalee. 

On  the  26th  November  an  event  occurred,  which  seemed  in- 
signiiicant,  but  was  fraught  with  great  results.  It  was  the  date- 
on  which  Krishna  Pal,  an  ordinary  Hindu  carpenter,  had  his  dis- 
located arm  set  by  Mr.  Thomas  and  could  exclaim  "  I  am  fres" 
as  the  result  of  things  he  had  heard,  to  the  great  delight  of  Mr. 
Thomas.  He  drank  of  the  waters  of  life,  and  on  22nd  December 
threw  off  caste,  and  eventually  on  Sunday,  28th  December  1800, 
was  baptized  by  Dr.  Carey  in  the  River  at  Serampore,  along  with 
Felix  Carey.  The  d;ert>ails  of  this  interesting  event  will  bear 
repeating.  Mr.  Ward  says  he  preached  on  the  subject  from  John 
V.  32.  A  good  number  of  Europeans  were  present  at  the  first 
service.  They  then  went  to  the  riverside.  The  Governor,  a^' 
number  of  Europeans,  Portuguese,  Hindus  and  Mussulmans 
attended.     The  hymn 

Jesus,  and  shall  it  ever  be, 

A  mortal  man  ashamed  of  Thee,  etc. 
was  sung  in  Bengalee.     Dr.  Carey  then  spoke  for  a  short  time  in' 


Bengales,  d^laring  that  they  did  not  think  the  river  sacred-^ 
it  was  water  only, — and  the  person  about  to  be  baptized  from 
among  them,  by  this  act,  proposed  to  put  off  all  the  dehtas  and 
all  sins,  and  to  put  on  Christ.  After  prayer  he  went  down  into 
the  water,  taking  his  son  Felix  in  his  right  hand  and  baptized 
him,  using  English  words.  After  this  Krishna  went  down  and 
-was  baptized,  the  words  being  in  Bengalee.  All  was  silence  and 
attention.  The  Governor  could  not  restrain  his  tears,  and 
almost  every  one  seemed  to  be  struck  with  the  solemnity  of  this 
(to  them)  new  and  sacred  Ordinance.  Nothing  more  decent  and 
impressive  had  been  seen  in  even  the  most  orderly  congregation 
in  England.  When  Krishna  returned  from  dressing,  a  noble 
lady  (Miss  Rumohr,  who  subsequently  married  Dr.  Carey), 
who  had  witnessed  the  ceremony  took  him  by  the  hand  and  held 
him  for  soma  moments,  and,  though  unable  to  make  him  under- 
stand a  single  word,  thanked  him  from  her  heart  for  renouncing 
the  worship  of  devils.  To  see  Dr.  Carey  leading  down  into  £he 
water  on  the  same  day  his  eldsst  son,  a  missionary  at  fifteen  years 
of  age,  and  the  first  converted  Bengalee,  who  had  fortitude  sufficient 
to  renounce  his  caste,  was  indeed  an  interesting  spectacle.  Even 
Mr.  Brunsdon,  who  had  been  dangerously  ill,  lay  in  a  palanquin 
to  witness  the  sight.  In  the  afternoon  the  Lord's  Supper  was 
celebrated  in  Bengalee  for  the  first  time  and  at  its  close  Krishna 
said  he  was  full  of  joy. 

This  solemn  event  has  been  described  at  length  as  Krishna 
Pal  played  an  important  part  in  the  work  connected  with  the 
Lall-Bazar  Chapel  and  the  Mission  a  few  years  later. 


Krishna  Pal,  the  Beloved. 

(Far  sucli  was  his  surname  in  the  Mission  circle.) 

PoRTBAiT  OP  Krishna  Pal,  the  First  Nativk  Convert  at  Serampore. 
(From  a  /niniatvre  by  Eev,  John  ZawKm,) 

He  was  born  at  Barigram,  near  Chandemagore,  about  the 
year  1764.  His  father's  name  was  Mooluckchand  Pal  and  hiij 
mother's  name  Nalita.  He  followed  his  father's  trade,  which 
was  that  of  a  carpenter.  In  course  of  time  he  became  a  follower 
of  Ram  Churn  Pal,  of  Ghospara,  and  eventually  became  a  gui^u 
himself.  In  this  way  he  spent  16  years  of  his  Ufa.  On  5th 
January  1800,  he  heard  a  sermon  from  Mr.  Fountain,  which  im 
pressed  him,  and,  on  another  day,  as  he  was  going  to  the  market, 
he  met  Mr.  Thomas  with  Mr.  Ward  and  Mr.  Brunsdon  preaching 
the  Gospel.     Mr.  Thomas  addressed  him  and  invited  him  to  attend 


^hen  he  would  preach  glad  tidings.     This  he  did  and  the  word 
-spoken  had  the  effect  of  making  him  think  upon  his  course  of  life. 

He  began  daily  amongst  his  friends  and  relatives  to  examine 
what  he  had  heard  and  wanted  to  become  acquainted  with  the 
jnissionarise.  He  was  struck  with  the  Word :  it  seemed  to  be  the 
IVord  of  God,  and  so  he  could  not  help  talking  about  it  to  his 
companions.  Another  day,  later  on,  as  he  was  going  to  bathe  in 
his  tank  his  foot  slipped  and  he  dislocated  his  right  arm.  While 
suffering  from  this  he  was  informed  that  there  was  a  Doctor  at 
the  Miseion  premises  at  Serampora  to  whom  he  should  apply  for 
medical  aid,  so  he  sent  his  daughter  and  the  child  of  a  friend  to 
beg  this  Doctor  to  come  and  sse  him.  Mr.  Thomas  and  Dr.  Marsh- 
man  went  with  tracts  which  they  distributed  to  the  sick  man  and 
to  the  bystanders  to  read.  He  received  the  tracts  given  to  him. 
Next  morning  Dr.  Carey  called  to  see  him  and  enquire  about  his 
condition  and  told  him  to  come  to  his  house  and  he  would  give 
him  some  medicine  by  which,  through  the  blessing  of  God,  the 
pain  in  his  arm  would  be  removed.  He  went  and  obtained  the 
medicine^  and  through  the  mercy  of  God  his  arm  was  cured.  After 
this  he  made  a  practice  of  calling  at  the  Mission  House,  where  Mr. 
Ward  and  Felix  Carey  used  to  read  the  Bibla  to  him  and  expound 
it.  In  course  of  time  he  could  say  that  he  believed  and  on  22nd 
December  1800,  he  and  Gokool  sat  down  to  eat  with  the  missionaries 
and  thsir  wives,  thereby  breaking  their  caste.  The  servants  of 
the  Mission  House  spread  the  report  of  their  having  eaten  food 
with  the  missionaries,  so  when  they  were  returning  home  they 
were  ill-used.  He  was  subjected  to  other  persecutions  owing  to 
the  excitement  throughout  the  town  and  the  mob  was  not  satisfied 
till  he  had  been  taken  before  tha  Magistrate  and  eventually  before 
the  Governor,  who  told  them  that  he  had  not  become  a  European, 
but  a  Christian  and  had  done  right ;  that  ha  would  answer  all 
demands  against  him  and  forbade  any  to  injure  him.  Being  foiled 
in  this  attempt  his  relatives  and  others  determined  to  disguise 
Tthemselves  as  robbers  and  murder  both  Krishna  and  Gokool     to 


pravent  their  destroying  the  caete  of  others.  They  were,  however, 
prevented  from  carrying  out  their  intentions  as  the  Governor  sent 
a  sepoy  to  guard  his  house. 

Thus  passed  away  the  few  days  that  intervened  till  the  happy 
day  of  his  baptism,  the  details  of  which  have  been  given  in  the 
preceding  chapter.  After  his  baptism,  however,  he  had  many  other 
difficulties,  but  God  raised  up  a  friend  in  the  person  of  Mr.  James 
Eolt,  a  cabinet-maker,  who  employed  him  in  his  business  until 
he  was  set  apart  to  the  Ministry.  The  Governor  of  Serampore 
also  gave  him  the  woodwork  for  the  new  church  which  was  under 

With  a  view  to  his  call,  he  preached  by  rcfcfuest  on  Sunday, 
29tli  Januaiy  1804,  a  sermon  to  the  Mission  servants  and  others 
and  delivered,  what  Dr.  Carey  himself  described,  as  the  best 
Bengalea  sermon  he  ever  heard — "  fluent,  perspicuous  and  affection- 
ate in  a  very  high  degree."  He  was  ordained  to  the  Ministry  on 
Sunday,  5th  February  1804,  by  prayer  and  the  laying  on  of  hands 
of  the  brethren,  after  which  Dr.  Carey  address- d  him  from  the 
words:  "As  my  Father  sent  me,  so  sand  I  you  "  and  the  occasion 
was  concluded  by  the  Lord's  Prayer. 

In  1805  a  larga  sphere  of  usefulness  opened  to  him.  Towards 
the  close  of  November  1801,  Mr.  Ward  and  Felix  Carey  had  taken 
Krishna  with  them  and  paid  a  visit  to  Mr.  Cunningham,  thou 
Salt  Inspector  at  Sulkea.  As  they  went  they  preachsd  in  several 
villages  and  especially  at  Ramkrishnapur  opposite  Calcutta. 
Here  they  delivered  their  Divine  message,  gave  away  tracts,  and 
left  a  Bengali  New  Testament  in  the  care  of  a  shopkeeper  for  the 
use  of  the  villagers.  The  perusal  of  this  volume  was  blessed  to 
the  conversion  of  more  than  on  a  person.  These  happy  results  of 
a  simple  effort  to  glorify  the  Redeemer  remained  unknown  till 
August  1805,  when  Krishna  was  appointed  to  itinerate  in  and 
around  Calcutta.  He  entered  upon  the  work  assigned  him  with 
remarkable  zeal.  In  crossing  the  river  to  Ramkrishnapur,  he  found 
several  persons*  impressed  with  the  truths  they  had  read.     Among 


these  were  a  Bairagi  of  considerable  reputation  for  sanctity,  and 
Sebuk  Ram  and  Krishna  Das,  afterwards  highly  valued  native 
preachers  and  itinerants.  Prior  to  his  location  in  Calcutta  he  had 
been  twice  sent  to  the  Jessore  District,  also  to  Ganga  Saugor, 
Dinagepors  and  even  as  far  as  Benares  to  break  fresh  ground.  In 
Calcutta  Krishna  laboured  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Carey 
whose  profesBorship  in  the  College  of  Fort  William  rendered  it 
necessary  for  him  to  spend  about  half  his  time  in  the  city.  Much 
good  resulted  from  Krishna's  preaching  and  many  converts  were 
baptized  and  added  to  the  Church. 

On  the  6th  October,  the  brethren  composing  the  Church  at 
Serampore,  testified  their  esteem  and  affection  for  Krishna,  by 
electing  him  to  fill  the  office  of  Deacon. 

Between  January  and  June  he  made  several  itinerating  tours, 
and,  writing  of  his  conduct  on  one  of  these  tours,  Mr.  Creighton  said 

of  him  on  behalf  of  himself  and  some  European  friends :  "  I  am 
happy  to  say  we  feel  the  benefit  of  his  preaching  ourselves  as 
much  as  most  discourses  from  more  learned  preachers.  He  ha^ 
raised  my  hopes  that  these  labours  will  yet  prove  more  successful 
.  and  that  the  time  is  not  very  distant  when  all  the  vain  refuges 
of  the  natives  will  be  shamed  away  and  the  Gospel  everywhere 
prevail.  'Krishna  is  a  labourer  worthy  of  his  hire,  but  he  has 
taken  none,  and  his  humble,  tender,  yet  zealous,  behaviour  is  an 
amiable  example  to  the  heathen.'' 

His  labours  in  and  about  Calcutta  were  continued  with  good 
success  and  large  congregations  of  natives  assembled  to  hear  the 
Gospel  in  a  shed  erected  on  a  part  of  the  ground  where  the  Lall  Bazar 
Chapel  now  stands.  Preaching  here  was,  however,  prohibited  by 
the  Government  in  August  1806.  Another  congregation  composed 
chiefly  of  Armenians  and  Portuguese  attended  Bengali  services 
held  on  the  premises  of  an  Armenian  in  the  Chitpore  Road.  Thus, 
when  not  employed  on  more  distant  itineracies,  he  was  diligent 
in  preaching  Christ  to  multitudes  nearer  at  hand  in  Calcutta,  or 
in  visiting  villages  round  about   Serampore. 

After  this  he  was  sent  out  to  several  places  and  among  them 
to  Puri  in  Orissa  in  1808,  towards  the  close  of  which,  after  hi& 


return  from  Puri  he  removed  his  residences  from  Serampore  U> 
Calcutta.  He  had  been  long  employed  in  frequent  visits  to  the 
<:ity  and  had  laboured  zealously  in  preaching  Christ  within  and 
around  it,  but  now  the  missionaries  purchased  a  small  house  for 
him  there  that  he  might  with  greater  advantage  devote  himself 
to  efiPorts  for  the  spiritual  Benefit  of  the  people.  Besides  more 
public  labours  he  visited  numerous  private  houses  in  rotation  and 
preached  to  as  many  as  were  assembled  to  receive  his  instructiono. 
He  also  went  to  the  jail  and  preached  to  tlie  prisoners.  Mr.  Bowe 
wrote  of  him  on  his  removal  to  Calcutta. 

"  Tbere  is  a  large  field  for  missionary  exertions  for  which 
he  seems  well  adapted.  He  isi  in  his  element  when  he  is  talking 
to  a  multitude  of  souls  about  their  everlasting  concerns.  He  is 
much  esteemed  by  persons  of .  different  nations,  as  well  as  by  his 
own  countrymen,  and  numbers  hear  the  \^?ord  of  Life  from  his 

In  October  1810  Mr.  Leonard  gave  the  following  account  of 
his  labours : 

"I  could  not  help  noting  with  admiration,  the  zeal 
and  actiivity  of  our  truly  valuable  brother  Krishna, 
who  appears  to  gather  strength  of  body  by  his  unramitted 
labours.  He  preaches  at  fourteen  different  places  during 
the  week.  He  has  fifteen  families  in  his  circuit: 
spares  no  labour,  and  shows  no  fatigus,  but  flies  wherever  duty 
calls  him.  In  addition  to  the  above  services,  he  regularly  visits 
twenty-^sight  families  in  the  city.  Indeed,  were  you  to  see  him 
engaged,  if  not  well  acquainted  with  his  manner,  you  would  sup- 
pose him  instead  of  being  wearied  in  all  these  visits,  to  be  a  warm 
young  convert,  having  at  the  same  time  the  experience  of  a  father." 

Dr.  Carey  wrote  of  him  in  September  1811 :  "  Krishna  labours 
at  Calcutta  with  great  success.  He  is  a  steady,  zealous,  well-in- 
formed, and,  I  may  add,  eloquent  minister  of  the  Gospel.  He 
preach)^  on  an  average,  twelve  or  fourteen  times  every  week  in 
Calcutta  or  its  environs." 

During  his  residence  in  Calcutta,  which  was  extended  to 
nearly  five  years,  he  made  occasional  visile  to  distant  places  in  his 
great  Master's  service,  but  his  strength  was  devoted  to  those  labours 
in  the  city,  which  have  been  briefly  mentioned.  The  success  which 
was  granted  to*  him  appears  to  have  been  very  great.     Many  who 


18        mB  troKT  or  tbk  ulll-bazar  baptist  church. 

were  added  to  the  Church  traced  their  conversion  to  his  instm- 

Krkhna  Pals  schedule  of  his  work  in  Calcutta  per  week  as 
recorded  in  Vol.  IV.  of  the  Periodical  Accounts  in  1811,  was  as 

I^rd't  J  Jay. — At  eight  o'clock  I  preach  at  the  Chapel  and 
a^ain  at  four  in  the  afternoon. 

Monday.  -At  four  in  the  afternoon  I  preach  in  the  jail  and 
at  seven  in  the  evening  at  Mr.  Pogose  Petruse's. 

Tuenday. — I  preach  at  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning  at  Mr. 
Gilbert's,  in  thd  afternoon  at  Mr.  Humphrey's,  and  at  six  in  the 
evening  at  the  Chapel  (as  often  as  they  can,  the  brethren  Marsh- 
man  and  Ward  preach  the  sermon  at  the  Chapel  on  Tuesday 

Wednesday . — At  nine  in  the  morning  I  preach  at  Mr.  Charles 
Pi  got 's,  at  four  in  the  afternoon  at  the  Chapel,  and  at  six  in  the 
evening  at  Mr.  Thompson's. 

Thurnday.'  -  In  the  morning  I  preach  at  Mr.  Leonard's  (the 
Charity  School)  and  at  saven  in  the  evening  we  have  a  prayer- 
meeting  at  the  Chapel. 

Friday. — At  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  I  preach  at  Mr. 
Jefferson's  and  at  seven  in  the  evening  at  Mr.  Thomas  Kaitan's. 

Saturday. — At  six  in  the  evening  I  preach  at  Mr.  Kramer's 
At  the  same  hour  brother  Sebuk  Ram  preaches  at  Mr.  Cumber- 
land's at  Cossipore. 

In  this  manner  at  present  is  the  Kingdom  of  God  making 

His  pay  while  labouring  in  Calcutta  was  only  Rs.  9  a  month. 

His   name  and   that  of   Sebuk   Ram     were     household     words  in 

the  early  days  of  the  Serampore  Mission. 

Mr.  Ward's  testimony  of  him  was:  "As  a  private  Christian 
Krishna  stood  high  among  his  brethren  as  well  as  among  Europeans 
by  all  of  whom  lu^  was  recognised  as  an  upright  and  truly  sincere 
and  amiable  Cliristian." 

Ho  greatly  excelled  a*s  a  writer  of  Christian  hymns,   and  in 

the  early  years  of  the  Native  Church  in  Bengal,  his  hymns  with 

melodies  composed  for  them  by  himself,  were  pre-eminently  valued. 

Son\e  of  these  are  unrivalled.     All  must  be  famliiar  with  one  of 

them  in     its  English  paraphrase,    which    is    given   overleaf.     All 

liia  liymns  are  remarkable  for  the  tone  they  breathe  towards  Christ 


and  for  the  humble  reliance  on  His  atonement  which  they  ezpresA. 
His  first  hymn  was  written  at  the  beginning  of  1801  and  others 
followed  in  subsequent  years. 

"There  is^  a  friend  that  sticketh  cloeer  than  a  brother." — Prov. 
xviii.  24. 

No.   2i5  in  Psalms  and  Hymns. 

1.  O  Thou,  my  soul,  forget  no  mor*. 

The  Friend  who  all  thy  misery  bore; 
Let  every  idol  be  forgot, 

But,  O  my  aoul,  forget  Him  not. 

2.  Jesue,  for  thee,  a  body  takes, 

Thy  guilt  assumes,  thy  fstters  breaks. 
Discharging  all  thy  dreadful  debt: 

And  canst  thou  o'er  such  love  forget? 

3.  Renounce  thy  works  and  ways  with  griel. 

And  fly  to  this  most  sure  relief; 
Nor  Him  forget,  who  left  His  throne, 
And  for  thy  life  gave  up  His  own. 

4.  Infinite  tnith  and  mercy  shine 

In  Him,  and  He  Himself  is  thine; 
A.nd  canst  thou,  then,  with  sin  beset. 

Such  charms,  such  matchless  charms,   forget? 

5.  Ah  1  no :  till  life  itself  depart, 

His  name  shall  cheer  and  warm  my  heart; 
And,  lisping  this,  from  earth  I'll  rise. 
And  join  the  chorus  of  the  skies. 

6.  Ah,  no :  when  all  things  else  expire. 

And  perish  in  tha  general  fire. 
This  name  all  others  shall  survive. 
And  through  eternity  shall  live. 

By  the  desire  of  the  missionaries  he  went  with  a  fellow-worker 
to  Sylhet  in  March  1813  on  a  pay  of  Rs.  9  a  month    and  on  the 


Jourii>ey  stripped  and  preached  at  Dacca.  At  Sylhet  hs  preached 
and  distributed  tracto.  The  judge  of  that  place  asked  him  to 
take  an  ercumion  into  the  Ehasi  country.  He  did  so  and  met 
with  ^reat  huccefw.  Four  sepoys  and  two  natives  of  the  Khad 
iumntry  and  a  native  of  Assam  were  convsrted  by  his  instru- 
mentality. After  this  he  took  journies  to  Cutwa,  Beerbhoom  and 

He  was  attacked  by  cholera  on  the  2l8t  August  1822,  which 
carried  him  off  the  next  day.  It  is  stated  that  while  he  lingered 
ho  edified  all  around  him  by  his  entire  resignation;  by  the  sweet 
tranquility  which  illumined  his  languid  countenance;  and  by  the 
many  refreshing  words  which  he  uttered  respecting  his  own  safety 
aud  bloNsodness.  The  total  absence  of  the  fear  of  death  was  most 
nonnpicuouH.  lie  asked  that  none  should  pray  for  his  recovery 
tiid  actually  .i?nquired  if  his  grave  had  been  prepared.  He  died 
in  peace  fixing  all  liis  trust  in  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  Thus  passed 
away  the  first  Bengalee  convert  from  Hinduism.  His  record  is 
on  high. 

It  IB  indeed  remarkable  that  at  such  a  time,  when  the  power 
of  Hinduism  was  unbroken,  and  the  Government  frowned  on 
efforts  to  christianise  the  inhabitants  of  India,  he  should  have 
ventured  with  no  protector  but  his  Invisible  Master  to  travel  to 
Mtu^h  distant  places,  faithfully  exposing  the  absurdities  of  idolatry 
and  inviting  men  to  forsake  it  for  Christ.  Yet^  he  appears  very 
raivly  to  have  suffered  molestation.  He  had  an  atfectionate  and 
winning  address,  and  seems  almost  always  to  have  engaged  the 
friendly  attontdon  of  the  people  amongst  whom  he  went  with  the 
(^^|H>1  nu>M»agx\  Such  was  the  transforming  grace  of  God  that 
a  iHH>r  ignorant  carpenter  should  be  able  to  accomplish  so  much. 

But  we  have  gone  much  too  far  ahead,  and  must  retrace  our 

The  commencement  of  the  work  in  Calcutta. 

It  came  about  in  this  way.  The  Marquess  Wellesley  planned 
his  great  College  of  Fort  William  in  which  Dr.  Carey  took  up  the 
post  of  teacher  of  the  Bengali  and  Sanscrit  languages.  The  first 
reference  made  to  the  College  by  Dr.  Carey  in  his  correspondence 
is  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Sutcliff  dated  27th  November  1800,  but  he 
does  not  seem  to  have  taken  up  his  appointment  in  the  College 
till  May  1801,  for  the  following  entry  appears  in  Mr.  Ward's 
journal  under  date  18th  April  1801 : 

"Krishna  proposes  to  take  a  small  house  at  Calcutta  to 
which  several  of  them  may  go  alternately  to  visit  Gokool  if 
possible  and  talk  about  Jiasus  Christ.  We  have  engaged  to  pay 
the  rent  if  a  house  can  be  obtained.  It  may  open  to  us  a  door 
at  Calcutta  especially  since  Brother  Carey  is  likely  to  be  there 
some  days  in  isvery  week.  These  desires  for  the  spread  of  the 
Gospel  aJPord  us  much  pleasure." 

At  the  close  of  1801  it  is  stated     thers     were     some  hopeful 

appearances   among  the   Portuguese    Catholics  at    Calcutta,    and, 

under  dated  the  2nd  February  1802,  the  following  entry  appears 

in  Mr.  Ward's  journal : 

"Brother  Carey  has  begun  a  meeting  for  prayer  and 
conversation  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Holt  of  Calcutta,  and 
he  is  to  begin  next  week  to  deliver  the  Word  at  the  house 
of  a  Portuguese  Christian  to  the  family  and  neighbours : "  Later 
in  the  same  month  Dr'  Carey  wrote  to  Mr.  Morris : — 

"  I  have  now  appointed  a  regular  time  to  instruct  the  Portu- 
guese enquirers  in  the  city  at  the  housd  of  a  Mr.  Rolt.  We  have 
also  begun  a  weekly  meeting  for  prayer  at  his  house." 

On  22nd  June  the  record  runs.  "This  evening  we  had  a 
conversation  and  prayar  meeting  at  Calcutta,  several  friends  were 

And  again  on  6th  October  Dr.  Carey  in  a  letter  to  Mr..  Fuller 

"I  have  great  hope  that  the  Lord  will  open  a  way  for 
the  spread  of  His  Word  in   Calcutta.     Thare  are  some  stirrings 


Amongst  several  of  the  poor  Portuguese.  A  society  has  been  lately 
formed  for  printing  and  distributing  small  tracts  to  be  given  away 
amongst  Europeans.'' 

Then  came  the  proposal  which  was  strongly  urged  by  the 
Rev.  David  Brown  of  the  Mission  Church  and  the  Rev.  Claudius 
Buchanan  to  attempt  the  construction  of  a  place  of  worship  at 
Calcutta  for  preaching  to  Europeans,  Natives,  and  Sailors  and 
Mr.  Buchanan  promised  that  he  and  Mr.  Brown  would  use  every 
effort  to  prevent  opposition  on  the  part  of  Government,  which  was 
not  to  be  apprehended.  The  missionaries  were  delighted  at  the 
opportunity  they  would  have  of  preaching  the  Gospel  to  those 
communities,  but,  as  it  was  estimated  that  the  expense  would  be 
not  much  less  than  twenty  thousand  rupees,  they  would  do  nothing 
without  first  seeking  counsel  of  God,  and  accordingly  on  the  evening 
of  the  27th  December  1802,  they  had  a  meeting  to  seek  counsel 
of  God  and  to  consult  about  building  a  place  of  worship  at  Calcutta. 
Friends  were  also  consulted  who  advised  the  missionaries  to  rent 
a  housa.  A  house,  which  was  in  a  good  position,  was  selected, 
and,  although  the  owner  consented  to  rent  it  for  Rs.  120  per 
month,  yet,  when  Dr.  Marshman  went  to  conclude  the  transaction 
on  3rd  January  1803  the  owner  raised  the  figure  by  Rs.  50  per 
month,  thereby  making  it  prohibitive.  Another  house  was  engaged 
by  Dr.  Marshman  on  that  very  day  for  Rs.  90  a  month.  On  the 
23rd  January  1803  the  latter  house  was  opened  for  services,  but 
only  two  or  three  religious  friends  attended  although  the  mis- 
sionaries had  fixed  an  hour  when  there  was  no  service  at  the  Mission 
Church.  Dr.  Carey  preached  in  the  morning  and  Dr.  Marshman 
in  the  evening.  Oia  the  29th  of  that  month  the  missionaries  when 
communicating  the  fact  to  the  Society  in  England  wrote: 

"Go3  has  heard  our  prayers  and  has  given  us  an  entrance 
into  Calcutta.  If  we  should  not  gather  a  congregation  of  Euro- 
peans, yet  it  opens  a  door  to  the  natives,  and  we  enter  at  once 
into  the  midst  of  near  a  million  of  souls,  having  the  everlasting 
Gospel  to  preach." 

On  the  23rd  February  1803  Dr.  Carey  had  a  meeting  for 
Bengalees  at  Calcutta  at  which  about  10  were  present,  and  to  it 


went  on,  at  one  time  15  and  at  another  time  14,  for  the  next 
few  weeks  until  3rd  April  1803  when  the  missionaries  met  to 
blees  Gk)d  for  His  mercies  towards  them  as  a  gentleman  friend  had 
offered  them  the  use  of  a  large  room  in  his  house  which  was  oon- 
veniently  situated,  which  would  hold  nearly  200  persons  at  a 
rental  of  Rs.  32  less  than  they  were  paying.  Mr.  Ward  writing 
to  Dr.  Byland  on  11th  April  about  this  opening  said: 

"I  expect  Calcutta  to  be  still  more  favourable  soil 
than  Serampore.  Business  and  intercourse  with  Europeans 
must  have  opened  the  mind  to  enquiry.  Should  a  Native 
Church  be  formed  there  and  flourish  eo  as  to  have  active 
members,  who  would  labour  in  the  cause,  the  news  of 
the  Grospel  would  rapidly  spread  from  thence  into  the 
remotest  part  of  the  country :  It  is  the  resort  of  strangars 
from  all  parte  and  the  emporium  of  all  the  commerce  of  tha  great- 
est port  of  Hindustan.  We  have  already  two  members,  promising 
young  men  from  Calcutta,  and  what  Providence  intends,  who  can 
tell.  Some  people  say  thera  are  1,000,000  of  natives  at  Calcutta. 
Be  assured  that  whatever  Europeans  say  about  the  impossibility 
of  converting  the  Hindus ;  of  their  always  having  been  proof  against 
missionaries,  etc.,  there  v^ants  nothing  more  as  it  respects  human 
means,  but  a  few  men  of  gifts  and  real  powerful  godliness. 
The  reason  why  this  work  has  never  been  done  yet,  is  becausd 
hitherto  the  means  have  never  been  suited  to  the  end.  It  will 
be  vain  to  expect  that  the  Gospel  will  ever  widely  spread  in  this 
country  till  G<)d  so  blsssee  the  means  as  that  native  men  shall  be 
raised  up  who  will  carry  the  despised  doctrine  brought  into  the 
country  by  Mleechas  into  the  very  teeth  of  the  brahmans  and 
prove  from  the  Scriptures  that  this  is  indeed  the  Christ  that  should 
come  into  the  world.  We  hope  to  see  the  dawn  of  this,  I  have 
constantly  made  a  point  of  recommending  the  making  of  native 
preachers  as  soon  as  possible,  and  I  hope  we  may  soon  see  two 
or  three  who  are  at  least  more  able  and  eloquent  than  some  good 
men  who  are  employed  in  England.  The  dishonour  which  the 
native  converts  are  supposed  to  have  brought  upon  their  families 
by  becoming  associated  with  Mleechas  rouses  them  to  render  a 
reason  of  their  hope,  and  show  that  this  is  what  their  relations 
must  aTl  come  to.  The  mighty  argument  which  silences  every 
opposer  is  that  Jesus  Christ  has  done  what  no  one  else  ever  did, 
or  had  compassion  enough  to  do.  He  bore  our  sorrows  and  made 
His  soul  an  offering  for  sin.  In  all  the  examples  of  their  gods 
tliey    find   nothing   like    this.     Although  their   ideas    of  sin    ar« 


«zceedingly  deficient,  yet  this  amazing  instance  of  Almighty  love 
strikes  them  at  once,  as  fitted  above  everything,  to  tlie  helplefisnesfi 
of  man,  and  worthy  of  all  acceptation.  You  can  have  little  idea 
what  effect  this  one  truth  has  begun  to  mak^  on  this  beatbeni 
country.  It  does  not  strike  a  converted  person  in  England  with  such 
novelty  and  fitness  as  it  does  here,  where  the  wits  have  been  racked 
for  BO  many  centuries  to  find  a  way  of  life  that  should  be  accom- 
panied with  some  proofs  of  its  leading  to  God  and  heaven,  and 
where  for  so  long  a  time  th-e  guilty  conscience  has  sought  in  vain 
for  some  solid  ground  to  rest  upon.'' 

Scarcely  any  natives,  however,  attended  and  Mr.  Ward  stated 
that  he  did  not  expect  more  to  attend  until  a  little  more  stir  was 
raised,  or  some  native  brother  went  to  preach. 

The  larger  place  of  worship  referred  to  was  opened  in 
June  1803,  for  Dr.  Carey,  writing  on  3rd  idem  to  Mr.  Fuller, 
mentione3  about  its  having  been  opened  and  that  thay  had  preach- 
ing twice  on  Lord  s  Days  in  English,  on  Wednesday  evenings 
in  Bengalee  and  on  Thursday  evenings  in  English  and  that  he 
took  the  meetings  on  Wednesday  and  Thursday.  Dr.  Marshman 
recorded  in  his  journal  on  19th  July  that  he  considered  the  obtain- 
ing of  this  place  as  a  token  for  good. 

On  the  31st  October  the  missionaries  wrote  to  the  Society 
that  there  seemed  little  increase  in  the  European  auditory  and 
added  "the  Lord  has  here  taught  us  not  to  despise  Che  day  of 
small  things."  In  this  spirit  they  continued  their  eJBPorts  for 
the  good  of  this  small  flock,  and  on  25th  March  1804  they  wrote 
to  the  Society : 

*'  Our  worship  at  Calcutta  is  but  thinly  attended,  yet  we  have 
a  small  congregation  of  Europeans  and  another  of  natives,  but 
at  present  wie  see  no  fruit.'' 

They  were  discouraged  at  times  at  the  fewness  of  hearers  at 
their  meetings  in  Calcutta  as  is  shown  by  entries  in  their  journals 
and  Mr.  Ward  could  not  help  recording  on  17th  June  1804.  "  Oh  \ 
it  is  hard  work  to  preach  to  8  or  10  persons  only  and  that 

They  continued  to  persevere  although  the  soil  at  Calcutta 
seemed  particularly  hard  until  the  14th  October  of  1804,  when  a 



preaching  party  came  down  to  Calcutta  in  the  Mission  boat  com- 
prising Mp.  Ward  and  6  others.  They  had  singing,  preaching 
and  prayer  in  English  and  Bengake.  Krishna  Persaud,  it  is  stated, 
praached  an  excellent  sermon,  and,  added  Mr.  Ward: 

"  We  had  between  30  and  40  Hindus,  Mussulmans 
and  Portuguese  and  2  or  3  Europeans.  A  Brahmin  boldly 
preaching  the  Gospel  on  the  day  5  years  after  we  had 
landed  in  the  country,  at  Calcutta  tha  Capital  of  Bengal, 
and  the  seat  of  the  Government  of  the  country,  a  Brahmin, 
too,  announcing  his  own  conversion  and  preaching,  to  the 
admiration  of  Europeans,  a  consistent  Gospel  sermon  in  fluent 
language  and  in  that  place  where  3  years  before  he  was  an  idolater  I 
This  is  the  Lord's  doing  and  it  is  marvellous  in  our  eyes." 


The  early  efforts  to  erect  the  Chapel  at  Calcutta. 

The  inception  of  the  idea  of  erecting  a  Chapel  would  appear 
to  have  been  that  of  the  Rev.  David  Brown,  the  senior  Preisddency 
Chaplain.  The  facts  are  thus  stated  in  Mr.  Marshman's  book  to 
which  reference  is  made  in  the  Preface.  Mr.  Brown,  the  senior 
Chaplain  at  the  Presidency,  called  on  Dr.  Carey  in  his  rooms 
at  the  College  towards  the  end  of  1802  and  expressed  a  desire  that 
facilities  should  be  created  for  communicating  religious  instruction 
to  the  lower  classes  of  Christians  in  Calcutta  and  enquired  why 
the  missionaries  could  not  be  prevailed  on  to  turn  their  attention 
to  this  subject.  Dr.  Carey  replied  that  Ee  and  his  brethren  had 
long  wished  to  establish  some  place  of  worship  for  the  benefit  of 
those  who,  though  bearing  the  Christian  name,  were  too  low  in 
the  scale  of  Society  to  intrude  into  the  patrician  congregations  of 
the  Mission  and  the  Presidency  Churches,  but  they  were  apprehen- 
sive of  giving  umbrage  to  Government.  Mr.  Brown  assured  him 
that  those  fears  were  groundless  and  that  Lord  Wellesley  had 
contemplated  the  transfer  of  the  Presidency  Church  to  Presby- 
terian ministers,  whom  he  was  anxious  to  introduce  into  Calcutta, 
and  the  erection  of  a  large  and  more  splendid  edifice  for  the 
Episcopalians.  Mr.  Buchanan  likewise  also  urged  on  the  mis- 
sionaries the  establishment  of  a  Dissenting  Chapel  in  Calcutta, 
assuring  them  that  he  and  Mr.  Brown  would  use  every  effort  to 
prevent  any  opposition  on  the  part  of  Government,  which,  how- 
ever, was  not  to  be  apprehended. 

Many  persons  seriously  objected  to  enter  the  room  in  which 
the  missionariss  conducted  their  services  for  public  worship  as 
it  was  in  the  dwelling-house  of  a  private  individual.  Moreover 
it  was  ill  chosen.  It  was  a  large  hall  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Peter 
Lindeman,   an  undertaker,   and  there  was  a  natural   repugnance 


in  the  minds  of  many  to  wade  Sunday  after  Sunday  through  a 
range  of  coffins  and  other  emblems  of  mortality.  The  missionaries 
were  made  aware  of  tha  fact  that  the  erection  of  a  public  edifice 

The  Old  (ob,  Mission)  Chubch,  Calcutta,  as  it  was  in  1788. 
(By  kind  permission  of  Messrs,  Thaeker,  Spink  tj*  (7f .,  Calc»tta.) 

was  necessary  to  meet  the  wants  and  the  prejudices  of  the  lower 
classes  and  to  secure  a  large  attendance.  The  undertaking  was 
frequently    discussed  with  Mr.    Brown   at    Aldeen     (Serampore), 



wlio  encouraged  the  views  of  the  missionaries  with  cordiality  and 
8iibscril>cd  Rs.  500  towards  the  Chapel.  Mr.  Ward  drew  up  the 
prospectus  of  the  building  and  on  the  first  day  of  the  year  1805 
alt-ondcd  a  meeting  of  the  friends  of  the  cause  at  Calcutta  when 
it  was  discussed  and  adopted  and  the  sum  of  £380=Rs.  4,800 
ftubscriUi^d  on  the  spot,  the  missionaries  adding  £100  from  their 
own  funds. 

St.   ,10UN's   C.VTHKPR.Vl..  T-VLOrTTA,   AS   IT   WAS   IN   1788. 

f  fih   Kita  rf"nhfi**H  v/  J/: >■*••/.   Jh-ickt  -,  Sjt'rtk  .v  Co.^  Calcutta.) 

Tlio  object  of  the  missionaries  was  not  to  erect  a  Chapel  to 
preach  ihoir  own  sentiments,  but  to  bring  the  forlorn  beings  in 
Calcutta,  who  bore  the  Christian  name  and  disgraced  it  by  their 
ignorauci^  and  vice,  under  the  influence  of  Christian  instruction. 
They  announced,  therefore,  that  the  Chapel  was  intended  for 
the  worship  of  all  Denominations, 

On  3rd  October  ISOo,  Kev.  Joshua  Rowe,  wrote  to  the  Rev. 


John  Williams  of   New  York,  about  the    work    of    the  Mission 
generally  and  added: 

"There  is  a  Chap^  going  to  be  built  by  subscription  in 
Calcutta  for  the  use  of  all  who  preach."  Before  the  close  of  1805 
the  subscriptions  reached  j£700. 

On  th3  18th  February  1806,  Dr.  Marshman  and  Mr.  Ward 
came  down  to  Calcutta  to  meet  the  Committee  respecting  the 
Chapel  to  be  built.  The  missionarise  next  enquired  whether  the 
erection  of  the  Chapel  would  be  disagreeable  to  Government  and 
having  ascertained  that  it  would  not,  they  accordingly  proceeded 
to  purchase  the  ground. 

The  contract  of  sals  for  the  land  in  Lall  Bazaqr  (as  it  was 
then  called)  on  which  the  Chapel  stands  bsaris  date  26th  February 
1806  and  is  for  2  biggahs  4  cottahs  and  8  chittacks  of  land.  The 
contract  was  between  Mr.  James  Bolt  and  Mr.  Henry  Swinhoe. 

On  6th  March  1806  Mr.  Ward  recorded  in  his  journal  : 

"The  ground  for  ths-  new  Chapel  is  purchased  for  7,250  (Sicca) 
Rupees.  It  is  situated  in  a  very  central  and  populous  part 
of  the  City,  but  the  inhabitants  thereabouts  may  emphatically  be 
called  SinneraJ' 

Mr.  Marshman  in  his  book  says  that  it  was  situated  in  the 
hotbed  of  vioe  land  immorality,  surrounded  by  liquor  shops  and 
brothels,  the  haunt  of  sailors  who  disgraced  their  European  name 
and  Christian  character  by  every  excess.  The  ground  was  covered 
at  the  time  with  the  abodes  of  prostitution  which  were  speedily 
cleared  away. 

On  the  14th  March  1806  Mr.  Henry  Swinhoe  and  his  wife 
executed  the  neadful  Deed,  conveying  the  land  to  the  Trustees 
who  had  been  nominated,  vw.,  William  Carey,  Joshua  Marshman, 
William  Ward,  William  Moore,  missionaries,  and  Michael 
Derozio,  Peter  Lindeman,  William  Barnfield,  George  Samuel 
Hutteman,  James  Bolt  and  James  Moffat  for  the  erection  of  a 
Chapel  for  all  Denominations  of  Christians. 

On  the  6th  April  1806  a  Declaration  of  Trust  was  drawn  up 
under  which  the  Chapel  when  erected,    was  to  be   called      The 


New  Calcutta  Chapel  for  Divine  Worship  of  all  Denominations  of 

On  18th  May  1806  Mr.  Ward  stated  in  his  journal : 

"Having  expended  all  our  subscriptions  in  the  purchase  of 
the  ground  at  Calcutta,  we  shall  have  some  difficulty  in  raising 
the  Chapel.  For  the  present  therefore  we  have  engaged  some 
friends  to  put  up  a  mat  house  by  next  Lord's  Day  for  Bengalee 
worship  and  propose  that  Brother  Juggeimath  should  sit  under 
this  shed  and  give  away  papers  to  the  millions  of  Calcutta,  and 
that  this  should  be  the  rendezvous  for  all  who  wish  to  enquire 
about  the  Gospel." 

Mr.  Ward  opened  this  shad  on  Sunday,  1st  June  1806,  and 
the  following  is  the  description  of  the  opening  as  reoorded  by 
himself  in  his  journal: 

"  A  crowd  of  natives  attended  and  I  had  much  liberty 
in  speaking  to  them  of  the  love  of  Christ.  Deep  Chand 
also  addressed  them  and  at  the  close  we  distributed  a 
number  of  tracts.  The  natives  dare  not  come  to  the  house  of  an 
European,  but  this  bamboo  shed  opens  the  door  for  this  and  they 
freely  enter.  Calcutta  is,  as  it  were,  a  world  itself,  and  I  doubt 
not  but  this  small  beginning  will  terminate  in  the  salvation  of 

Some  heard  with  attention,  but  others  mocked  and  loaded 
him  and  the  Native  Christians  with  reproach.  On  Sunday,  8th 
June,  Dr.  Marshman  had  a  large  attendance  of  natives  at  the  shed 
and  stated: 

"The  bamboo  shed  was  thronged  with  natives  and  the 
appearance  of  Bam  Mohun,  a  Brahmin  who  had  become  a  Chris- 
tian, excited  much  curiosity.  He  and  others  of  our  brethren  were 
followed  by  a  number  of  persons  and  loaded  with  abuse." 

On  24th  June  the  missionaries  reported  to  the  Society  the 
purchase  of  the  ground  and  the  erection  of  the  shed,  stating  that 
great  numbers  of  natives  flocked  to  the  place  and  that  their,  subcrip- 
tions  were  nearly  exhausted,  adding  modestly.  "  We  hope  the  Lord 
will  provide." 

On  the  29th  June  Mr.  Ward  preached  at  the  shed  again 
and  the  following  is  what  he  recorded  in  his  journal : 

"I     preached     twice     at     the     shed     in    Lall     Bazar     and 


had  l&rge  congregations.  Many  heard  attentively.  The  curio- 
sity and  surprise  of  the  people  at  Calcutta  is  very  much 
excited.  Multitudes  followed  our  brethren  through  the  streets- 
clapping  their  hands  and  giving  them  every  kind  of  abuse. 
Some  abused  them  as  Feringhis,  others  for  losing  caste 
some  called  them  Yesoo  Khreest,  and  bowing  to  them,  said 
'  Salaam  Yesoo  Khreest ; '  others  said,  *  There  goes  Salla,  Yesoo 
Khreest.'  Some  came  to  their  doors,  and,  pointed  at  them  as 
th^y  passed  along.  When  they  saw  me  walking  by  one  said  'That's 
him — that's  the  Hindu  padre  why  do  you  destroy  these  people's 
castes  ? '  Another  said  to  one  of  the  native  brethren,  '  O  Salla, 
why  did  you  not  oome  a-begging  to  my  house  and  I  would  have 
given  you  a  morsel  to  eat  rather  than  you  should  hav^  become  a* 
Feringhi  ' "  and  yet  in  spite  of  it  all,  Mr.  Ward  was  able  to  add : — 
**  At  night,  a  lad  of  about  fourteen,  who  had  beard  the  word  at 
the  Lall  Bazar  came  to  our  native  brethren  and  said  he  would 
embracd  this  religion,  and  they  took  him  with  them  to  Kreeshna- 
pore.     He  is  of  the  writer  caste  and  can  read." 

This  was  Santiram  from  Chittagong  who  was  baptized  on 
3rd  August  1806.  On  the  7th  and  20th  July  it  is  recorded  that 
Dr.  Marshman  had  a  large  congregation  of  natives  at  the  shed, 
and  on  27th  July  Mr.  Ward  stated  that  he  had  a  crowded  atten-^ 
dance  of  natives. 

In  spite  of  all  this  opposition  and  abuse  the  missionaries  were 
oheered  by  some  tokens  for  good,  for  on  6th  April  r806  a  Mr 
Ephraim  Burford,  the  grandson  of  a  Baptist  Minister  of  that 
name,  was  baptized  by  Dr.  Carey,  regarding  whom  it  was  added 
that  he  was  converted  through  the  preaching  of  Mr.  Ward  at 
Calcutta.  On  3rd  August  1806,  Mr.  Ward  was  again  at  Calcutta 
and  made  the  following  record: — 

"  A  young  native  from  Patna  who  heard  the  Word  in  the 
Lall  Bazar  came  to  Mr.  Lindeman  s  '  and  declared  his  resolu- 
tion to  become  a  Christian,'  and,  he  added  '  I  sent  him  up  to 
Serampore  in  the  evening.'  This  was  Ram  Persaud,  who  was 
baptized  on  7th  September  1806.  On  the  18th  August  1806  Dr. 
Marshman  stated  that  the  attendance  at  Calcutta  was  of  the  most 
encouraging  description.  '  A  congregation  of  from  400  to  600 
ocnstantly  assembled  and  many  of  the  Portuguese  and  Armenians 
interested  themselves  in  the  Bengalee  worship,  sometimes  even 
taking   an  active  part  in  the  occasional   disputatioas  that  arose. 


Among  the  millions  of  natives  there  seems  to  be  the  bent  prospect 
that  ever  presented  itself.'" 

A  few  days  later  Mr.  Ward  preached,  when  the  shed,  the 
compound  and  the  street  were  crowded. 

All  these  incidents  have  been  given  in  detail  because  of  the 
importance  the  authorities  attached  to  them  as  the  narrative  will 
now  show  with  a  change  of  scene. 

On  the  23rd  August  1806,  the  two  new  missionaries,  Bevs. 
J.  Chater  and  W.  Eobineon  arrived,  and  on  Dr.  Carey  going  to 
the  Police  office  at  Calcutta  h&  was  informed  that 

(1)  They  must  not  preach  at  the  Lall  Bazar,  though  thej 
might  preach  in  their  own  room  in  Cossitollah, 

(2)  Nor  distribute  tracts  abusing  the  Hindu  religion,  and 

(3)  The  converts  were  not  to  go  out  preaching  to  their 
•ountrymen  under  ths  sanction  of  the  missionaries. 

This  order  was  passed  ae  the  news  of  the  Vellore  mutiny 
had  recently  reached  Calcutta.  The  Govemment  evidently  looked 
upon  Dr.  Carey  as  a  Grovernment  officer,  who  should  obey  an 
^rder  of  Government,  inasmuch  as  he  drew  a  salary  from  Govern- 
ment as  a  Professor  of  the  College.  The  harshness  of  the  order 
was  toned  down  a  little  by  conversation  with  the  magistrate,  but 
notwithstanding,  on  the  2nd  September  1806,  the  Government 
issued  an  order  stopping  th&  preaching  in  the  Bow  Bazar  until 
the  missionaries  could  procure  permission  from  the  Court  of  Direc- 
tors or  the  British  Government.  On  the  29th  of  that 
month  the  missionaries  informed  the  Society  that  the  work  had 
received  a  check  at  Calcutta  and  added  "it  is  a  heavy  blow  to  us." 
Mr.  Ward  felt  it  to  be  a  cutting  measure  and  said  it  had  taken 
away  all  his  desire  to  visit  Calcutta. 

On  the  25th  December  they  wrote  again  and  said  they  could 
not  help  sighing  to  think  of  the  prohibition  of  the  preaching  to 
the  mutitudes  who  used  to  hang  upon  their  lips  standing  in  the 
thick-wedged  crowd  for  hours  together  in  the  heat  of  a  summer 
sun  listening  to  the  Word  of  Life,  and  added,  "  we  still  worship 
in  a  private  house  at  Calcutta  and  our  congregation  increases. 
We  are  going  on  with  the  Chapel.'* 


The  Bengalee  preaching  had  therefore  to  be  confined  to  the 
limited  space  of  the  room  at  Mr.  Lindeman's^  but  God  raised 
op  some  Armenian  friends  and  one  of  them  pidled  down  a  part 
of  his  house  to  enlarge  it  and  make  it  into  a  Chapel.  A  request 
was  made  for  Bs.  160  to  meet  the  cost  of  alteration  wheraa 
the  oongregation  inunediately  subBcribed  Rs.  240. 

On  30th  November  1806  Mr.  Ward  recorded  that  the  oongre- 
gation at  Calcutta  had  considerably  increased  and  that  the  room 
was  too  strait  for  them  and  added:  ''Yet  the  subscriptions  do 
not  oome  in  so  as  to  finish  a  larger  place  without  borrowing."  The 
preaching  in  Bengalee  and  in  English  had  therefore  all  to  be  done 
at  Mr.  lindeman's  until  the  room  at  the  Armenian's  house  was 
ready  which  was  being  made  ready  ''  for  the  sake  of  the  natives. '^ 
This  was  in  Chitpore  Eoad,  a  scene  along  which  is  given  in  the 
picture  opposite.  On  25th  January  1807  this  room  was  opened 
by  Mr.  Ward  for  public  service  in  Bengalee. 

On  16th  December  1806  Mr.  Mardon  was  able  to  write:  "  At 
Calcutta  the  face  of  things  wears  a  very  pleasing  aspect." 

In  April  1807  the  erection  of  the  Chapel  having  made  con- 
siderable progress  attracted  the  attention  of  Mr.  Blaquiere  one 
of  the  Magistrates  of  Calcutta,  who  insisted  on  all  further  work 
being  stopped  until  the  permission  of  the  Supreme  Government  had 
been  obtained  to  its  erection  as  it  was  a  public  edifice. 

The  nussionaries  took  no  notice,  but  Mr.  Blaquiere  sent  for 
tihe  architect  a  second  time  and  threatened  an  immediate  report 
to  "Government.  Consequently  the  sanction  of  Governmentto(l)the 
erection  of  the  Chapel  and  (2)  the  reopening  of  the  shed  had  to 
be  obtained  before  any  other  Sitep  oould  be  taken.  Dr.  Marshmsn 
accordingly  waited  in  person  on  the  principal  inhabitants  with  a 
Memorial  to  the  Governor-General  in  Council  representing  that 
tbere  was  no  place  of  worship  in  the  Town  of  Calcutta  for  Protestant 
DiasentecB,  by  reason  whereof  many  persons  attached  to  the  wor- 
ship of  the  Church  of  Scotland  and  other  modes  of  worship  prac- 
tised by  Protestant  Dissenters  are  constrained  to  neglect  Divine 



Service,  and  ©oliciting  the  permifision  of  Government  to  erect  in 
the  Lall  Ba«ar  a  C?hapel  for  that  purpoee.  The  petition  was  signed 
by  116  persons  of  respectability  and  within  a  week  after  its  sub^ 
xniMUon,  the  needful  permission  was  accorded.  The  work,  was  accord- 
ingly pushed  on  with,  and  must  indeed  have  been  pushed  on 
very  vigorously  for  Dr.  Carey  to  have  T)een  able  to  write  as  he 
»did,  to  Mr.  SutcliflP  on  2nd  June  1807,  that  he  expected  the  roof 
to  be  on  in  about  ten  days  and  the  Chapel  opened  by  the  end 
of  the  year.  On  the  25th  of  that  month  the  missionaries  wrote 
to  the  Society :  "  The  walls  of  the  Chapel  are  raised  ready  to 
recmve  the  roof.  In  ttie  course  of  a  few  months  w©  hope  it 
will  be  finished  and  opened ;  "  but  this  was  not  to  be,  though 
the  work  in  the  private  room  was  being  made  a  blessing  to  a 
goodly  number. 

On  2nd  August  1807,  a  British  soldier  from  Dum  Bum  named 
John  Axcll  was  baptized  by  Mr.  Ward  in  Calcutta.  It  was  the 
first  baptism  in  Calcutta  and  the  immersion  must  have  taken  place 
it\  a  privaTe  tank  as  the  Chapel  was  not  ready. 

This  «Jolemn  event  was  followed  by  the  issue  of  a  Grovemment 
order  on  Dr.  Carey,  dated  8th  September  1807  forbidding : — 

(1)  The  preaching  to  the  Arm^dans  and  Portuguese  in 

{Ti  All  preaching  among  the  soldiers  in  Fort  William  by 
Miuistersi  not  episw>pally  ordained. 

T1k»  onemicsi  of  religion  triumphed,  its  friends  were  dis- 
<\>\ira^jipd  and  <\>mTOon  r«^^rt  went,  that  the  missionaries  would 
W  viriv<»«  out  x>f  the  country. 

A  M^MUorial  w;!i;>  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Marshman  reviewing  the 
<rirv\inv<4;iiiuMMi  and  |x\«ation  of  the  Mission  and  subndttod  to  Lord 
MxnK>  at  T^r«K^|v^n(»  on  Ut  October  1S07,  It  was  read  the  next 
day  *t  tfci^  IV\*Tvi»t:ni:  aud  within  a  sisxt  tiroe  ^  faTotnmble 
r^uly  wa$  t>^>Mx^l  The  M>«s»>nari«s  tlien  wwai  dowH  in  j^  bodv 
t*^^  iVvHWt^i  to  thank  l,K«\i  MinK"  pec^oAalhr,  who  rrade  tbe  lemjiii^ 
Ik^t  ^  tK^ktn^  tt^^ar>?  was^  e<v^»sanr  tiaut  a  mci^  ^xusdz^tkn  cf  the 
auVJM  wtw*  ex^MxtMiKS  iiad  apjiMuredi  i»  a  cyWkr  aa^i  iaTc««nble 


light/'  After  this  the  erection  of  the  Chapel  was  so  vigorously 
pushed  on  with  that  the  funds  became  completely  exhausted  and 
the  missionaries  had  come  under  large  obligations  to  Mr.  Bolt  the 
Architect.  It  was  impossible  to  make  any  further  progress 
without  additional  aid  from  the  public.  But  it  appeared  impoli- 
tic to  attract  public  attention  to  any  object  connected  with  the 
Mission  while  the  storm  of  opposition  continued  to  rage.  As 
soon  as  the  hostility  of  Government  appeared  to  have  abated,  Dr. 
Marshman  drew  up  an  Appeal  in  which  it  waa  stated  that  the  sub- 
scriptions already  raised  had  amounted  to  nearly  Twelve  thousand 
Bupees  of  which  nearly  Eight  thousand  had  been  expended  on  the 
purchase  of  the  ground,  that  the  Chapel  was  now  in  a  great  degree 
of  forwardness  and  would  on  the  most  economical  plans  cost  some 
Twenty  thousand  Bupees  more,  so  that  there  was  a  deficit  of  over 
Sixteen  thousand  Bupees.  They  therefore  solicited  further  help 
from  a  generous  public  on  behalf  of  ths  undertaking  which  had 
for  its  sole  object  the  general  good  of  Society  and  the  promotion  of 
order,  virtue  and  true  religion.  Dr.  Marshman  proceeded  from 
house  to  housd  with  the  subscription  paper  in  his  pocket,  repre- 
sented the  destitute  condition  of  the  Christian  population  who 
were  unable  to  attend  the  Episcopal  Church,  and  the  efforts,  now 
unhappily  suspended  for  want  of  funds,  which  had  recently  been 
made  to  erect  a  Chapel  for  their  benefit.  With  some  few  excep- 
tions he  was  received  with  courtesy  and  his  application  was  gene- 
rally sucessful.  One  member  of  the  Medical  Board,  a  good  ex- 
ample of  the  Indianized  European  told  him  that  in  his  opinion 
it  was  a  matter  of  perfect  indifference  whether  a  man  worshipped 
God  in  a  ]^eathen  temple,  a  Mahomedan  mosque,  or  a  Christian 
Church,  and  "Siat,  as  for  himself  he  had  had  a  dozen  natural 
children,  arid  could  not  subscribe.  Dr.  Marshman  through  his 
persuasive  im|)ortunity,  succeeded  in  raising  £1,100  in  less  than 
ten  days,  principally  from  gentleman  independent  of  Government 
and  altogether  unconnected  with  his  own  denomination.  But  this 
exhibition  of  his  zeal  did  not  pass  without  an  attempt  at  ridicule. 



That  cold  season  was  remarkable  for  its  gaieties.  Lord  Mintos 
arrival  had  given  a  new  impulse  to  public  amusements  and  there 
was  a  continuous  succession  of  Balls  and  Masquerades.  At  one  of 
the  Fancy  Balls,  at  which  the  Govemor-deneral  was  present,  some 
gentleman  thought  fit  to  amuse  the  company  by  personating  Dr. 
Marshman  and  went  about  the  Ball  Boom  with  a  subscription 
paper  under  his  arm,  habited  just  like  Dr.  Marshman.  In  the 
description  given  of  the  entertainment  by  one  of  the  few  Calcutta 
papers  then  published  it  was  announced  that  among  other  amusing 
characters  there  was  "a  pious  missionary  soliciting  subscriptions 
and  that  it  was  gratifying  to  remark  that  his  paper  had  been 
so  well  filled."  By  this  effort  the  deficit  was  considerably  reduced 
but  the  money  was  soon  exhausted.  The  missionaries,  however, 
were  determined  not  to  allow  the  progress  of  the  work  to  be  sus- 
pended for  want  of  funds,  so  they  advanced  the  sums  which  were 
requisite  from  time  to  time  from  their  own  resources. 

View  ov  the  East  Face  of  Government  House,  Calcutta,  as  it 
was  in  the  early  years  op  the  19th  century. 


We  read'  accordingly  that  on  the  16th  Deoember  1807^  Dr. 
Carey  wrote  that  the  Chapel  had  been  erected  and  covered  in 
and  he  added:  "the  building  is  70  feet  square  and  will  have 
galleries  on  three  sides/' 

In  the  meantime  the  attendance  at  the  oFd  room  continued 
to  increase. 

As  to  the  Armenians  and  the  Portuguese  in  the  Chitpox^ 
Road  they  could  only  assemble  and  have  worship  among  themselyos. 
They  greatly  felt  the  hardship  of  being  deprived  of  the  Bengalee 
preaching,  so  in  December  1807  they  submitted  a  petition  to  the 
Govemor-Greneral  (Lord  Minto)  in  Council  as  below: — 

"We  the  undersigned  Armenian  and  Portuguese  inhabitants 
of  Calcutta  humbly  beg  leave  to  represent  to  your  Lordship  that 
in  consequence  of  our  not  sufficiently  understanding  the  English 
language  we  are  prevented  from  receiving  Christian  instruction 
at  the  English  Church  and  are  therefore  deprived  of  the  greatest 
blessing  on  earth.  We  therefore  humbly  entreat  your  Lordship 
to  grant  us  liberty  to  have  Divine  worship  in  the  Bengalee 
language,  which  we  well  understand,  at  the  small  Chapel,  erected 
on  the  premises  belonging  to  Mr.  Petruse,  an  Armenian  Christian, 
in  Chitpore  Road,  Calcutta  and  we  fiirther  beg  leave  to  entreat 
that  the  Brethren  of  the  Protestant  Mission  at  Serampore  may 
preach  to  us  in  this  languiage,  as  we  know  of  no  other  Ministers 
to  whom  we  can  apply  for  Christian  instruction  in  this  language." 
Althotigh  this  petition  was  signed  by  over  30  persons,  yet  on 
the  8tli  January  1808,  the  Government  replied  under  the  signa- 
ture of  Thomas  Brown,  Chief  Secretary,  declining  to  let  them 
hcdd  the  Bengalee  service  in  the  small  Chapel  in  the  Chitpore 
Bead    II 

In  January  1808  the  missionaries  insarted  the  following  remark 
in  their  Circular  Letter;  "The  Chapel  is  not  finished  as  yet, 
the  collecting  of  the  sums  subscribed  advances  but  slowly,  which 
considerably  retards  the  work.  We  regret  this  as  there  seems  an 
increasing  disposition  to  hear,  the  present  place  being  often  full 
and  sometimes  crowded." 


In  February  1808  they  recorded: 

"  The  attendance  at  the  old  room  continues  numerous  and 
serious.  The  Chapel  is  advancing,  although  slowly.  We  expect 
the  galleriss  will  be  errected  (sic)  in  a  few  days." 

As  the  private  room  in  Cossitollah  became  more  and  more 
thronged  with  hearers  the  erection  of  the  Chapel  had  to  be  pushed 
forward  with  redoubled  vigor  and  thia  could  only  be  done  by 
the  missionaries  making  further  advances  so  that  the  progress  of 
the  work  might  not  be  suspended  for  want  of  funds. 

On  20th  April  1808,  Dr.  Carey  wrote:  "The  cause  of  Christ 
lA  going  on  in  an  encouraging  manner  at  Calcutta.  The  Chapel 
is  nearly  finished." 

In  October  1808  the  missionaries  wrote:  "The  opening  of 
the  new  Chapel  is  anxiously  looked  for  by  many." 

On  10th  November  1808,  Mr.  Chamberlain  after  having  spent 

two  days  at  Serampore  and  one  at  Calcutta,  wrote  to  Dr.  Kyi  and: 

"  I  was  much  rejoiced  to  see  what  Gk)d  hath  wrought  in  the 
Itatter  place.  I  have  preached  there  more  than  once,  in  1803,  to 
3  or  4  people,  and  now  behold  a  fidl  room,  and,  oh,  what  is  more 
encouraging,  a  goodly  number,  who  have  put  on  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  and  are  not  seeking  their  own,  but  the  things  pertaining 
to  the  Kingdom  of  Christ."  Before  the  Chapel  was  open  3d,  that 
is  in  November  1808,  Krishna  Pal  removed  to  Calcutta  "  where 
there  is  a  large  field  for  missionary  exertion." 

The  opening  service  was  fixed  for  Sunday  the  1st  January 
1809  and  Rev.  W.  Forsyth  of  the  London  Mission  having  expressed 
a  wish  to  conduct  the  evening  service  on  that  happy  occasion  he 
was  permitted  to  do  so,  while  Dr.  Carey  took  the  morning  service 
and  pr-eached  to  a  numerous  audience  from  Psalm  84:  1 — How 
amiable  are  the  tabernacles,  O  Lord  of  Hosts !  "  It  seems  to  have 
been  a  solemn  and  impressive  day,  the  desire  of  Dr.  Carey  and 
his  colleagues  being  thus  at  last  accomplished.  The  Rev.  William 
Robinson  referring  to  the  event  as  late  as  July  1849  was  able  to 
eay  that  that  interesting  day  was  still  fresh  in  his  memory. 

Thus,  after  many  unforeseen  and  unexpected  difficulties  the 
chapel   was  erected  the  centenary   of   which   has  now   come.     A 


akotch  of  it  as  it  looked  on  1st  January  1809  is  given  in  the 
frontispieoBy  from  which  the  reader  who  knows  the  Chapel  will 
be  able  to  aee  wb  a  glance  the  difference  in  its  appearance  at  the 
present  time. 

Hallelujah — Praise  ye  the  Lord. 


Some  of  the  Sub&cribebs  to  the  Buildino  Fund. 

A  paimgri^h  in  the  Fietition  drawn  up  by  Dr.   Marsimtan 
in  1807  makes  the  following  statemeint:     "A  enbscription  waa 
eet  on  foot  by  a  number  of  gentlemon,  who  subeciibed  aa  follows : — 

Sieca  Ba. 
J.  H.  Harington,  Esq.       ...  ...  ...       500 

W.  B.  Martin,  Esq.  ...  ...  ...       500 

The  Rev.  D.  Brown  ...  ...  ...       500 

J.  T.  Maylin,  Esq.  ...  ...  ...       500 

Mr.  M.  Deroido  ...  ...  .«    1,000 

Mr.  J.  Bolt  ...  ...  ...      500 

Mr.  P.  Lindeman  ...  ...  ...       50O 

The  Brethren  of  the  Serampore  Mission  ...    1,000 

Mr.  R.  Caws   ...  ...  ...  ...       400 

Mr.  A.  Smith  ...  ...  ...       300 

Mr.  iW.  Morrison  ...;  ^.^  ...       300 

Mr.  J.  Tomkies  ...  ...  ...       300 

Hx.  G.  Shaw  ...  ...  ...       300 

Mr.  W.  Grant  ...  ...  ...       300 

Mr.  I.  Fernandez  ...  ...  ...       300 

Mr.  Bobt.  Stewart  ...  ...  ...       250 

(N.  -S.— The  distinction  between  "  Ssq."  and  **  Mr.''  is  in  the 
original  document.) 

A  few  remarks  will  now  be  made  about  each  of  the  above 
gentlemen  aa  f ar  as  possible  in  the  order  in  which  they  stand. 

1.     J.  H.  Habinoton. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Civil  Service  and  a  good  Christian  man. 

He  entered  that  service  as  a  writer  on  1st  August  1780.     At  the 

time  he  gave  this  donation  hd  was  one  of  the  Puisne  Judges  of 

the  Sndder  Dewanny  and  in  1811  he  was  made  Chief  Judge.     It 

8011ft  07  VHfi  SimSCBIBEBS  ¥0  THB  BXltLBlNG  FUKD.  41 

was  at  his  house  that  the  Bev.  David  Brown  died  on  14th  June 
1812.  On  22nd  April  1825  he  was  appointed  permanently  as  a 
member  of  the  Supreme  Council.  He  died  in  London  on  9th 
AprU  1828. 

2.     W.  B.  Mabtin. 

He  was  also  a  member  of  tEe  Civil  Service  which  he  entered  as 
a  writer  on  1st  November  1798.  At  the  time  he  gave  this  dona- 
tion he  was  Collector  of  Dinagepore,  and  from  1809  he  held  high 
posts^  being  at  different  times  Resident  at  Amboyna^  Hyderabad, 
Delhi,  and,  finally,  Indore  on  16th  April  1832.  He  retired  from 
1st  May  1836. 

3.     The  Rev.  David  Bbown. 

His  name  is  well  known  in  Chiistiian  circles,  and  his  praise  is 
in  all  the  Churches.  He  arrived  at  Calcutta  in  1786  to  take 
charge  of  the  Orphanage.  In  1794  he  was  appointed  a  Presidency 
Cliaplain  and  he  was  also  in  charge  of  the  Old  (or,  Mission) 
Church.  He  was  Provost  of  The  Collie  of  Fort  William,  and  it 
was  through  his  influence  that  Dr.  Carey  was  appointed  a  Professor 
in  it.  He  was  of  an  evangelical  turn  of  mind  and  exerted  himself 
in  every  good  cause  and  was  an  intimate  friend  of  the  Serampore 
missionaries.  He  died  on  the  14th  June  1812  at  the  housie  of 
Mr.  J.  H.  Harington  as  already  stated. 

4.     J.  T.  Mayldt. 

Mr.  Maylin  was  a  successful  trader  who  had  been  going  back- 
wards  and  forwards  to  and  from  America  and  had  amassed  a 
considerable  fortune.  He  was  baptized  in  the  river  at  Serampore 
by  Dr.  Carey  on  7th  July  1805  and  in  that  year  when  the  mis- 
sionaries  wanted  to  buy  additdjonal  premj^ses  ajb  Serampore  he 
advanced  them  as  a  loan  the  equivalent  of  £1,420  at  10  per  cent, 

5.     Michael  Derozio  (not  Derozario). 

He  is  described  in  St.  John's  Baptismal  Register  of  178d 
as  "a  Native  Protestant,"  and,  in  the  Bengal  Directory  of  1795  as 
"a  Portuguess  Merchant  and  Agent  in  Calcutta.''     He  was  born 

42  THB  8T0BT    OF    TBDB   l4iJX-BAZAB    BAPTOV    GHUBCS?. 

in  1742  and  wae  the  grandfatlier  of  Mr.  H.  L.  Y.  Derozio,  the 
Anglo-Indian  Poet  and  Beforxner^  by  whom  he  is  overshadowed. 
The  latter  was  bom  to  his  second  son  Francis.  He  and  his  family 
were  regular  attendants  at  the  meetings  conducted  by  the  mi^ 
sionaries  at  Calcutta,  and,  not  infrequently,  were  the  only  attend- 
ants. He  apd  his  wife  and  two  dai^bters  were  baptized  at  Seram- 
pore  by  Mr.  Ward  on  the  3rd  May  1807,  after  having  attended 
the  meetings  at  Calcutta  a  long  time.  On  that  date  he  was  65 
years  of  age  and  his  wife  63.  He  died  suddenly,  while  dining, 
on  the  22nd  August  1809  and  was  buried  on  the  next  day  by  Dr. 
Carey.  No  portrait  of  him  is  obtainable,  but  a  portrait  is  given 
on  the  opposite  page  of  his  young,  but  brilliant  and  distinguished 
grandson  Mr.  H.  L.  Y.  Derozio,  who  was  nephew  by  marriage 
to  the  missionary  Rev.  Ignatius  Fernandez.  His  widow  died  at 
Bhagalpore,  on  the  30th  June  1832,  aged  76,  according  to  the 

6.  James  Rolt. 
This  was  the  person  from  whom  the  land  on  which  the  Chapel 
was  built  was  originally  bought.  When  the  Serampore  mission- 
aries first  commenced  their  meetings  in  Calcutta  they  used  to 
assemble  in  Mr.  Rolfs  house.  Eventually  he  became  the  Architect 
of  the  Chapel.  There  are  interesting  details  on  record  about  the 
sickness  and  death  of  his  first  wife.  Hs  then  married  the  widow 
of  Mr.  Brunsdon  shortly  before  Mr.  Chamberlain  arrived.  He 
was  an  intimate  friend  of  Dr.  Carey's,  who  dined  with  him  every 
day  in  Calcutta  while  connected  with  the  College  of  Fort  William. 
He  was  baptized  on  4th  September  1802.  He  gave  employment 
to  Krishna  Pal,  the  first  Serampore  convert,  after  his 
baptism.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Judson  put  up  at  his  house  in 
Calcutta  in  1812  for  2  or  3  months  from  about  the  time  Mr.  Lawson 
arrived  till  Dr.  Judson's  departure  for  the  Mauritius.  He  died 
on  23rd  September  1813., 

7.     Peter   Lindeman. 
For  some  years   befc^re  the   Chapel   was  built  the  meetings 

Portrait  of  Mr.  H.  L.  V.  Deri>zio,  thk  Anglo-Indian   1'oy.t, 
( By  kind  permission  of  Mr.  E.  IV,  Madge  of  the  ImptrioX  library.  , 


used  to  be  held  in  a  room  in  his  house  in  Cossitollah,  but  many 
objected  to  the  place  owing  to  the  ©mUlems  of  mortality  which 
were  all  about.  He  was  a  good  Christian  man.  Though  he  was 
never  formally  connected  with  this  Church,  he  attended  the  meet- 
ings at  the  Chapel  regularly  after  it  was  opened  and  used  to 
distribute  alms  there.  He  was  always  full  of  praise  and,  on  one 
occasion  when  the  carriage  he  waa  in  upset,  he  praised  God 
that  things  w-er©  not  worse.  He  died  on  13th  February  1856  at 
the  age  of  83  years  and  is  buried  in  the  Scotch  Cemetery. 

8.     The  Rev.  Ignatius  Fernandez. 

He  was  born  in  the  Island  of  Macao  off  China,  of  Portuguese 
or  Italian  extraction  and  was  educated  for  a  Roman  Catholic 
priest,  but  being  shocked  at  the  worship  of  images,  as  he  said, 
he  began  to  examine,  and  the  more  he  examined,  the 
more  he  became  inclined  to  Protestant  principles  and 
gradually  relinquished  the  Church  of  Rome.  He  came 
from  Macao  to  Bengal  in  1775.  Just  before  Mr.  Fountain's  arri- 
val in  the  country  he  heard  of  Mr.  John  Thomas  and  by  means  of 
a  friend  he  requested  some  books  for  the  purpose  of  religious  in- 
struction and  Mr.  Thomas  sent  him  Bishop  Newton's  work  on  The 
Prophecies,  etc.  He  was  an  Indigo  Planter,  who  became  acquainted 
with  the  Serampore  missionaries.  He  built  a  brick  Chapel  which 
was  opened  on  3rd  November  1797.  He  was  baptized  on  18th 
January  1801  and  was  ordained  to  the  Ministry  on  16th  January 
1804.  He  worked  conjointly  as  a  Missionary  and  a  Planter  till 
he  died.  Mr.  Thomas,  Mr.  Fountain,  Mr.  S.  Powell 
and  the  first  wife  of  the  Rev.  W.  Robinson,  all  died  at  his  house. 
He  was  a  liberal  helper  of  the  Mission  till  his  death  on  27th 
December  1830. 

9.     A.  Smith. 

He  was  a  trader  who  used  to  go  backwards  and  forwards  to 
and  from  America.  He  was  in  Calcutta  with  Mrs.  Smith  at 
different  times.     Was  originally  a  member  of  the  Baptist  Church 


in  Cannon  Street,  Birmingliam,  and  went  to  America,  where  he 
settled  down  in  New  Tork.  He  lued  to  take  in  the  misaionarieB 
when  there  and  his  house  and  heart  were  op^i  to  all.  On  the 
drd  August  1806,  Mrs.  Smith  presented  the  missionaries  with  2 
plated  cups  for  tha  Lord's  Supper. 

10.  William  Grant. 
He  was  a  Christian  Indigo  Planter,  of  the  Malda  District  who 
was  a  friend  to  the  Mission  and  hepled  Mr.  Mardon  in  1807  to 
plant  schools,  but  died  in  October  of  that  year.  He  left  several 
thousand  rupees  to  the  Mission  which  came  in  very  opportunely 
at  the  time  the  missionaries  were  trying  to  extend  their  work. 

11.  George  Shaw. 

He  was  baptized  on  Ist  February  1807,  but  no  further  informa- 
tion  has  bsen   traced   about  him. 

12.  W.  Morrison 


13.  K.    Stewart 

They  were  coach  builders  of  the  firm  of  Stewart  and  Morrison 
of  that  day. 

14.      J.    TOMKIES. 

He  was  Inspector  of  European  Distilleries,   but  no  further 
information  has  been  traced  about  him. 

15.     K.  Caws. 
No  information  whatever  has  been  traced  about  this  gentleman. 


The  PsoGRftflS  of  the  Cause  in  1809  afteb  the 


Prior  to  1st  January  1809,  165  mombers  had  been  enrolled, 
including  the  missionaries,  and  of  these,  only  Soldier  Axell 
had  been  baptized  at  Calcutta.  The  rest  had  all  been  baptized 
at  Serampore  or  received  by  letter.  The  admissions  had  been  aa 
below: — 

1800,  13;  1801,  6;  1802,  9;  1803,  16;  1804,  16;  1805, 
41;  11B06,  30;  1807,  17;  1808,  18.  On  3rd  November  1805,  the  year 
in  which  41  had  been  received  into  the  Church,  10  were  baptized 
at  one  time  in  the  presence  of  many  strangers. 

Dr.  Carey  had  been  sole  Pastor  from  24th  April  1800  to  5th 
October  1805,  and  from  6th  October  1805,  Dr.  Marshman  and 
'Mr.  Ward  were  appointed  co-Pastors  with  him.  The  other  mia- 
sionaries  at  Serampore,  were  appointed  Deacons,  as  also  Krishna 
Pal  and  Krishna  Persaud  for  the  native  members. 

The  first  baptizing  that  took  place  in  the  Chapel  was  that 
of  Mr.  John  Turner,  on  8th  January  1809,  just  a  week  aiter  the 
Chapel  had  been  opened. 

The  record  runs  thus :  ''  The  Ordinance  of  baptism  was  adminis- 
tered  for  the  first  time  in  the  liall  Bazar  Chapel  when  Mr.  Turner 
was  baptized  at  the  close  of  the  morning  service,  Dr.  Marsh- 
man  introduced  the  service  by  a  short  address  and  Mr.  Ward 
followed,  giving  a  short  account  of  the  conversion  of  the  candidate. 
Aa  they  went  into  the  water  the  congregation  sang 

Lo,  glad  I  come,  and  Thou  Blest  Lamb 
Shalt  take  me  to  Thee  as  I  am. 

My  sinful  self  to  Thee  I  give 

Nothing  but  love  shall  I  receive. 

The  fixed  attention  and  the  tears  of  many  of  the  congregation 
testified  how  deeply  they  were  affected  with  the  solemnity  of  this 
imjmflsive  ordinance." 


The  next  baptismal  service  was  on  5th  March  1809  when  four 
persons  were  baptized  by  Dr.  Carsy  himself  and  among 
them  was  Mr.  William  Cumberland.  He  was  formerly  in 
the  Army.  Referring  to  this  baptism  Dr.  Carey  wrote 
to  Mr.  Fuller  on  the  27tb  idem  as  below: — 

"  The  work  at  Calcutta  is  going  forward  in  a  very  encouraging 
manner.  Last  Ordinance  Day  I  baptized  four  persons  and  next 
Lord  8  Day  I  expect  to  baptize  two  more.  I  think  there  are  not 
fewer  than  ten  others  enquiring  the  way  of  salvation.  I  trust 
the  Lord  will  raise  up  in  this  Church  a  sufficiant  number  of  men 
of  special  gifts  to  convey  the  knowledge  of  the  Truth  through  tba» 
and  some  of  the  neighbouring  countries.  The  native  "Portuguese 
and  country-born  people  will,  if  converted  to  God  be  the  fittest 
for  this  work  of  any  others  and  the  Europeans  amongst  us  will, 
I  trust,  contribute  to  give  substance  to  their  ideas.'' 

The  ideal  the  missionaries  set  before  them  was  to  utilize  those 
in  the  country,  who  wero  used  to  the  conditions  of  life  out  here 
and  it  is  well  known  to  what  an  extent  they  succeeded.  One  of 
the  two  whom  Dr.  Carey  said  he  hoped  to  baptize  on  the  following 
Sunday  was  Mr.  O.  Leonard,  who  was  duly  baptist  on  the  2nd 
April.     He  was  a  prominent  figure  in  the  Church  for  years. 

On  the  3rd  April  they  began  the  monthly  prayer  meeting  for 
the  spread  of  the  Gospel.  By  this  date  the  English  congregation 
had  increased  to  200.  It  was  composed  chiefiy  of  the  middle  and 
lower  classes  of  Christians  in  Calcutta  and  consisted  of  the  same 
description  of  attendants  as  thosa  who  had  filled  the  Mission  Church 
in  the  days  of  Kiernandsr,  and  deserted  it  when  under  the  preach- 
ing of  Mr.  Brown,  it  became  the  sanctuary  of  the  gentry.  The 
Missionaries  recorded  the  following  remark  in  their  circular  letter 
of  April : — 

*'  The  voluntary  contributions  are  nearly  sufficient  to  defray 
the  monthly  expenses  of  the  Chapel  as  well  as  the  interest  of 
the  debt  on  it,  which  amounts  to  more  than  one  hundred  and 
fifty  rupees  monthly." 

The  Church,  as  already  shown  above,  being  regarded  as  the 

nursery  of  the  Mission,  the  missionaries  made  use  at  once  of  those 

who  seemed  to  have  special  gifts  and  they  encouraged   the  East 


Indian,  Portugusse  and  Armenian  young  men,  to  say  nothings 
of  the  native  young  men,  to  labour  from  house  to  house  wherever 
they  oould  obtain  access,  and  mestings  were  held  every  evening, 
in  the  week  at  the  residence  of  some  of  those  who  had  shown  a 
desire  to  listen  to  the  Gospel,  and  those  young  men  were  thus  trained 
for  the  exercise  of  their  natural  gifts.  Two  such  young  men  were 
sent  out  during  1809,  Mr.  C.  C.  Aratoon  to  Jessore  and 
Mr.  John  Peter  (or,  Peters)  to  Orissa.  In  the  case  of  the 
former  the  connection  with  the  Mission  was  not  severed  till  his 
death  on  24th  November  1857,  but  the  latter  retired  in  1820. 
This  latter  period  though  short  was  productive  of  much  fruit. 

The  following  interesting  remark  is.  on  record  in  Juns  1809  : — 
''Roman  Catholics  born  in  Bengal  are  often  surprised  at  hearing 
the  Bible  read  in  Bengalee !  for,  though  they  have  heard  of  a 
book  called  the  Bible,  yet  many  of  them  have  never  heard  a 
syllable  of  it  in  a  language  they  could  understand.'' 

The  extract  below  will  spsak  for  itself  in  regard  to  the  state 
of  this  so-called  infant  Church : — 

August  9th: — Mr.  Rowe,  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Saffery  of  this  date 
wrote:  Respecting  the  work  of  God,  Calcutta  is  the  principal 
scene  of  action  in  this  part  of  the  country.  Since  the  Chap&l  has 
been  opened  several  have  appeared  to  be  truly  converted  to  Christ. 
.  Some  of  our  Calcutta  members  are  men  of  eminent  godli- 
ness. The  monthly  and  all  other  prayer  meetings  are  well  at- 
tended. The  congregation  keeps  up  and  several  sesm  ready  to 
declare  themselves  on  the  Lord's  side.  It  is  our  wish  that  the 
members  of  all  our  Churches  should  possess  a  Missionary  spirit. 
We  therefore  labour  to  inspire  them  with  ardent  thirst  for  the 
salvation  of  souls  and  to  induce  them  to  prosecute  it  not  only  by 
prayer  and  pecuniary  contrlibutions,  but  by  peirsonal  labours. 
We  BOB  the  good  effect  of  this  particularly  in  persons  being  brought 
under  the  Word.  It  is  in  the  power  of  many  of  our  members 
to  do  more  in  this  way,  and  in  several  others,  than  we  possibly 
can.  A  few  wesks  ago  at  the  close  of  the  monthly  prayer-meeting 
it  was  proposed  that  this  Church  should  support  our  Brother  Car- 
rapiet,  (Aratoon)  who  occupies  a  Missionary  station  in  Jessore  and 
that  they  should  send  Brother  John  Peter,  another  of  its  members, 
into  Qrissa  to  occupy  a  Misdonary  station  there.  Both  were  readily 
agreed  to,  and  it  was  further  resolved  that  two-thirds  of  the  nionthly 
collection,  which  far  exceeds  any  present  claims  of  the  poor,  should 


be  applied  to  this  purpose  and  to  be  formed  into  a  fund  to  be 
called  "The  Chapel  Itinerant  Fund."  A  few  days  after,  our 
Brother  Grordon,  the  keeper  of  the  Calcutta  prison,  sent  500  rupees, 
or  about  60  guineas  towards  the  Fund.  From  this  you  see  some- 
thing of  the  feelings  of  this  infant  Church  respecting  tiie 
Itedeemer's  Kingdom.  Grod  supplies  all  our  wants!  We  have  ik) 
reason  to  think  that  Grovemment  is  unfriendly  towards  us.  On 
the  contrary  we  have  understood  that  they  have  discouraged  the 
agitation  of  the  controversy  here  which  has  tak&n  place  in  England. 

In  May  of  this  year  Mr.  Chamberlain  had  baptized  at  Ber- 
hampore  between  20  and  30  English  soldiers,  who  formed  theifr 
selves  into  a  Church.  In  August  they  wers  ordered  to  the  Coast 
and  passed  through  Calcutta,  and  while  heie,  were  visited  bj 
Mr.  Chamberlain  and  Mr.  Leonard,  and  before  leaving  Calcnttai 
sent  75  sicca  rupees  for  tho  Mission.  This  was  the  beginning 
of  a  remarkable  work  of  grace  among  soldiers.  But  i^ 
is  a  very  singular  thing  that  whereas  the  Chapel  was  sitoatecl 
in  a  quarter  much  frequented  by  sailors,  nothing  special  appears 
to  have  been  done  at  this  period  to  reach  that  class,  but  attention 
was  more  especially  given  to  soldiers. 

On  I3th  September,  Mr.  Adam  Gordon,  the  keeper  of  th« 
jail,  and  Mr.  O.  Leonard  were  proposed  as  Deacons,  and,  on  i^^ 
18th  October,  they  were  set  apart  as  such  by  the  laying  on  oi 
hands.  On  the  latter  date  Mr.  C.  C.  Aratoon  and  Mr.  John  Peter 
were  set  apart  to  the  Ministry  by  prayer  and  the  laying  on  of 
hands.  Mr.  Peter,  who  is  described  as  Being  of  a  }et  black  com- 
plexion was  to  get  a  salary  of  Rs.  60  a  month  as  he  had  a  family 
and  a  parent  dependent  on  him,  but  Mr.  Aratoon,  as  he  was 
single,  was  to  get  only  Bs.  30  a  month.  These  details  are  given 
to  show  the  spirit  that  animated  one  and  all. 

Mr.  Jahans,  a  Roman  Catholic  when  he  became  converted, 
sent  Mr.  Ward  all  his  Popish  books  to  be  placed  with  Hindu 
books.  As  he  wish-ad  that  his  baptism  might  be  in  a  tank  or  in 
the  river,  which  came  nearer  Scripture  exiynples,  rather  than  in 
the  baptistery  in  the  Chapel,  he  and  Sookey,  another  candidate, 
were  baptized  on  24th  Sept^nber  "in  a  tank  in  the  garden  of 


r.  Pitman,  Bow  Bazar,  Calcutta,  when  a  large  company  waa 
esent  and  tlie  ordinance  was  very  seriously  and  profitably 
tended  upon." 

In  spite  of  all  the  work  that  the  Missionaries  had  already 
I  hand  they  were  led  to  add  to  their  labours  under  the  following 
Tcumstances : — ^Mr.  Ward  received  a  letter  from  Mr.  King  of 
lirmingham  regarding  some  Charity  Schools,  which  were  being 
onducted  in  that  town.  This  he  read  at  Calcutta  on  the  23rd 
ieptamber  1809,  among  friends,  when  Mr.  Leonard  said  he  thought 
halt  something  of  the  kind  might  be  opened  in  Calcutta,  which 
ed  to  an  enquiry  being  instituted  whether  a  similar  attempt  could 
lot  be  made.  The  outcome  was  that  on  Christmas  Day,  1809,  Dr. 
^arshman  preached  a  aarmon  in  the  Chapel  with  a  view  to  the 
atablishment  of  a  Charity  School  for  the  children  of  the  native 
Portuguese  and  others  in  indigent  circumstances.  His  text  was 
iaken  from  Psalm  xxxvii.  3 — Trust  in  the  Lord  and  do  good  so 
Shalt  thou  dwell  in  the  land  and  verily  thou  shalt  be  fed.''  After 
'he  sermon  a  collection  was  made,  which  ultimately  amounted  to 
ibout  three  hundred  rupees.  In  regard  to  this  the  record  runs: 
Although  this  sum  may  be  esteemed  email  compared  with  the 
magnitude  of  the  undertaking  we  feel  by  no  means  discouraged. 
)n  the  contrary,  persuaded  the  Lord  is  able  to  give  every  needful 
upply,  we  have  determined  to  persevere  in  the  undertaking  till 
I*  school  is  actually  established.*' 

This  was  done  not  long  after,  but  after  an  existence  of  nearly 
»ighty  years  this  useful  institution  which  was  known  among  the 
uissionaries  as  the  Benevolent  Institution,  but  among  the  poor 
hemeelves  as  Penney 's  School,  was  formally  closed  in  1888  for 
^ant  of  funds. 

The  total  number  admitted  into  the  Church  during  1809 
-mountsd  to  27. 

It  becomes  necessary  now  to  make  a  diversion  from  the  nariar 
ive  and  to  introduce  to  the  reader  (1)  Mr.  William  Cumberland 
nd  (2)  Mr.  Owen  Leonard,  who  have  both  been  referred  to 


Biographical  sketch  op  Mr.  "William  Cumberland, 

A  Deacon  op  the  Church,  who  died  on  24th  July 

1814,  AT  the  age  op  66  years. 

The  following  narrafcive  is  based  upon  the  Periodical  Accounts 
of  the  time. 

Mr.  Cumberland  was  bom  in  England  in  1748,  and  came 
cut  to  India  in  the  Army  in  the  yaar  1786.  About  1794  Im  was 
appointed  to  superintend  the  mating  of  gun-carriages,  etc..  in 
the  Company's  yard  at  Kashee-poora  (Cossipore),  about  three  miles 
from  Calcutta.  At  this  time  he  was  serving  divers  luBts  and 
passions,  far  from  God,  and  given  up  to  almost  all  those  vices  so 
common  in  the  Army :  but  he  was  particularly  the  slave  of  passion. 
Still,  however,  in  this  dreadful  career  of  iniquity,  while  destitute 
of  the  means  of  religious  instruction,  his  conscience  often  smote 
him  and  prevented  his  sinning  with  impunity. 

In  these  circumstances,  he  was  in  some  way  brought  to  attend 
on  tEe  Grospel  preached  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Lindeman  in  Calcutta, 
and  he  acknowledged  afterwards,  that  a  sermon  preached  there 
from  these  words,  "How  shall  we  escape,  if  we  neglect  so  great 
salvation,"  was  made  peculiarly  useful  in  awakening  him  from  a 
state  of  spiritual  death.  From  that  time,  having  received  deep 
impressions  of  the  extreme  danger  of  his  condition  as  a  fallen 
sinner,  and  obtaining  hopes  of  mercy  through  the  redemption  that 
there  is  in  Christ  Jesus,  he  continued  his  attendance  on  the  wor 
ship  of  God,  and  gave  his  fixed  attention  to  the  discourses  he  heard. 

He  was  baptized  on  the  5th  March  1809,  and  was  afterwards 
chosen  a  Deacon  in  March  1812. 

From  the  day  of  his  baptism  to  that  of  his  death  he  bore 
among  has  brethren  the  character  of  a  Humble  Christian,  of  the 


most  simple  and  unaffected  deporimemt,  commanding  the  affectioti 
and  esteem  of  all,  religious  or  profane.  Nor  did  lie  neglect 
the  enlarg3ment  of  bis  mind :  he  was  seldom  without  a  book  in  his 
band  in  bis  leisure  moments,  and  though  his  education  had  been 
limited,  he  possessed  a  capacity  for  studies  superioF  to  his  situa- 
tion in  life.  He  had  a  tinge  of  refined  melancholy  in  his  disposi- 
tion, seldom  sean  in  men  of  his  rank  in  life:  hence  he  erected  a 
monumeint  to  the  memory  of  bis  son  in  his  own  garden,  and  over- 
shadowed  it  with  a  weeping  willow,  and  after  the  death  of  his  first 
wife  he  enclosed  a  spot  of  ground  with  a  railing  in  the  o(»iier  of 
the  Kiddurpoora  (Kidderpore)  burying  ground  and  planted  a  tree 
by  its  side,  under  the  shade  of  which  his  own  earthly  remains  after- 
wards rsposed. 

The  wonders  of  God  in  creation  and  providence  were  ever 
pleasing  subjects  of  contemplation  and  converse  to  him.  But  his 
favourite  theme  was  the  doctrine  of  redemption;  and  he  ever 
showed  in  conversation  how  much  his  feelings  were  impreeeed  and 
elevated  by  this  exalted  subject,  contemplated  with  rapture  even 
by  angels.  He  knew  and  acknowledged  that  he  had  been  a  great 
and  (in  his  own  estimation)  more  than  common  sinner:  he  was 
aware  too,  that  though  then  reformed  and  supported  by  tha  power 
of  religion,  he  was  still  encompassed  with  infirmities.  These 
things  made  him  sensible  that  nothing  but  the  boundless  mercy 
of  God,  flcming  freely  through  the  infinite  merit  of  the  Saviour's 
sacrifice,  was  sufScient  to  save  him,  and  he  found  nothing  short 
cf  this  capable  of  supporting  his  hope  and  affording  him  consols  - 
tion  under  the  piercing  views  he  had  of  his  desert  of  hell  as  having 
been  alie&ated  from  God,  and  in  avowed  and  continued  rebellion 
against  Him.  These  views  made  the  Gospel  tidings  of  great  joy 
to  him,  he  felt  that  he  had  a  deep  stake  in  the  covenant  of  redemp- 
tion :  this  was  all  his  salvation  and  all  his  desire.  Delivered  from 
a  state  of  shocking  profligacy  by  the  Divine  Spirit,  through  the 
instrumentality  of  the  religion  of  Christ,  he  was  sensible  that  he 
owed  the  deepest  obligations  to  the  Father  for  His  unmerited  love. 


t>o  tihe  Son  for  His  bitter  sufferings  unto  death  for  liis  salvation, 
to  the  Holy  Spirit  for  those  convictions  and  imprsssions  that  drew 
him  from  a  life  of  sin  and  placed  his  feet  in  the  narrow  way 
that  leads  to  eternal  life.  A  striking  proof  of  what  he  felt  respedr 
ing  hifi  obligations  on  this  subject  was  seen  in  tha  text  he  chose 
for  his  funeral  sermon.     "Is  not  this  a  brand  plucked  from  the 


These  deep  impressions  of  the  infinite  value  and  necessity  of 
religion  laid  the  foundation  of  the  excellent  character  which  Mr. 
Cumberland  afterwards  bore,  and,  whatever  some  persons  may 
think  respecting  deep  convictions  on  the  subject  of  religion,  pain- 
ful experience  but  too  plainly  proves  them  necessary,  to  arrest 
the  mind  of  man,  so  prone  to  trifle  with  eternal  concerns,  to  humble 
his  pride,  and  to  draw  him  from  that  fatal  love  of  the  world 
which  devours  so  many  souls  in  perdition. 

Mr.  Cumberland  was  once  awfully  prone  to  violent  gusts  of 
passion,  he  lamented  this  after  his  conversion  more  than 
once  and  attributed  to  this  vice  the  origin  of  a  com- 
plaint which  he  carried  with  him  to  the  grava.  But  see 
what  religion  does  in  the  heart  of  a  man  who  has  b^un 
to     mortify     the     flesh     with    its  affections  and  lusts.     A  friend 

said : 

''His  situation  required  a  man  of  the  greatest  patience, 
having  four  or  five  hundred  heathen  to  watch  over  daily. 
I  need  not  inform  you,  what  a  heavy  task  this  was  to  a 
conscientious  man,  who  had  not  only  to  exert  all  his.  powers  to 
make  Hindu  workmen  to  perform  their  duty,  but  likewise  to  pre- 
vent them  from  purloining  everything  they  could  conveniently 
carry  away  from  the  Yard.  Notwithstanding  these  circumstances, 
so  trying  to  a  man  naturally  passionate,  by  a  constant  habit  of 
prayer,  and  a  deep  regard  for  the  honour  of.  religion,  he  was 
enabled  to  act  not  only  so  as  to  gain  the  high  approbation  of  his 
superiors,  but  to  be  esteemed  as  a  parent  by  numbers 
who  were  under  his  management.  He  made  it  a  rule,  when  he 
was  betrayed  into  speaking  harshly  to  any  workman,  even  the 
poorest  labourer  in  the  employ,  to  go  and  beg  his  pardon  in  the 
most  humble  terms  and  to  add  a  small  present  in  money,  so  that 
he  gained   the   affection  of  those  who   otherwise  would  have  felt 


resentment,  and  proveS  to  the  heathen,  that  they  had  to  do  with 
a  true  follower  of  a  Redeemer  who  died  for  His  enemies." 

The  good  effects  of  this  tendemsss  towards  the  natives  was 
seen  in  his  last  sickness.  One  of  the  Deacons  of  the  Church 
observed  during  his  frequent  visits  to  Kashi-poora,  that  there 
was  scarcely  an  hour  in  the  day  during  Mr.  Cumberland's  illness, 
which  in  the  whole  lasted  about  a  month,  in  which  some  one  or 
more  of  the  Native  neighbours  or  workmen  were  not  seen  near 
his  bungalow  making  the  most  anxious  enquiries  about  his  health, 
and  at  the  time  of  his  departure,  near  five  hundred  of  them  col- 
lected  about  the  house,  and  gave  vent  to  their  sorrow  by  loud 
lamentations,  addressing  sach  other  in  such  words  as  these: — 
"We  have  lost  our  father,  he  is  gone  never,  never  to  return. 
Where  shall  we  find  one  like  him?"  The  friend  before  referred 
Ifco  declared  that  it  was  one  of  the  most  affecting  scenes  he  had 
ever  witnessed :  indeed  so  powerful  an  effect  had  it  upon  him,  that 
he  wept  the  whole  time    he  was  relating  it. 

A  man  who  could  go  thus  far  in  apologising  for  an  involuntary 
injury  to  persons  deemed  his  inferiors,  and  whom  many  treat  as 
beasts  of  burden,  could  not  be  unmindful  of  the  spiritual  condition 
of  the  beathen.  As  soon  as  he  obtained  leave  from  his  esteemed 
employers,  whose  generous  conduct  to  him  and  to  his  family  does 
them  the  greatest  honour,  he  invited  native  catechists  to  come 
weekly  to  teach  thd  workmen :  and  it  was  a  pleasing  sight  to  see 
Mr.  Cumberland  sitting  in  the  midst  of  a  crowd  of  heathen, 
while  they  surrounded  one  of  their  own  countrymen,  <^ening  to 
them  the  treasures  of  tha  Gospel,  the  unsearchable  riches  of  Christ. 
Many  parts  of  the  Sacred  Scriptures  were  put  into  the  hands  of 
those  who  could  read  in  this  manufactory,  and  let  us  hope  that, 
in  the  resurrection  of  the  just  he  will  find  that  he  did  not  labour 
in  vain.  Nor  was  he  content  with,  these  efforts,  he  talked  himself, 
as  well  as  he  was  able,  to  the  natives;  he  often  lamented  their 
dark  and  miserable  condition,  and  he  looked  forward  with  joy 
to  a  state  of  retirement,  when  he  hoped  to  have  more  leisure  to 


do  good  to  the  souls  of  men.  Such,  however,  was  his  unfeigned 
humility,  that  it  was  a  subject  of  deep  ragret  in  his  last  hours, 
that  he  had  done  no  more  good  in  Tiia  day  and  generation. 

What  an  example  is  this  to  those  who  have  under  them  perish- 
ing heathen.  How  forcibly  are  they  called  upon  by  th.&  voice 
of  the  Saviour  to  "go  and  do  likewise"  in  a  case  in  which  the 
eternal  welfare  of  their  own  servants  is  concerned !  How  can  we 
give  ourselves  credit  for  either  Christian  benevolence  or  humanity, 
if  here,  where  these  virtues  are  most  wanted  they  are  never  put 
into  exercise,  and  where  the  objects  of  pity  are  not  occasional  in- 
truders, but  immortal  beings,  continually  ministering  to  our 
wants,  or  increasing  our  riches!  How  awful  is  the  consideration 
that  one  of  those  lost  men  may  upbraid  us,  in  eternity  witli  the 
neglect  of  what  would  have  cost  us  nothing — ^warning  him  of  his 
danger,  and  pointing  him  to  the  Lamb  of  God  which  taketh.  away 
the  sin  of  the  world. 

We  now  come  to  the  last  and  most  important  scene  of  his 
life  his  last  and  mos<t  serious  hours.  What  was.  he  then,  what 
did  religion  do  for  him  when  the  world  retired,  when  heart  and 
flesh  failed,  and  when  eternity  opened  upon  his  view, — eternity 
filled,  as  he  verily  believed,  with  endless  joy  or  endless  woe. 

When  his  partner  in  life  perceived  that  there  were  no  hopes 
of  her  husband's  recovery,  she  gave  vent  to  her  feelings  in  a  flood 
of  tears,  and  in  lamentations,  which  reached  the  ears  of  her  dying 
husband.  After  recovering  in  some  measure  from  the  shock  he 
called  her  to  him,  and  suggested  to  her  those  consolations,  which 
the  recollection  of  the  moment  afforded,  adding  the  memorable 
words  of  the  prophet  Jeremiah,  "Leave  thy  fatherless  children. 
I  will  preserve  them  alive,  and  let  thy  widows  trust  in  me." 

The  friend  already  mentioned  asked  him,  when  he  saw  his 
end  approaching,  if  he  was  assaulted  by  the  temptations  of  Satan. 
He  assured  him  he  had  not  been  thus  attacked  during  the  whole 
of  his  afflictions;  that  death  had  no  terror  in  his  looks,  no  arms 
in  his  hands,;    that  the  only  sorrow  he  now  felt,  arose  from  his 


not  baving  served  better  that  Saviour  who  now  filled  him  with 
consolation  when  all  inferior  springs  were  dried  up. 

A  female  icember  of  the  Church,  a  short  time  before  his 
death,  asked  him  if  he  thought  of  Jesus?  Lifting  up  his  eyes  as 
if  surprised  at  the  nature  of  the  question,  he  feelingly  replied, — 
"Do  I  think  of  "Evrnt  Yes,  He  is  never  absent  from  my  thougbts. 
Who  supports  me,  think  you,  in  these  trying  moments,  except 
the  dear  Redeemer?" 

When  one  of  his  pastors  last  visited  him,  in  reply  to  a  ques- 
tion respecting  the  state  of  his  mind,  he  said,  "  I  am  calmly  wait- 
ing the  will  of  God." 

He  gave  orders  for  his  funeral  with  the  utmost  composure, 
and  having  languished  till  Lord's  Day  morning  the  24th  of  July, 
he  quietly  fell  asleep,  aged  66  years. 

Let  it  not  be  supposed,  however,  from  what  has  been  said, 
that  it  is  wished  to  hold  him  up  in  any  other  light  than  as  a  saved 
sinner,  as  a  rough  stone  taken  out  of  the  quarry,  and  polished 
hy  the  Great  Master-Builder,  nor  eulogise  him  as  a  saint 
of  the  highest  order.  He  was  not  this,  he  would  not  if  on  earth 
thank  any  one  for  a  false  character.  If  a  friend  could  have  per- 
suaded him  to  speak  with  a  degree  of  confidence  respecting  his 
Cbiistian  character,  still  he  would  have  affirmed  *'  By  the  grace 
of  God  I  am  what  I  am."  His  sense  of  his  infirmities  made  him 
bate  himself,  and  fly  for  refuge  to  Him  who  is  a  Befuge  from  the 
storm  and  tempest:  and  no  doubt  his  present  language  is  what  it 
was  on  earth.  "  Not  unto  us,  not  unto  us,  but  unto  Thy  Name 
be  all  the  glory. — To  Him  that  loved  us,  and  washed  us  from 
our  sins  in  His  own  blood,  to  Him  be  glory,  both  now  and  for 
ever.     Amen." 


Biographical  sketch  of  the  Rev.  Owen  Leonard,  a  Deacon  of  ths 

Church  who  subsequently  became  a  Missionary,  and 

died  on  23rd  November  1848. 

He  was  born  neax  Langford  in  Ireland  of  Romisli  parents  in 
1772,  but  even  in  his  boyish  days  he  entertained  doubts  of  eome 
of  the  Romanist  doctrines.  His  parents  were  poor  and  he  was 
brought  up  to  the  humble  trade  of  a  shoemaker.  At  the  age  of 
fifteen  he  enlisted  as  a  soldier  in  the  service  of  the  East  India 
Company.  He  arrived  in  India  about  1787  and  was  posted  to 
the  Oompany^e  Artillery,  which  was  then  stationsd  at  Calcutta, 
but  used  to  be  sent  to  Dum-Dum  in  the  cold  season  for  practice. 
He  married  when  very  young  the  daughter  of  a  French  Officer, 
who  survived  him  after  a  married  life  of  over  50  years,  but  the 
exact  date  of  the  marriage  is  not  known.  He  was  always  a  steady 
man  and  took  great  pains  to  improve  himself.  He  was  first 
employed  as  a  writer  and  later  on  promoted  to  the  rank  of 
a  petty  officsr.  At  an  early  period  of  his  Indian  career  he  be- 
came acquainted  with  a  pious  man  in  the  Artillery  named  Points 
whom  he  described  as  one  "faithful  among  the  faithless."  Points 
was  very  anxious  for  Leonard's  spiritual  welfare  and  watched  over 
his  conduct  with  a  holy  jealousy.  When  the  Rohilla  war  began 
in  1784,  Leonard  was  required  to  take  the  field  and  in  the  bloody 
battle  of  the  26th  October*  of  that  year  he  was  exposed  to  imminent 
danger  out  of  which,  however,  the  Lord  delivered  him,  and  after 
the  engagement  was  over  he  retired  to  a  solitary  place  to  return 
thanks  to  God  for  his  deliverance.  After  this  he  was  at  Dum- 
Dum  and  was  there  raised  to  the  rank  of  Sergeant  in  the  Artillery 
and  when  it  was  determined  to  send  an  Army  against  Seringa- 

*  There  is  a  Cenotaph  in  St.  John's  Churchyard,  Calcutta,  to  the  memory  of 
those  who  were  kille<l  on  this  occasion. 


patam  a  detachment  of  tlie  Bengal  Artillery  was  ordered  to 
Madras  to  join  the  besieging  Army :  Leonard  was  on  the  occasion 
made  Seirgeant-Major  and  sent  with  the  d^atachment.  In  the 
Army  was  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley,  afterwards  Duke  of  Wellington, 
under  whom  Leonard  served.  He  was  present  at  the  siege  and 
took  an  active  part  in  the  opsrations  there,  but  did  not  happen 
to  be  present  when  the  place  was  actually  taken  on  the  4th  May 
1799  as  he  had  been  detached  to  some  other  duty.  After  about 
three  years  he  returned  to  Bengal  and  was  again  sent  up-country. 
He  was  soon  after  appointed  a  Tutor  in  the  Upper  Orphan  School 
at  Kidderpore.  That  Institution  was  at  that  time  under  the 
superintendence  of  Mr.  K.  T.  Burney,  who  was  a  good  man  and  was 
very  kind  to  Leonard,  and  while  trying  to  maka  him  comfortable 
in  his  new  situation,  also  sought  his  spiritual  welfare.  By  his 
influence  Leonard  was  brought  under  the  evangelical  ministry  of 
the  Rev.  David  Brown,  who  used  to  preach  at  tho  Old  Church  on 
Sunday  evenings. 

Thus  his  sarious  impressions  became  deeper  and  he  was  recom- 
mended to  open  his  mind  to  Mr.  Ward,  so  for  this  purpose  he  went 
to  Serampore  in  the  year  1806.  From  that  time  he  began  occa- 
sionally to  attend  the  preaching  of  the  missionaries  at 
their  meatings  which  were  held  in  a  private  house  while  the  walls 
of  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  were  slowly  rising.  He  was  attracted 
by  the  manner  of  preaching  and  by  the  doctrines  preached. 

Mr.  Burney  about  this  time  reprinted  and  publishad  a 
pamphlet  against  Immersion  and  in  favour  of  Paedobaptism  and 
sent  a  copy  to  Serampore  with  a  challenge  that  he  would  defend 
the  arguments  contained  in  it  even  against  Chamberlain. 
He  was  so  very  much  afraid  that  his  friend  Leonard  would  become 
a  Baptist  that  he  put  a  copy  of  this  pamphlet  into  his  hands, 
taking  from  him  a  solemn  promise  that  he  would  read  it  through, 
to  which  Leonard  readily  consented.  The  perusal  of  this  pamphlet 
as  promised,  set  Leonard  a-thinking  and  ha  began  to  lean  towards 
baptism,   and,   when  he  saw  Mr.  Ward's  little  pamphlet  on   the 


same  subject,  he  became  quite  decided.  Mr.  Burney's  object  failed 
and  the  perusal  of  his  pamphlet  by  others  caused  Baptist  senti- 
ments to  become  better  known,  as  hitherto  the  missionariss  had 
aimed  at  making  Christians  rather  than  Baptists. 

Mr.  Leonard's  physical  sufferings  were  very  gi*eat  and 
he  had  to  increase  the  dose  of  opium  he  used  to  take 
to  have  the  desired  effect  of  alleviating  them,  till  he  even- 
tually made  an  attempt  at  suicide.  He  went  to  a  shop 
and  boufi:ht  a  pistol  for  the  purpose,  but  could  not  get 
the  shot  necessary  for  it.  However,  he  directed  his  steps 
to  one  of  the  Calcutta  burial  grounds  and  there  made  the  attempt 
to  shoot  himself  by  placing  the  pistol  against  his»  right  ear.  The 
pistol  was  apparently  held  with  a  trembling  hand  and  not  pointed 
directly  into  the  ear.  It  was  loaded  with  a  coarsD  kind  of  small 
shot,  two  of  which  entered,  but  "afterwards  one  fell  out  and  was 
preserved  for  years  by  Mrs.  Leonard.  The  other  touched  his 
upper  lip  near  the  corner  of  his;  mouth.  There  was  consequently 
a  slight  curvature  of  that  lip,  but  it  was  so  slight  as  not 
to  be  always  observed  by  strangers.  His  right  ear,  however, 
became  dsaf  and  never  got  cured.  He  was  taken  to  the 
General  Hospital  where  he  remained  several  weeks  and  where  God 
met  with  him  and  he  was  brought  to  trust  in  the  Saviour  and 
had  much  peace  and  joy  in  believing. 

After  his.  recovery  Mr.  Leonard  did  not  return  to  the  Kidder- 
pore  School,  owing  to  his  attempt  at  suicide.  He,  however, 
obtained  the  post  of  Tutor  in  the  Classical  School  of  the  Rev. 
Peter  Morse,  a  clergyman  of  the  Protestant  Church  of  Ireland. 
He  had  to  teach  Arithmstic  and  gave  his  employer  much  satis- 
faction. He  had  a  discussion  once  with  Mr.  Morse  on  the  subject 
of  baptism.  Mr.  Leonard  remained  with  him  till  his  death  which 
occurred  after  a  short  illness. 

He  was  baptized  on  2nd  Apiil  1809,  shortly  after  the  opening 
of  the  Chapel  and  was  solemnly  set  apart  to  the  Office  of  Deacon 
on  18th  October  of  the  same  year  along  with  Mr.  Adam  Gordon, 


and  soon  made  himself  useful.  Two  Deacons  were  chosen,  as  none 
of  th^  Pastors  were  resident  in  Calcutta,  though  Dr.  Carey  was 
there  two  or  three  days  in  each  week,  and  it  was  considered  desir-^ 
able  to  have  several  Deacons,  who  being  on  the  spot  might  attend 
to  the  int«r^ts  of  the  Church. 

After  Mr.  Morse's  death  his  school  was  dissolved,  but  at  this 
time  the  Serampore  Missionaries  were  projecting  the  establishment 
of  their  Benevolent  Institution  on  behalf  of  which  Dr.  Marshman 
preached  his  inaugural  sermon  on  Christmas  Day  1809.  Mr.  Leo- 
nard was  appointed  one  of  the  first  teachers  in  this  school  as  he 
was  considered  a  very  suitable  x)erson  for  the  post  and  he  brought 
it  up  to  a  considerable  degree  of  efficiency.  He  used  to  help  Dr. 
Carey  at  his  conference  meeting  at  the  Chapel  on  Tuesday  evenings 
and  on  Thursday  afternoons  at  his  meeting  for  enquirers. 

After  a  while  he  felt  a  desire  to  make  himself  useful  among 
those  who  did  not  understand  English,  and  though  he  spoke 
Hindustani  fluently,  he  had  not  learned  to  read  it,  so  he  set  him- 
self to  learn  the  Nagri  character  and  in  course  of  time  by  dint  of 
perseverance  he  at  last  acquired  fluency  in  reading  it.  After  a  few 
years  the  Serampore  Missionaries  having  received  him  as  a  Mission- 
ary determined  to  send  him  to  Dacca.  All  the  time  that  he  was 
an  officer  of  tha  Church  he  was  in  deed  and  truth  the  Calcutta  cor- 
respondent of  the  Missionaries  as  is  testified  by  his  numerous  letters 
in  the  Circular  Letters  of  the  Mission,  in  which  he  f  aithf  idly  reported 
to  his  Pastors  at  Serampore  what  was  taking  place  at  Calcutta.  He 
did  not  acc8-pt  the  term  "  missionary  "  and  he  supported  himself  in- 
dependently of  the  Mission  by  keeping  a  school. 

H^e  went  to  Dacca  in  1816  to  open  up  the  work  there.  The 
Mahomedans  endeavoured  to  get  him  turned  away  as  they  had 
succeeded  10  years  previously  in  getting  Hr.  Moore  and  Mr. 
William  Carey,  Jr.,  turned  away,  but  failed.  He  set  himself  to 
establishing  schools  at  an  early  stage  and  at  one  time  had  as  many 
as  26  schools  in  the  city  and  adjacent  villages,  including  a  large 
school    in    his    own    house    which    was    kept    up  to  the  day    of 


his  death  in  1848.  The  Rev.  William  Robinson  joined  him  at  the 
beginning  of  1839.  He  became  superannuated  and  though  he 
wanted  to  labor  he  coidd  not  for  years  before  his  death.  In 
1838  he  baptized  26  individuals.  He  died  on  23rd  November 
1848  just  after  he  had  exclaimed  "Where  is  Brother  Robinson t" 
The  simple  epitaph  on  his  grave  says :     "  His  record  is  on  high." 


The  wobk  among  Soldiers  prom  January  1810  to  December  1815. 

The  additions  to  the  Church  during  these  six  years  were: 
1810,  39;  1811,  54;  1812,  72;  1813,  65;  1814,  48;  1815,  44; 
making  a  total  of  322  in  all,  which  was  practically  half  the  entire 
number  admitted  between  1800  and  1826.  They  are  therefore  im^ 
portant  years.  0ns  interesting  feature  of  the  time  was  the  work 
among  the  soldiers  of  the  different  regiments  that  came  to  Calcutta 
within  these  six  years.  Thus,  in  1810  seven  men  were  baptised 
from  the  14tb  and  22nd  regiments;  in  1812  fourteen  from  the  24th 
regiment;  in  1813  forty  from  the  same  regiment,  making  54  in 
all;  in  1814  five  from  the  66th  regiment;  in  1815  nineteen  from 
the  same  regimant  and  in  the  latter  year  (1815)  two  also  from  the 
59tb  regiment,  or  87  in  all.  From  this  it  will  be  seen  that 
men  of  five  different  regiments,  viz.,  the  14th,  22nd,  24th,  66th, 
and  59th  came  under  the  influence  of  the  missionaries.  The  good 
work  went  on  in  the  succeeding  years,  but  this  period  is  specially 
taken  as  Mr.  Leonard  was  so  intimately  connected  with  it.  He, 
however,  left  in  1816  for  Dacca  and  was  succeeded  by  others  who 
did  not  seem  to  have  quite  as  much  influence  over  the  men. 

On  the  undermentioned  dates  within  this  period  the  mission- 
ariee  were  privileged  to  baptize  more  than  six  persons  at  one  timei, 
viz: — 

29th   July       ...  ...  ...     1810—7 

30th  April      ... 

27tb  October 

26th  January 

31st  May 

13th    September 

27th   September 
[This  last  date  was  that  on  which  Dr.  Judson  preached  h» 

.  .  .1                               . 

xuxv 1 

.      1811—7 

•  .  •:                                     • 

.     1811—7 

•  •••                                     . 

.     1812—9 

...                                      . 

.     1812—8 

.     1812—8 


.     1812—8 


celebrated  sermon  on  Baptism  which  was  subsequently  printed  and 
went  through  several  editions]. 

27th   December  ...  ...     1812—12 

30th   January  ...  ...     1814—  7 

29th   May      ...  ...  ...     1814—  8 

25th   September  ...  ...     1814—  7 

16th  July      ...  ...  ...     1815—  8 

But  to  proceed  with  the  narrative.  On  the  23rd  Feb- 
ruary 1810  Mr.  Leonard  wrote  thus  to  Mr.  Ward  about 
an  enquirer : 

*'  It  was  the  fear  of  causing  scandal  to  his  Christian  prof  assion 
that  drove  him  to  the  Chapel,  some  of  his  companions  having 
accused  him  of  going  to  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  for  wicked  purposes, 
this  being  a  street  notorious  for  lewd  practices." 

On  17th  June  Mr.  Ward  received  two  soldiers  who  were 
baptized  on  the  24th  idem.  They  were  Russell  and  Beard  of  the 
Regiment  from  Berhampore  who  turned  out  sterling  men  in  couree 
of  time. 

In  July,  a  Regimental  Order  was  issued  at  Berhampore  prohi- 
biting every  Non-Commissioned  Officer  or  Private  from  attending 
religious  worship  either  in  the  Barracks  or  out  of  them,  except 
when  ordered  to  Divino  Service,  and,  it  was  added:  "Such  who 
dare  to  transgress  will  be  severely  punished."  In  a  day  or 
two,  however,  this  order  was  modified  by  another  "  which  limited 
their  meetings  to  such  times  and  places  as  the  Chaplain  of  the 
station  should  be  present  at."  This  is  inserted  here  to  show  the 
opposition  to  all  such  meetings,  and  is  not  unlike  orders  which 
issued  ere  long  at  Calcutta  also. 

The  men  whom  that  order  affect sd  within  a  week  or  two  left 
Berhampore  for  Calcutta  en  route  to  the  Mauritius,  as  their 
regiments  had  been  told  off  for  the  Expedition  against  that  Island. 
•On  the  30th  August  move  than  30  Christian  soldiers  had  break- 
fasted at  Mr.  Leonard's  house  where  a  prayer-meeting  was  held. 
After  the  morning  service  at  the  Chapel,  Mr.  Chamberlain  (who 
ihad  been  instrumental  in  their  conversion)  administered  the  Lord's 

WORK  AMONG  SOLDIERS  FROM  JAN.  1810  TO  DEC.  1815.    63 

Supper,  to  them  for  tlie  last  time.  Before  the  men  left  Calcutta 
they  collected  littla  articles  for  a  present  to  a  blind  fellow-member 
of  the  Church  named  Gomes.  They  embarked  at  Calcutta  on  10th 
September  and  when  leaving  addressed  farewell  letters  to  the 
missionaries.  God  watched  over  His  people,  for  they  were  able 
to  write  later  on  that  though  all  the  Christian  men  had  been 
engaged  in  the  taking  of  the  Mauritius  and  of  Java  none  of  them 
had  been  killed  or  even  injured.* 

On  tbe  Slst  December  1810,  Mr.  Leonard  recorded  the  follow- 
ing interesting  incident  in  his  latter  to  Mr.  Ward  of  that  date: — 

There  is  a  soldier  and  his  wife  who  attend  very  regularly  at 
Chapel.     He  says  that  on  going  out  of  the  Fort  into  Calcutta  for 

a  day,  he  is  obliged  to  apply  to  Captain  for  permission. 

The  firet  time  he  applied  to  this  gentleman  it  was  for  a  whole 
Sabbath  day's  liberty  to  go  out  and  hear  in  the  city.  He  readily 
granted  his  request,  but  enquired  with  some  earnestness,  what 
Church  he  frequented.  ''The  Chapel  in  the  Lall  Bazar,  Sir." 
"  K  you  continue,"  said  the  Captain  sharply  "  you  will  have  your 
brains  turned :  I  would  recommend  you  to  go  to  your  own  Church." 
The  soldier  answered,  '*  He  had  received  much  good  from  his  short 
attendance  at  the  Chapel ;  that  the  pure  Scripture  doctrine  was 
preached  thera,  and  that  there  was  no  danger  of  that  which  he 
apprehended.  "You  know,  Sir,"  he  continued,  I  have  more  than 
onoe  incurred  your  displeasure  by  drunkenness.  You  once  wamsd 
me  against  the  company  of  a  certain  man.  That  man  and  I  agreed 
to  go,  intoxicated  as  we  were,  to  hear  what  was  going  forward  at 
this  CEapel.  Mr.  Ward,  Sir,  preached  from  these  words, "  Bejoice 
O  young  man  in  thy  youth,  and  let  thy  heart  cheer  thee  in  the 
days  of  thy  youth  and  walk  in  the  ways  of  thine  heart  and  in 
the  sight  of  thine  eyes,  but  know  thou  that  for  all  these  things 
God  will  bring  thee  into  judgment."  A  part  of  the  sermon 
pointed  particularly  at  drunkenness,  shewing  its  destructive  conse- 
quences and  representing  it  in  such  odious  colours  that  I  hava  never 
got  drunk  since,  and  I  trust  that  by  the  mercy  of  God  I  never  shall. 
"Well"  said  the  Captain,  "if  you  have  received  benefit  thus  far 
that  is  all  that  you  ever  will  receive.  If  you  continue  your  attend- 
ance there  T  shall  one  of  these  days,  T  assure  you,  have  to  provide  a 
room  for  yon  in  the  mad  hotise." 

*  There  is  a  oenotaph  In  the  grounds  of  Government  House,  Barracki>ore 
to  the  memorr  of  the  officers  who  were  killed  in  these  expeditions  in  1810  and 
1811  respectively. 


The  14th  and  22nd  Regimente  having  thus  left  Calcutta  we 
shall  now  see  how  the  Lord  opened  the  way  for  the  next  regiment 

the  24th — to.oome  under  the  influence  of  th«  missionaries.  Here 

is  the  first  referencs  to  them,  which  is  taken  from  the  CircuIadP 
Letter  of  January  1811 : 

"  A  friend  in  the  Fort  has  opened  his  house  to  us  for  public 
worship  in  English  and  Bengalee,  and  a  good  niunber  attend, 
among  whom  are  some  soldiers  of  the  24th  Raiment  who  heard 
the  Gospel  at  the  Cape." 

Mr.  Leonard  that  same  month  was  able  to  record  that  "Not 
a  corner  is  to  be  found  in  the  Fort  where  the  Gospel  has  not  foimd 
a  reception." 

But  now  came  the  counterpart,  for,  on  15th  February  1811^ 
he  records: 

"  We  have  to  deplore  that  the  devout  young  men  of 
the  24th  Regiment  are  prohibited  passing  the  gates  of  the  Fort 
on  the  Sabbath  or  any  othsr  day  to  hear  the  Word  at  Calcutta." 

The  following   simple  entry  under    March  1811  has   a  great 

deal     in     it.     "An     opposition    was     raised     in     Fort     William 

against     the     Gospel     by     a     Colonel .     On     this    occar 

tion  a  Mrs.  W.,  a  Hindustani  woman,  who  had  married  an 
English  soldier  interceded  with  the  General  with  effect,  and  libei'ty 
for  a  time  was  granted  to  the  soldiers  to  attend  at  the  Chapel  ard 
at  occasional  meetings  which  did  not  interfere  with  their  Military 
duties,  but  this  did  not  continue  long." 

This  is  given  in  full  detail  by  Mr.  Leonard  in  Jun©  whose 
record  runs  thus: 

"About  the  middle  of  this  month  a  new  interruption 
took  place  with  respect  to  the  preaching  in  the  Fort, 
The  Town  Major  positively  prohibited  any  meetings  in  future 
under  penalty  of  a  Garrison  Court  Martial,  there  being  an  old 
Garrison  Order  against  such  meetings.  He  said  he  would  bring 
any  person  to  a  Court  Martial  who  should  encourage  them  and 
that  if  any  of  tha  Missionaries  were  seen  in  the  Garrison  in  future 
they  would  be  turned  out.  Application  was  made  to  the  Colonel 
and  the  order  was  revoked,  but  in  a  very  short  time  after  it  was 
renewed.  The  real  movers  in  this  business  are  unknown  to  us, 
and  the  cause  of  this  hindrance  to  the  Gospel  is  yet  a  mystery. 
None  of  the  Officers  of  His  Majesty's  24th  so  much  as  once- 
attempted  to  call  any  of  their  men  to  account  for  their  zeligioik 

WORK  AMONG  SOLDIERS  FROM  JAN.  1810  TO  DEC.  1815.    65 

nor  do  we  know  anything  that  could  attract  the  attention  of  the 
Officers  who  have  interfered  except  the  marked  change  of  the  men 
under  them  from  vice  to  virtue,  from  habitual  Sabbath  breaking, 
drunkenness  and  gambling  to  becoming  Christian  conduct.  One 
objection  offered  to  the  soldiers  was  that  they  were  not  such  sin- 
ners as  the  Ministers  represented  them.  An  Officer  in  conver- 
Bation  with  friend  W.  adduced  his  power  of  turning  him  out  of  hia 
situation  if  ever  he  would  be  convicted  of  admitting  any  assembly 
under  his  roof.  I  am  happy,  however,  to  inform  you  that  our 
persecuted  friends  suffered  these  oppositions  with  Christian  meek- 
ness., at  the  same  time  in  no  instance  sacrificing  a  jot  or  tittle  of 
their  faith." 

Notwithstanding  all  this  opposition,  Mr.  Leonard  was 
able  to  report  on  12th  July  that  there  were  "  large  meetings 
and  an  increase  of  enquirers  among  the  Bengalee  hearers  in  the 
Fort,"  and  on  24th  August  Dr.  Carey  was  able  to  inform  Mr. 
Fuller  that  there,  were  "a  goodly  number  who  fear  God  in  His 
Majesty's  Regiment  stationed  in  the  Fort." 

Mr.     Leonards     record     of     22nd     November     runs     thus: 

"I  went  into  the  Fort  on  Friday  seven-night  at  the  usual  hour 
but  found  our  place  of  worship  shut  up  by  orderof  Colonel  M.,  and 
all  our  dear  friends  walking  about  with  sad  countenances.  Since 
the  former  loss  of  our  place  of  worship  there  was  a  very  pleasing 
increase  of  hearers  who  appeared  desirous  of  the  Word.  At  our 
last  meeting,  I  believe  the  number  was  not  far  short  of  80." 
After  detailing  the  cause  of  this  interruption  Mr.  Leonard  adds, 
''  These  Christian  Soldiers  bore  all  these  things  with  resignation 
and  unanimously  agreed  Co  assemble  on  the  plain  (Maidan)  in 
future,  until  the  Lord  should  provide  a  covering  for  them.  The 
night  was  cold,  but  hearts  warmed  with  love  to  Christ  little  r^arded 
this.  We  devoted  the  usual  time  to  singing,  praying  and 
endeavouring  to  illustrate  Romans  14 :  17.  "  The  Kingdom  of  God 
is  not  meat  and  drink,  but  righteousness  and  peace  and  joy  in  the 
Holy  Ghost."  It  was  a  happy  season  to  us  all,  but  even  here  the 
way  is  stopped  up  in  future.  Some  one  carried  the  matter  to  the 
Colonel  at  an  early  hour  next  mornfng  and  he  sent  a  verbal  order 
by  the  Adjutant  that  there  should  be  no  more  Soldiers'  meetings 
in  any  place  whatever." 

On  the  6th  December  things  had  not  improved,  as  Mr.  Leonard 

"The   state    of    things    in    the    Fort  continues    to    wear  an 



^unfavourable  aspect.  One  of  the  Christian  soldiers  visited  me 
ithis  morning  after  having  waited  on  Colonel  M.  with  trembling 
heart  and  faltering  tongue  to  beg  permission  to  meet  for  the 
worship  of  God  but  to  no  purpose." 

Think  of  that !  Things  were  even  worse  in  Madra^,  for  a  letter 
from  a  Christian  man  of  the  14th  Regiment  who  had  been  traoft- 
f erred  to  Madras  informed  the  Missionaries  that  their  services 
had  been  interrupted  and  six  had  even  been  committed  to  the 
guard  house  for  having  met  of  an  evening  for  the  worship  of  God ! 
In  the  June  previous  the  men  from  the  Mauritius  had  written  to 
say  that  they  had  been  forbidden  to  assemble  so  they  used  to 
retire  and  in  th3  open  field  commemorate  the  death  of  Christ ! 

On  the  27th  D-aoember  1811  there  was  a  disturbance  in  the 
Fort  among  the  soldiers  of  the  24th  Regiment,  but  none  of  the 
Christian  men  were  implicated.  It  would  seem  to  have  been 
about  an  increase  of  pay. 

As  a  result  no  soldiers  were  baptized  during  1811,  but  in  the 
early  part  of  1812  the  Officers  relented,  for  we  read  under  date 
of  20th  March.  "  The  men  of  the  24th  Ragiment  were  permitted 
again  to  attend  the  services." 

On  the  13th  September  1812,  eight  soldiers  were  baptized  at 
Calcutta  by  Mr.  Ward.  They  had  been  awakened  by  the  preach- 
ing of  thos3  who  went  to  the  Fort. 

We  now  come  to  the  year  1813  during  which  40  Soldiers  from 
the  Fort  were  baptized.  The  restrictions  would  seem  to  have  been 
quite  removed   for  in  February  1813  the  Missionaries  record: — 

Our  congregation  here  (Calcutta)  is  on  the  increase,  especially 
from  the  soldiers  in  Fort  William,  about  50  of  whom  sometimes 
attend  on  the  Lord's  Day  morning. 

On  the  4th.  of  that  month  Mr.  Leonard  recorded : — "  I  was 
in  the  Fort  about  sunrise  this  morning  when  I  found  Brother 
Daniel's  house  qidte  crowed  at  that  early  hour  with  persons 
•who  appeared  to  be  hungering  and  thirsting  after  the  Word." 

On    19th    March    Mr.    Leonard    wrote:     "The    Fort. is  now 

becoming  a  most  pleasing  place  without  the  shadow  of  opposition, 

'^th  a  congregation  of  about  120  most  serious  hearers,.'    I  found 

work'  among  soldiers  from  JAN.   1810  TO  DBG.    1815.         67 

examining  the  Church  Book  (which  unfortunately  is  not  extant 
the  present  day)  yesterday  that  tHe  number  wno  have  joined 

B  Church  belonging  to  His  Majesty's  24th  Foot  amounts  to  30. 

ne  of.  whom  have  given  the  least  cause  of  pain  since  they  offered 

emselves  to  the  Church." 

On  23rd  April  Mr.  Leonard  wrote :  "  One  hundred  and  two 
Idiers  had  passes  signed  by  their  Colonal  to  attend  at  the  Chapel 
jt  Sabbath  morning.  Numbers  are  looking  forward  to  joining 
e  Church." 

With    reference    to   the   concluding   remark   it   may  be   here 

&ntion3d  that  on  25th  April  5  soldiers  were  baptized,  on  27th 

ay  2,  on  27th  June  3,  on  25th  July  5,  on  15th  August  6,  on  22iid 

ugust  6,  on  31st  October  3  and  on  29th  December  1,  making  30 

On    14th    May    Mr.      Leonard    wrote:     "There  were  105  of 
e   24th   Kegiment     at  the   Chapel     on   Sabbath     morning   last, 
:clusive  of  a  goodly  number  of  wall  disposed  European  women: 

the  same  Eegiment.  The  Artillery  has  arrived  in  Fort  William 
id  begin  to  attend.  I  hope  the  Gospsl  will  have  its  course 
nonget  the  lattsr  for  they  are  in  a~most  deplorable  state." 

On     22hd     June  Mr.    Leonard  wrote:     "The  goodly  ntimber 

54  soldiers  from  the  24th  Regiment  in  the  Fort  have  now  joined 

have  baen  proposed  to  the  Church  and  about  a  hundred  and 
ty  (and  as  many  more  as  wish)  are  permitted  to  come  to  the 
lapel  on  Sabbath  days." 

On  the  9th  January  1814  the  men  of  tha  24th  Regiment  at 

irt  William  formed  themselves  into  a  separate  Church  composed 

58  members  and  chose  3  Pastors  and  6  Deacons.     Tbsse  were 

I  designated  to  their  Offices  by  the  laying  on  of  hands  on  the 

me  day,   when  Dr.    Marshman  and  Mr.    Ward  addressed  them 

the  morning  service  at  the  Chapel   on   the   duties  of  Pastoral, 

sacons  and  Church  members. 

On  th©  17th  February  Mr.  Leonard  wrote  to  Mr.  Ward  that 

e  men  from  the  Fort  informed  him  that  morning  that  they  had 

ceived  permission  from  the  Colonel,  Adjutant  and  Serjeant-Major 

hold  their  meetings  as   oft^n   as  they   pleased   in   the   publicf 

xracks  and  that  a  place  \\aA  accc^K^iugly  been  set  apart  for  this 

work.     ^Eallelujah.     Frtiisie  jp  the  Lord! 


On  the  13th  April   he    was     able     to     write     thus     to    Mr. 
Ward  ae  to  the  work  in  the  Fort : 

"In  fhe  Fort  there  are  meetings  every  morning  and  evening 
throughout  the  whole  week  either  for  prayer,  preaching  or  con- 
Buitations  upon  Church  concerns,  i.e.,  religion  may  truly  be  said 
to     be     followed      when©      Satan      once      ruled      without      the 
shadow      of      opposition      and      where      the      vilest      practices 
were     carried     on     in     the     face     of     open     day     without     a 
blush.       Our    brethren     have     the     sanction     of     the     Colonel, 
the    Adjutant,     and     the     Serjeant-Major,     to     carry     on     their 
meetings  in  the  public  barracks,  whers,  on  their  preaching  nights, 
seldom  less  than  three  hundred  hear  the  sound  of  the  Gospel,  many 
of  whom,  before  this  liberty  was  granted  by  their  much-beloved  and 
indulgent  Colonel,  would  have  shunned  a  place  of  worship  as  they 
would  a  house  wherein   a  contagious  disea^  raged.     I  shall  ven- 
ture to  add,  as  one  who  has  had  an  active  part  in  more  sieges  and 
field  engagements  than  one,  that  if  our  Brethren,  called  into  the 
Field  with  their  present  Commander  at  their  head,  were  to  see 
his  life  in  danger  they  would  form  an  imp3netrable  rampart  about 
him     who  has  stood  their  friend  in  their  heavenly  warfare,   and 
fall   to  a   man   for  his  preservation.     May   the   Lord  incline  the 
hearts  of  all  who  are  at  the  head  of  Regiments  thus  to  favor  the 
cause  of  God,  and  become  instruments  to  help  forward  the  salva- 
tion of  the  souls  of  those  over  whom  they  are  placed.     There  were 
one  hundred  and  eighty  of  the  24th  at  the  Chapel  last   Sabbath 
evening."     Think  of  that! 

In  August  1814  it  is  recorded  that  200,  or  more,  of  the  men 
used  to  gather  in  the  barriacks  for  meetings  and  that  in  the  hot 
weather  they  were  in  undress. 

On  the  25th  September  the  first  batch  of  men,  comprising 
only  two,  from  the  66th  Regiment,,  was  baptized  at  Calcutta  by 
Dr.  Carey,  but  among  them  was  Mr.  Alexander  Wedderburn,  who 
became  the  Pastor  of  the  Church  in  that  Regiment  when  it  was 
formed.  In  October  Mr.  W.  Smith,  a  discharged  soldier,  was 
taken  on  as  an  itinerant.  In  October  1815  the  77th  Regiment^ 
which  had  come  from  the  Cape,  returned  there. 

A  picture  of  the  interior  of  the  Fort  is  given  on  the  opposite 

The  redoubtabl:e  Mrs.  Wilson:   A  Hindustani  woman  op  pluck. 

The  following  is  what  Mr.  Leonard  reported  about  her  in  his 

letter  to  Mr.  Ward  dated  the  5th  March  1811  :— 

"Our  friend  Mrs.  W.  of  the  Fort,  who  invited  the  mifieion- 

.ariee  to  preach  at  her  house,  paid  a  visit  yestiarday  with  some  others 

for  the  first  time.  I  was  greatly  gratified  by  the  zealous  spirit  which 

she  evinced  as  well  as  by  her  anxiety  to  join  the  Church.     She  has 

hitherto  waited  to  se3  if  the  Lord  would  bless  her  endeavours  to 

draw  her  hus'band  into  the  right  way.     See  what  a  blessing  this 

native  woman  s^ms  to  be  to  her  European  husband.     She  was,  if 

I  mistake  not,  a  Hindoo  before  he  took  her  as  a  slave  of  the  vilest 

description.     The  man  was  Sergeant  of  Artillery  in  the  late  War 

under  Lord  Lake  and  had  an  active  part  in  most  of  the  bloody 

•conflicts  of  the  time.     This  woman's   attachment  to   her  partner 

was  so  strong  that  she  accompanied  him  in  the  heat  of  every  battle 

and  often  lent  him  a  hand  when  exhausted  and  supplied  his  place 

at  the  guns!     In  one  of  these  actions  Mr.  W.   rsoeived  a  musket 

ball  about  the  temples  which  penetrated  nearly  through  his  skull 

carrying  a  part  of  the  brass  hoop  on  his  head  along  with  it.     He 

instantly  dropped  down  to  all  appearances  dead.     She,  however, 

neither  lost,  her  fortitude  nor  her  affection   even  in  that  trying 

moment,   when,  in  addition  to  the  situation  of  her  partner,  the 

-shots  were  falling   like  hailstones  about  her  own  hsad,   she   took 

him  upon  her  back  with  the  intent  of  performing  the  last  friendly 

office,  that  of  burying  him  and  carried  him  clean  out  of  the  scene 

'  of  action.     It  pleased  God  to  restore  him,  and,  to  make  the  most 

grateful  return  he  conceived  himself  capable  of,  on  his  recovery, 

li©  made  her  his  wife." 

The  following  is  Krishna  PaVs  own  account  of  the  conversion 
of  this  remarkable  woman  under  his  preaching : — 

"  Worship  was  performed  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Thomas  Kaitan 
^or,  Cytano).  Mrs.  Wilson  used  to  come,  but  did  not  give  her 
^d  to  what  she  heard.  One  day  I  read  and  preached  from  the 
Sth  Chapter  of  John,  about  the  woman  taken  in  adultery.  Mrs 
•W.  had  formerly  lived  an  improper  life  with  an  European, 
^e  words  of  our  Lord  to  this  woman  '  Go  and  sin  no  more,'  im- 
pressed Mrs.  W.  Througji  this  word  Gk>d  turned  her  mind  and 
«he  has  since  been  baptiaed  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ.'' 


The  date  of  her  baptism  cannot  be  traced  s&  not  infrequently 
the  record  runs:  "Two  Hindustani  women  baptized,"  without 
any  names  being  given. 

And  now  for  the  sequel  regarding  the  removal  of  the  restric- 
tions through  her  instrumentality.  Mr.  Leonard  in  his  letter 
of  18th  March  1811  wrote: 

She  said  "  When  the  Europeans  and  natives  oame  to  our  house 
at  the  UBjUal  hour,  not  doubting!  but  that  they  would 
heaar  the  Word  from  the  minister  whose  turn  it  was 
to  come,  I  informed  them  that  all  was  at  an  end.  The 
Colonel  had  ordered  my  husband  to  discontinue  the  meetings 
and,  on  pain  of  his  displeasure,  not  to  allow  anything 
of  the  kind  in  future.  It  was  of  no  use  to  remonstratd, 
the  order  must  be  complied  with.  This  was  sad  news 
indeed  to  those  who  had  come  expecting  to  hear  the  Word 
of  God,  as  fully  appeared  by  the  tears  both  of  Europeans  and 
natives  who  were  particularly  affected  by  the  short  interview  and 
prayer  with  Mr.  Marshman.  They  supposed  that  this  would 
have  been  the  last  opportunity  they  would  have  of  meeting  together. 
Knowing  that  I  was  engaged  in  the  cause  of  my  Saviour  and 
trusting  to  Him  for  success,  I  this  morning  came  to  the  resolution 
of  waiting  upon  the  General  to  make  known  my  distress.  I  found 
him  engaged  in  a  conversation  with  two  Officers  but  my  business 
was  too  urgent  to  admit  of  much  ceremony  or  delay.  I  therefore 
begged  a  hearing,  which  the  General  very  kindly  granted  and 
invited  me  to  take  a  chair  and  come  out  of  the  heat  of  the  sun. 
This  I  objected  to,  telling  him  I  was  the  wife  of  a  poor  man,  and 
therefore  could  not  think  of  accepting  of  such  an  honor,  and  that 
neither  the  heat  of  the  sun  nor  even  being  burned  to  death  appeared 
a  matter  of  any  consequence  when  compared  with  the  business 
I  had  come  about. 

I  then  told  him  the  story  of  the  meeting  at  my  house  from 
the  beginning  to  the  present  time.  He  asked  me  who  preached 
there.  I  answered  the  missionaries.  But  (says  he)  you  do  not  all 
understand  English  sufficiently  to  benefit  much  by  their  preaching. 
I  told  him  that  most  of  us  understood  a  little,  and  that  the 
discourses  were  very  plain,  and  agreeable  to  the  Scriptures,  and 
besides  this  that  we  were  amply  blessed  by  being  provided  for  even 
in  case  of  our  not  understanding  English,  as  the  Bible  was  trans- 
lated into  Bengalee,  and  was  expounded  once  a  week,  in  addition 
to  English  preaching  twice.  It  pleased  God  to  grant  me  favour 
in  the  sight  of  the  General.  He  not  only  smiled  all  the  time, 
bat  expressed  his  hearty     approbation  of  what   I  had   narrated. 


granting  full  permission  to  continue  tlie  meeting,  and  promising 
that  no  one  should  interrupt  it.  I  felt  at  a  loss  for  words  to 
express  my  sense  of  this  favor.  The  business,  however, 
was  not  yet  finished.  The  Colonel  knowing  nothing  of 
my  petition,  nor  of  the  General's  answer,  I  suggested 
the  necessity  of  his  being  informed  of  it.  This  the  G>&neral 
commanded  me  verbally  to  make  known  to  him.  I  sub- 
mitted to  him,  however,  whether  a  few  lines  from  himself  would 
not  better  establish  what  lie  had  so  kindly  granted.  He  then 
wrote  a  note  requesting  the  company  of  the  Colonal  at  Head- 
quarters. This  happily  completed  my  wishes,  as  I  had  now  an 
opportunity  of  hearing  the  Coloners  objections.  I  found  these 
to  be  grounded  on  a  surmise  that  the  soldiers  met  to  get  liquor, 
and  that  my  husband  procured  it  for  them.  This  I  soon  cleared 
up  to  the  satisfaction  of  both  the  Greneral  and  the  Colonel.  The 
h^ter  then  stated  another  objection,  much  more  unexpectsd  than 
the  first,  viz.,  that  he  Rupposed  the  missionaries  and  myself  received 
money.  To  this  I  answered  that  a  house  as  large  as  that  which 
I  then  stood  in  (Headquarters)  with  a  thousand  rupses  a  month 
would  be  considered  of  no  value  when  compared  with  the  news 
of  salvation  through  a  Crucified  Eedeemer,  which  I  heard  preached 
in  my  house: — ^That  my  husband  and  myself  now  resided  in  a 
house  under  his  control,  and  were  receiving  a  salary  of 
thirty  rupees  per  month  in  his  gift,  for  all  which  we  felt 
thankful  to  him,  but  that  if  he  were  determined  to  shut  out  the 
Word  of  eternal  life  we  should  as  freely  resign  his  favor  as  we 
at  first  received  it.  After  the  latter  of  these  remarks  the  two 
gentlemen  retired  and  conversed  a  few  minutes  out  of  my  hearing. 
After  this  they  came  and  told  me  to  continue  the  meetings,  without 
the  least  apprehension  of  being  interrupted  in  future.  I  then 
expressed  my  fear  that  at  some  distant  period,  if  they  should  be 
out  of  the  way,  some  other  superior  Officer  might  interrupt  us, 
but  both  the  General  and  the  Colonel  passed  their  word  that  I 
might  be  easy  on  that  head,  and  that  the  late  interruption  was 
purely  the  effect  of  a  misunderstanding." 


The  Story  of  the  Conversion  of  Michael  Carmoody,   a  Soldier 
OF  the  24th  Regiment,  as  told  by  himself. 

The  following  letter  was  sent  by  Carmoody  to  Dr.   Carey  on 
the  26tli  March  1812.     It  is  taken  from  the  Periodical  Accounts 
and  is  given   in  ertenso  as  it  would  lose  in  force  if  curtailed.     It 
will  speak  for  itself: — 
Reverend  Sir, 

Situated  as  I  am  in  tha  Army  and  not  allowed  the  liberty 
of  waiting  upon  you  to  speak  the  sentiments  of  my  mind,  I  take 
the  liberty  of  relating  to  you  part  of  my  past  and  present  state 
of  mind  respecting  Kvine  things.  I  am  descended  from  Roman 
Catholic  parents,  and  was  always  a  strict  observer  of  the  rules  and 
customs  of  the  Romish  Church.  On  my  arrival  at  the  Cape  four 
years  ago,  I  had  some  conviction  that  I  was  not  in  the  right  way. 
My  prayer  to  God  at  that  timo  was  that  I  might  be  directed  to 
some  Roman  Catholics.  I  did  not  disclose  my  thoughts  to  any 
one,  but  would  have  done  so,  could  I  have  met  with  a  Romish 
Priest,  whom  I  very  diligently  sought  wherever  I  went,  but  it 
would  seem  from  thd  subsequent  dealings  of  the  Lord  with  me, 
that  He  determined  that  I  should  not  see  any  of  them  till  I  had 
been  brought  into  the  right  way.  I  fasted  every  Friday,  and, 
unknown  to  anyone,  I  used  to  go  to  the  mountain  at  the  Cape 
to  pray  that  I  might  be  directed  right :  and  though  I  could  not 
•  read  at  this  time  (and  if  I  had  been  able  I  durst  not  open  the 
Bible),  I  continually  carried  in  my  bosom  my  Romish  Prayer-Book, 
thinking  thsre  was  some  virtue  in  it.  I  sometimes  also  secretly 
travelled  through  the  streets  of  Cape  Town  in  hopes  of  meeting 
with  a  Priest  and  used  to  listen  at  the  houses  I  passed,  if  I  could 
liear  any  masses.  Shortly  after  this  I  fell  ill  and  was  sent  to  the 
Hospital.  I  was  during  this  illness  much  troubled  in  mind,  as 
I  was  certain  I  was  in  an  unprepared  state.  I  therefore  earnestly 
prayed  that  God  would  not  take  me  away  amongst  strangers, 
where  I  could  not  obtain  a  friend  to  teach  me  Divine  things,  nor 
yet  a  Priest  to  confess  to. 

The  thought  that  the  judgments  of  the  Lord  were  now  at 
hand  with  me  greatly  alarmed  me,  and  I  was  also  much  dejected 
at  the  idea  of  dying  in  a  strange  land,  away  from  my  parents  and 
my  friends.     When  nearly  restored  to  health  I  was  distressed  in 


mind  at  going  yet  further  from  home,  and  especially  into  a  heathen 
land.  After  recovery  I  came  out  of  Hospital,  and  though  a 
wretched  sinner  seeking  salvation,  was  overcome  by  the  temptations 
of  Satan,  and  fell  into  the  inexcusable  sin  of  drunkenness.  Aft^r 
I  got  sober,  and  had  considered  that  I  had  but  lately  experienced 
the  sparing  mercy  of  God,  my  convictions  "Secame  stronger  daily : 
and  I  looked  upon  my  past  transgressions  as  ingratitude  of  the 
woret  kind.  When  our  regiment  left  tlie  Cape  for  Bengal  I  was 
on  board  the  Astell  Indiaman  where  I  experienced  a  fresh 
instance  of  the  gracious  dealings  of  the  Lord.  We  were  ordered 
to  be  drawn  up  for  engagement*  with  the  Fraach  Frigates;  and 
I  had  such  horror  and  dread  as  I  never  felt  before, — not  that  I 
feared  to  die  for  my  King  and  country,  but  because  all  my  open 
3ja.d  secret  sins  were  brought  to  my  mind,  and  especially  my  recent 
fall  at  the  Cape.  I  expected  to  be  judged  of  God,  whom  I  dreaded 
to  meet  as  I  was  now  certain  I  was  not  in  the  right  way.  But 
the  Lord  in  His  abundant  goodness,  delivered  me  from  the  awful 
scene  of  battle  with  only  a  slight  wound.  After  the  battle  we 
landed  at  Madras,  where  I  again  searched  in  vain  for  a  Romish 
Priest.  It  would  seem,  that  it  was  ordained  by  the  God  of  our 
salvation  that  Fort  William  should  be  the  place  where  I  should 
first  hear  the  glad  tidings  of  salvation,  not  from  Priests  of  the 
Maas,  but  from  the  faithful  ministers  of  the  Gospel.  Nothing 
more  occurred  worthy  of  remark  until  my  arrival  at  Fort  William 
which  was  in  September  1810.  Here  I  again  began  to  search  for 
a  Romish  Priest  and  happening  one  day  to  see  the  Bazar  Serjeant's 
wife  witli  beads  round  her  neck,  I  was  greatly  rejoiced  in  meet- 
ing at  last  with  a  Roman  Catholic  and  felt  sure  a  Priest  could  not 
be  far  off.  I  immediately  went  up  to  her,  and  asked  her  if  I  could 
see  a  Priest  and  she  consented  to  send  for  one  into  the  garrison. 
How  she  mistook  a  minister  of  the  Grospel  for  a  Priest  of  the  Mass 
I  cannot  say,  but  instead  of  such  a  Priest  as  she  faithfully  pro- 
mised to  send  for,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Ward  and  Mr.  Leonard  came 
over  on  Friday  evening.  I  was  not  able  to  be  present  on  this 
occasion:  but  I  rejoiced  to  hear  that  they  intended  to  renew  their 
"visit  on  the  Friday  following,  which  still  left  me  some  hope  of 
meeting  with  a  Priest  of  my  profession.  I  communicated  with 
a  glad  heart  the  cause  of  my  rejoicing  to  a  great  number  of  my 

*  This  engagement  took  place  on  the  Srd  July  -1810,  when  &e  tliree 
Indiamen  Windham.  Ceylon  and  Astell  were  bringing  the  men  of  the  24th  Regi- 
ment from  the  Cape.  The  Astell  was  the  only  one  that  escaped,  the  other  two 
being  captured  by  the  French.  It  was  thouglit  at  the  time  that  the  Astell  also 
had  been  captured  bat  she  mnr'e  good  her  esca])o  at  night.  For  full  details  of 
this  engagement  see  pp.  60-62  of  Volume  XIT  of  the  Apiatio  Annual  Register 
for  the  year  1810-1811. 

74      _   THE    STORY    OP    THB    LALL-BA2AR    BAPTIST    CHUSCH.     . 

companions  in  tha  barracks,  and  especially  those  of  the  same 
religion  with  myself  which  enabled  me  to  bring  together  a  very 
good  congregation  of  Koman  Catholics.  On  our  entrance  we  were 
very  graatly  struck  at  seeing  the  Rev.  Mr.  Marshman  and  Mr, 
Leonard,  with  a  Bible  lying  upon  the  table.  We  knew  from  thia 
they  were  not  our  Priests,  and  my  companions  whom  I  had 
assembled  began  to  think  it  was  a  trick  of  mine  to  maJbe  them 
hear  the  Gospel  instead  of  Mass  for  which  alone  we  came  together. 
After  this  meeting  my  Catholic  friends  gave  me  very  abusive 
language  for  deceiving  them  as  they  thought,  but  bo  far  from  that 

1  felt  the  disappointment  more  than  any  of  them,  as  I  had  been 
earnestly  seeking  a  Romish  Priest  for  four  years  past.  Another 
meeting  was  proposed  to  be  held  on  the  Friday  following,  and  I 
was  once  more  somehow  or  other  induced  to  attend  it.  The 
Rev.  Mr.  Ward  cams  again,  with  Mr.  Leonard:  and  the  former 
discoursed  on  the  Prodigal  Son,  when  I  was  made  to  see  myself 
a  great  sinner,  one  who  had  strayed  from  God  all  his  life  time.  I 
now  for  the  first  tima  felt  a  sincere  sorrow  and  shame  for  my  past 
transgressions  and  a  desire  to  turn  to  God,  through  faith  in  His 
son  J  esus  Christ :  the  more  I  heard  of  the  Gospel  the  sweeter  it 
appeared,  and  from  this  time  I  began  to  love  to  hear  the  ministers 
of  the  Gospel,  and  to  dislike  the  Romish  Priests,  and  I  never 
before  in  all  my  life  felt  such  sweetness  in  prayer  as  now,  through 
what  I  heard  of  the  truths  of  the  Bible.  Now  and  then  my  faith 
in  the  Gospel  would  be  shaken,  because  it  was  contrary  to  the 
Romish  faith  to  hear  it,  but  I  continually  prayed  to  the  Lord  to 
teach  me  and  to  lead  me  in  the  right  way,  and  then  I  felt  easy. 
Mr.  Ward  promised  to  coms  into  the  garrison  on  the  Friday 
following,  which  he  did,  and  preached  from  Isaiah  1:18,  "Come 
let  us  reason  together,  saith  the  Lord,  etc.''  I  thought  he  said 
much  applicable  to  my  case,  and  one  thing  I  shall  ever  remember, 
that  persons  on  a  bed  of  affliction  sometimes  seek  much  the 
mercy  of  the  Lord :  but  when  they  recover  they  forget  Him  who 
was  once  so  desirable  and  begin  to  sin  again  as  they  regain  their 
strength.  This  immediately  brought  strong  conviction  to  my 
mind,  that  I  was  tha  very  person  alluded  to,  and  that  my  conduct 
at  the  Cape  was  such  as  he  had  mentioned.  I  believe  it  was  the 
Friday  following  that   Mr.  Chater  came  in,   and  discoursed  from 

2  Cor.  VI  and  part  of  the  2nd  verse.  "  Behold  now  is  the  accepted 
time,  behold,  now  is  the  day  of  salvation."  I  found  great  comifort 
from  this  discourse,  and  my  mind  began  more  and  more  to  rest 
in  the  faith  of  the  Gospel.  Mr.  Chat&r  mentioned  that  in  the 
14th  and  22nd  Regiments  there  were  many  serious  persons,  who 
when  they  first  began  to  seek  the  Lord,  could  not  read:  but  by 
practice   they   were  soon   able   to  examine  the  Word  of   God  for 


themselvcB,  he  then  advised  hie  hearers  to  do  the  same.  I  took 
the  advice,  and  the  next  day  borrowed  a  spelling-book  and  a 
Bible.  On  opening  the  Bible  I  was  onoe  more  tampted  to  desist 
from  searching  the  Scriptures  for  salvation^  but  I  sought  the 
Lord  for  direction,  and  pursued  my  study:  and,  by  the  blessing 
of  Crod  in  two  months  I  was  able  to  read  the  Word  for  myself. 
It  is  now  14  months  since  I  first  received  this  advice.  One  day, 
when  I  was  able  to  read,  I  took  up  the  Sacred  Volume,  and  the 
28th  chapter  of  Samuel  fiifit  opened  to  my  sight:  on  reading 
it  I  was  much  struck  at  the  conduct  of  Saul.  T Thought  I  alao 
was  disposed  to  forsake  the  God  of  heaven  and  earth,  and  take 
refuge  in  departed  saintei  and  images.  I  had  a  violent .  struggle 
for  four  days,  when  I  was  relieved  by  a  discouTtse  from  Mr.  Chamber- 
lain whose  text  was  from  1  Tim.  1:15.  "This  is  a  faithful  say- 
ing, and  worthy  of  all  acceptation,  that  Jesus  Christ  came  into  the 
world  to  save  sinners  of  whom  I  am  chief.*'  This  discourse,  and 
the  19th  chapter  of  St.  John,  removed  much  of  my  unbelief,  and, 
as  I  found  that  in  proportion  as  I  read  or  heard  the  Word  of  God 
and  prayed,  my  mind  became  more  and  more  fixed  and  established 
in  the  true  faith,  I  have  negelcted  no  opportunities  of  doing  eo. 

Mr.  Leonard  lately  came  into  Fort  William  and  expounded 
the  5th  chapter  of  GaJatians.  I  was  from  this  led  to  see  much 
in  me  that  did  not  accord  with  walking  in  the  Spirit,  and  also 
i>o  pray  earnestly  that  the  fruits  of  the  Spirit  might  be  shown  in 
my  walk  and  conduct.  I  have  also  derived  much  profit  from  my 
attendance  at  the  occasional  prayer  meetings  in  the  garrison,  and 
public  worship   at  the  Chapel. 

Now,  Reverend  Sir,  having  stated  in  the  best  way  I  could  the 
dealings  of  the  Lord  with  me,  I  beg  to  express  my  earnest  defin're 
to  be  admitted  into  Church-fellowship  with  the  Church  under 
your  care.  I  do  not  think  that  either  Baptism  or  the  Lord's 
Supper  are  essentially  necessary  to  salvation,  but  I  much  wish 
publicly  to  confess  that  my  hope  of  salvation  is  in  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  alone  and,  though  others  may  disregard  His  commands,  I 
wish  to  obey  them  with  a  heart  full  of  love  aiid  gratitude. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  returning  my  most  grateful  acknow- 
ledgments to  the  Baptist  Society  for  sending  the  words  of  eternal 
life  to  me.  May  the  Lord  prosper  all  that  Siey  set  their  hand  to^ 
and  may  millions  have  cause  with  me  to  rejoice  to  all  eternity  in 
the  salvation  of  God  preached  to  us  through  the  means  of  this 

I  remain,  etc., 

(Sd.)  Michael  Carmoody. 


The  Story  of  the  Conversion  of  Alexander  Wilson,  a  Soldieb 
OF  THE  24th  Regiment,  as  told  by  himself. 

The  following  is  his  experience  which  was  recorded  verbatim, 
as  received  from  himself,  by  Mr.  Leonard  and  communicated  to 
Mr.  Ward  in  his  letter  of  23rd  April  1813  in  the  Circular  Letter 
of  that  month. 

Some  time  about  the  middle  of  August  I  was  living  in  a 
desperate  state  of  wickedness,  committing  everything  ^at  waa 
^jontraxy  both  to  the  laws  of  God  and  man,  particularly  drunken- 
ness and  profane  swearing,  in  which  I  knew  no  man  my  equal 
It  was  in  this  depraved  state  the  Lord  was  pleased  to  meet  me  and 
stop  me  in  my  mad  career  and  show  me  my  error  by  the  following 
incident.  A  fellow-sinner  and  companion  in  vice  proffered  m© 
a  small  reward  if  I  would  refrain  from  damning  my  eyes  and 
limbs  for  the  space  of  three  days  (so  nauseous  was  my  conversation 
even  to  him),  which  I  readily  undertook  to  do,  not  thinking  any- 
thing serious  about  it  at  the  time,  but  within  the  abov>SnSta;ted 
time  I  began  to  reflect  upon  my  abandoned  course  of  life  per- 
ceiving that  it  was  hurtful  even  to  my  companions  in  iniquity. 
This  brought  conviction  home  so  powerfully  to  my  eoul  as  to  alarm 
me  very  much  as  I  was  then  in  a  bad  state  of  health,  and  had  been 
so  for  some  time,  which  caused  me  to  think  that  if  the  Lord  should 
be  pleased  to  call  me  hence  in  the  state  I  was  then  in  hell  must 
be  my  portion.  What  to  do  I  knew  not  for  I  had  no  Bible  ,nor 
any  other  good  book  to  read,  neither  money  to  purchase  any,  and, 
to  go  to  the  Brethren,  or  Methodists  (as  I  was  then  in  the  practice 
of  calling  them)  false  shame  preventsd  me.  However,  I  at  last 
thought  of  a  countryman  of  mine  who  had  a  Bible,  and,  knowing 
that  he  made  little  or  no  use  of  it,  I  begged  the  loan  of  it,  when 
he  immediately  asked  me  if  I  was  going  to  turn  Methodist.  I 
replied  it  was  high  time  to  turn  to  something  or  other  different 
from  what  I  was.  He  then  gave  it  me,  wishing  I  might  make  a 
good  use  of  it.  Having  had  o  knowledge  of  the  Scriptures  I  con- 
tinued to  search  them,  believing  from  what  I  had  heard,  that 
eternal  life  was  to  be  found  in  them ;  however,  finding  that  it  was 
in  and  through  what  Jesus  alone  had  done  and  suffered  that  I  was 
to  hope  for  it,  I  found  myself  at  a  great  loss  what  to  do.  I  found 
prayer  was  the  only  .means  to  draw  me  to  Him  to  which  I  was 


as  great  a  stranger  ae  any  benighted  soul  could  be.  This  and  znan^f 
other  things,  such  as  shaking  off  my  old  companions  in  vice,  the 
dreadful  thought  of  death  and  eternal  misery,  added  to  my  already 
weak  state  of  health,  brought  me  very  low  indeed,  so  much  sa 
that  I  was  compelled  to  go  into  the  Hospital.  Before  I  was  long 
in  Hospital  1  heard  the  Kev.  Mr.  Thomason  preach  from  Rev. 
22:  22: — Behold  I  come  quickly,  etc.  He  enlarged  much  upon 
death  and  judgment,  which  alarmed  me  much  and  revived  my 
convictions:  he  made  his  discourse  appear  in  so  plain  a  light  to 
me,  that  I  was  convinced,  if  I  died  without  an  interest  in  Christ 
I  must  perish  for  ever.  He  then  explained  the  plan  of  redemption, 
but  I  could  not  persuade  myself  that  Christ  would  pardon  such  a 
wicked  wretch  as  me,  but  hearing  that  all  manner  of  sin  and 
blasphemy  would  be  forgiven  those  who  sincerely  repented  and 
believed  m  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  I  experienced  much  comfort. 
At  another  time  I  heard  the  Rev.  Mr.  Thomasou  expound  the 
10th  Psalm,  showing  forth  the  real  character  of  the  ungodly,  the 
whole  of  which  so  fully  agreed  with  my  past  life  that  I  conceived 
it  all  intended  for  me  alone.  This,  however,  cast  me  into  a  state 
of  deep  dejection.  About  this  period  one  of  the  Brethren  of  the 
Baptist  Society  came  into  the  Hospital,  who  succeeded  in  reviv- 
ing my  hopes  in  Christ  again.  I  now  began  to  think  of  leaving 
the  Hospital  when  a  friend  informed  me  that  many  schemes  were 
laid  in  the  Barracks  to  effect  my  downfall.  This  caused  me  some 
uneasiness.  I  sent  word,  however,  that  I  hoped  One  would 
accompany  me  who  would  enable  me  to  withstand  all  their 
temptations.  There  were  two  of  my  old  companions  whom  I 
dreaded  more  than  all  the  rest,  but  as  soon  as  I  arrived  in  the 
Barracks  I  found  they  were  both  close  prisoners  in  the  Barrack 
Guar3.  However,  they  had  a  bottle  of  spirits  ready  for  me  an3 
put  it  into  my  hand,  which  the  Lord  enabled  me  to  resist.  From 
the  length  of  time  I  had  been  in  the  Hospital  I  had  saved  a  sum 
of  money,  and,  knowing  while  this  continued  in  my  possession,  my 
old  companions  would  haunt  me,  I  came  to  the  resolution  of  getting 
rid  of  it  immediately  by  purchasing  whatever  necessaries  I  stood 
in  need  of,  and  whatever  remained  I  spent  in  the  best  way  I  could 
devise,  as  one  means  of  escaping  temptation.  Yet  they  continued 
to  force  liquor  upon  me,  till  on  my  r&fusing  them,  they  immediately 
brought  before  me  the  wickedness  of  my  past  life,  which  caused 
me  great  confusion  of  face  knowing  they  were  talking  nothing  but 
the  truth.  Christmas  Day  being  a  period  devoted  in  the  Barracks 
to  drunkenness,  swearing,  fighting  and  every  ill,  proved  a  very 
trying  day  to  me,  for  after  I  returned  from  worship  in  Calcutta 
to  the  Barracks  I  found  the  whole  of  the  men  mad  with  liquor. 


The  moment  I  entered  I  was  beset  on  every  side  by  old  com 
panions  who  would  have  forced  liquor  down  my  tbroat  if 
possible:  however^  I  escaped  out  of  the  Barraclss  and  con- 
tinued meditating  alone  unHl  Retreat  beat,  when  I  was 
enabled  to  retire  in  peace  to  rest.  Since  that  peidod  the  Lord  has 
enabled  me  to  persevere  to  the  present  day  and  I  humbly  trust  will 
continue  His  mercies  to  me  to  the  end  of  my  life.  I  am  fully 
convinced  of  my  own  inability  to  withstand  the  least  temptation, 
but  He  is  faithful  who  has  promised  that  those  who  trust  in  Him 
shall  never  be  confounded.  My  only  hope  of  salvation  is  buiU 
on  the  grace  of  God,  through  the  crucified  Redeemer. 

He  was  baptized  at  Calcutta  by  Dr.  Carey  along  with  four 
others  of  his  Regiment  on  the  28th  March  1813. 

These  two  instances  must  sufQce  and  we  must  hasten  on  to 
■other  matters  of  interest  of  another  sort. 


•  The  general  work  carried  on  between  January  1810 
AND  December   1815. 

It  has  been  stated  in  Chapter  X  that  practically  half  the  entire 
inber  admitted  between  1800  and  1825  wera  admitted  within 
2se  six  years,  viz.,  322  out  of  660,  and  that  of  them  87  were  soldiers 
)m  five  regiments  which  had  been  stationed  at  Calcutta  within 
At  period,  so  that  338  members  have  yet  to  be  accounted  for. 
lis  it  is  not  proposed  to  do  in  detail  in  regard  to  numbers,  but 
a  general  way.  Some  may  ask  who  were  these  338  and  how 
yre  they  convsrted  and  led  to  accept  Baptist  principles? 

By  the  end  of  1809  the  names  of  nearly  200  persons  were  on 
le  Church  Roll,  most  of  whom  resided  in  Calcutta.  The  Mission- 
-ies  felt  that  they  could  not  do  justice  to  legitimate  pastoral 
ities  as  they  were  fully  occupied  themselves  and  were  extending 
le  operations  of  the  Mission,  so  in  October  1809  they  had  to  call 
it  two  of  the  resident  members  as  Deacons,  viz.,  Mr.  Adam  Gordon 
id  Mr.  Owen  Leonard  to  assist  them  in  the  ovsrsight  of  the 
lembers.  Mr.  Leonard,  too,  had  other  work  put  on  him  as  being 
le  most  suitable  man  for  it  from  March  1810  whan  he  was  appoint- 
i  one  of  the  Teachers  of  their  Charity  School  (Benevolent  Institu- 
on).  Having  been  in  the  Army  he  instinctively  took  a  deep  interest 
L  the  work  among  the  soldiers  in  the  Fort,  so  that  it  would  have 
een  as  well  if  more  Deacons  had  been  appointed  which  would 
ave  been  necessary  had  not  Mr.  Leonard  been  a  host  in  himself. 

On  26th  March  1810  the  Missionaries  in  their  Quarterly  Letter 
>  the  Society  wrote  thus: — 

"  At  Calcutta  more  than  20  are  now  inquiring  after  the  good 
ray,  nor  is  this  confined  to  one  nation  or  name — English,  Portu- 
aese  and  Bengalee,  Protestants  and  Catholics,  Hindoos  and 
iussalmans,  all  seem  to  share  the  blessings  of  salvation." 

On  the  29th  March  there  were  some  baptisms  by  Dr.  Carey 


at  Calcutta  *'  before  a  crowded  congregation.     Many  went  away, 
because  they  could  not  get  seats.*' 

A  programme  of  the  work  carried  on  at  Calcutta  is  given  in 
the  Circular  Letter  of  April  1810  which  runs  thus: — 

"  On  the  Sabbath  Day  at  the  Chapel,  besides  a  morning  prayer- 
uieeting  (which  isj  thronged)  there  is  preaching  at  8  in  Bengalee^  at 
11  in  English,  at  4  agpin  in  Bengalee,  and  at  6  and  again  at  8  in 
English — ths-  latter  sermon  by  Mr.  Forsyth.  We  also  preach 
every  Sabbath  at  the  Jail.  Besides  the  monthly  prayer-meeting, 
on  other  Monday  evenings,  there  isi  a  prayer  meeting  at  the  Chapel^ 
on  Tuesday  evening  preaching  in  Bengalee  at  6,  then  an  ex{>arience 
meeting,  and  then  the  conference.  On  Wednesday,  preaching 
in  Bengalee  at  4,  and  English  by  Brother  Carey  at  half  past  seven 
Brother  Carey  has  meetings  at  his  house  for  conversation  with 
enquirers  on  Thursday  evenings,  and  on  the  same  evening,  rather 
later,  Brother  Leonard  holds  a  prayer  meeting  at  tha  school.  On 
Friday  evenings  our  friends  have  two  prayer  meetings  in  different 
parts  of  Calcutta,  and  on  Saturdays  at  Mr.  Lindeman's." 

This  programme  was  obviously  more  than  the  three  Mission- 
aries oould  carry  out  in  addition  to  all  their  duties  at  Serampore. 
They  wanted  to  draw  out  the  latent  gifts  of  the  members  of  the 
Church  which  comes  out  in  the  following  remark  made  by  Dr. 
Marshman  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Ryland,  dated  30th  May  1810 : 

"We  inculcate  perpetually  on  the  Church  at  Calcutta  that 
God  has  converted  them,  not  merely  to  take  them  to 
heaven,  but  for  the  sake  of  their  heathen  and  Mahomedan 
neighbours,  and, — if  their  business  in  life  prevents  their 
going  out  into  the  country, — to  support,  as  far  as  they 
are  able,  such  brethren  as  God  may  stir  up  among  them 
to  devote  themselves  wholly  to  the  work.  Indeed  they 
do  it  to  the  utmost  of  their  ability  though  they  are  in  general 
a  poor  people.  Yet  the  congregation  raises  for  interest  on  their 
delDt,  for  lighting,  for  itinerant  brethren,  etc.,  little  less  than 
Rs.  300  a  month.  This,  however,  they  can  do  as  their  Pastors  put 
them  to  no  expense,  not  even  for  their  journies,  and,  I  hope,  never 
will,  till  Hindustan  is  filled  with  the  Gospel.  We  also  add  what- 
ever we  can  spare  from  our  labors,  beyond  our  own  support  and 
the  translations,  to  the  Church  Fund  for  sending  out  the  Gospel." 

This  extract  is  rather  long,  but  it  explains  how  the  Mission- 
aries were  able  to  draw  forth  the  best  talent  in  the 
Church.     Still,     the     Missionaries    set     the     members     a     living 

GENERAL  WORK  CARRIED  ON  BETWEEN  JAN.   1810  &  DEC.  1815.       81 

example  of  hard  work  as  will  be  seen  from  the  following  extract 
from  Mr.  MaBshman'3  book.  "Of  the  exltraordinary  pereonal 
labors  of  Mr.  Ward,  even  at  the  most  oppressive  season  of  the  year, 
we  have  a  description  in  his  Journal  of  the  17th  of  June  (1810). 
In  the  morning  he  received  two  soldiers  into  the  Church  on  their 
confession  of  faith,  and  then  preached  to  a  large  English  congre- 
gation in  the  Bow  Bazar  Chapel,  and  subsequently  held  a  meeting 
in  the  Vestry  to  catechise  as  many  children  as  could  be  accommo- 
dated there.  He  then  went  to  the  house  of  an  enquirer  and  pro- 
ceeded from  thenoe  to  the  gr^at  Jail,  a  distance  of  three  miles,  and 
preached  to  the  prisoners,  firat  in  English  and  then  in  Bengalee  and 
held  a  religious  serviod  with  three  soldiers  in  the  Hospital .  After  dusk 
he  went  into  the  Fort  and  addressed  a  congregation  of  soldiers  in 
a  close  and  suffocating  room.  In  the  evening  he  met  a  number  of 
friends  at  the  house  of  one  of  the  members  of  the  Church  and 
passed  an  hour  in  social  and  religious  conversation,  closing  the 
labors  of  the  day  at  ten  with  devotional  exercises.  The  only  remark 
he  makes  on  exertions  which  appear  too  severe  for  any  European 
constitution  in  a  tropical  climate  is  "  Preaching  in  black  clothes 
in  thifik  climate  is  a  sad  burden.  My  clothes  have  been  saturated 
with  perspiration  three  limes  to-day  and  the  very  papers  in  my 
pocket  are  dyed  black.  Thus  you  see,  the  heat  of  the  climate 
does  not  prevent  a  hard  day's  work." 

After  this,  some  such  entries  as  these  occur.  Dr.  Carey  bap- 
tized— in  the  presenoei  of  a  large  congregation,  or,  Mr.  Ward  bap- 
tized— before  a  crowded  congregation. 

On  the  24th  October  1810  Dr.  Carey  was  able  to  write  to  Dr. 
Ryland:  "Last  Tuesday  evening  I  had  20  persons  with  me,  all 
of  them  being  desirous  of  being  admitted  into  the  Church.  Two 
others  who  are  likeminded  were  absent.  This  is  very  encouraging. 
Indeed,  the  Lord  is  doing  great  things  for  Calcutta,  not  merely 
by  us,  but  by  others  of  his  servants.  Thoiigh  infidelity  abounds, 
yet  religion  is  the  theme  of  conversation  or  mspute  in  almost  every 

During  the  year  1810  three  promising  young  men  had  been 
sent  out  from  this  Church  into  the  Mission  field,  viz, : — 
Mr.  C.  B.  Cornish, 
Mr.  H.  Peacock, 
Mr.  A.  Petruse, 

but  xK)ne  were  sent  out  in  1811. 



On  the  29th  December  1810  six  persons  were  baptised  of 
whom  it  is  said  they  were  converted  throngb  the  Bengalee  preach- 
ing. In  January  1811  in  their  raview  for  the  preceding  year  the 
Missionaries  state  that  Calcutta  had  become  the  principal  scene  of 
labor,  and  that  it  was  there  that  the  greatest  increase  had 
been  experienced  and  that  the  prospects  of  good  were  very 
gi^at.  On  1st  February  Mr.  Leonard  wrote  to  Mr.  Ward: 
"  Appearances  continue  very  gratifying  and  promise  an  abundant 
harvest,'*  and  he  was  not  mistaken ;  for  on  31st  March  there  were 
four  baptisms,  on  30th  April  7,  on  26th  May  2,  on  30th  June  6, 
on  28th  July  6,  on  25th  August  5,  on  29th  September  6,  and  on 
27th  October  7,  and  none  of  these  were  soldiers,  as  it  has  beeo 
already  stated  in  Chapter  X  that  no  soldiers  were  baptized  in 

The  contagion  for  meetings  spread,  for  on  5th  March  it  is 
recorded :  "  The  Boys  of  the  Benevolent  Institution  have  estab- 
lished prayer  meetings  among  themselves  without  the  knowledge 
of  their  Teachers.' 

On  29th  May  Dr.  Carey  wrote  to  Dr.  Ryland :  "  We  have  every 
month  some  additions  to  ths  Church  at  Calcutta.  I  expect  to 
baptize  this  next  Lord's  Day  (which  he  did),  and  six  are  proposed 
for  the  next  month  (six  were  baptized  in  June).  About  20  others 
appear  under  hopeful,  impression.  (Some  24  were  actually 
baptia&ed).  We  preach  every  week  in  the  Fort  and  in  the  public 
prison  in  English  and  Bengalee." 

On  1st  September  Dr.  Marsbman  wrote  to  Mr.  Fuller:  "Among 
the  young  members  in  the  Church  at  Calcutta  there  are  five  or 
six  who  are  learning  the  Bengalee  and  Hindee  characters  that 
they  may  read  the  Word  of  God  to  their  heathen  servants  and 
neighbours,  and  even  the  Darwan  of  the  Chapel,  a  Native  Chris- 
tian from  Jessore,  who  is  well  acquainted  with  the  Scriptures 
which  lie  reads  incessantly,  having  much  leisure,  improves  it  in 
communicating  Divine  Knowledge  to  enquirers."  Several  young 
men  were  drawn  out  such  as  De  Bruyn,  Thompson  and  N.  Kerr. 

In  March  1812  Messrs.  Leonard  and  Thompson  were  called 
to  the  Ministry. 

In    April   1812   it   is   recorded:    "Work   was  started   by   Mr. 

Thompson   at    Barrackpore.     Several  ^persons  of    the    Begimiental 

GENERAL  WORK  CARRIED  ON  BETWEEN  JAN.   1810  &  DEC.  1815        83 

Band  ware  desiroua  of  religious  instruction,  and  one  person  having 
promised  the  use  of  his  house,  the  MiesionarieB  used  to  go  over 
early  every  Lord's  Day  moming.  Between  20  and  30  sepoys 
were  encouraged  by  an  officer  to  read  the  Hindi  Testament,  but 
the  Missionaries  wera  not  allowed  access  to  the  men." 

On  the  25th  April  Mr.  Thompson  was  set  apart  for  the  work 
of  God  at  Patna  by  prayer  and  the  laying  on  of  hands.  Dr. 
Marshman  introduced  the  service  Dr.  Gaa^ey  offered  up  the  ordina- 
tion prayer  and  Mr.  Ward  delivei^ed  a  short  address  from  Col.  4:17. 
In  May  Mr.  D'0ru2,  who  had  been  a  teacher  in  the  Benevolent 
under  Mr.  Leonard,  waa  sent  to  occupy  Goamalty  and  Mr.  De 
Bruyn  was  sent  to  Chittagong.  Mr.  Mackintosh  was  another 
member  said  he  was  sent  up  to  Agra. 

In  June  the  brig  Caravan  arrived  from  America  with  Dr. 
Judson  and  Mr.  Newell  with  their  wives,  an  event  which  was 
fraught  with  peculiar  significance  to  the  Church,  giving  it  a  name 
far  and  wide  in  America. 

During  the  course  of  June  Dum-Dum  began  to  be 
visited  by  Sebuk  Ram,  and  on  the  14th  of  that  month,  the  Rev. 
David  Brown,  of  the  Mission  Church,  one  of  the  etaunchest  friends 
of  the  Missionaries,  died  and  was  buried  in  the  South  Park  Street 

On  the  10th  August  Messrs.  Lawson  and  Johns  arrived  in 
the  Harmony,     This  event  also  bears  on  the  history  of  the  Church. 

On  the  6th  September  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Judson  were  baptized 
in  the  Chapel  by  Mr.  Ward.  There  is  a  tradition  that  Dr.  Carey 
preached  the  sermon  at  the  evening  service,  but  no  evidence  can 
be  traced  confirming  this.  On  the  27th  September  Dr.  Judson 
pr-eached  his  great  sermon  on  Christian  Baptism  and  Dr.  Carey 
baptized  6  candidates. 

On  the  25tb  October  Bev.  Luther  Rice,  one  of  the  American 
Missdcinaries,  who  came  in  the  Harmony y  informed  Dr.  Carey 
that  he  had  made  up  his  mind  to  be  baptized  and  in  acoordanoe 


with  that  request  wae  duly  baptized  by  Mr.  Ward  on  1st  November. 
This  interesting  event  had  far-reaching  results. 

Towards  the  end  of  this  year  Government  began  persecuting 
the  Missionaries  who  had  recently  arrived,  as.  they  had  no  licensds 
and  succeeded  in  driving  most  of  them  away.  Mr.  Lawson  was 
allowed  to  remain  to  complete  Chinese  punches  and  types  and  Mr. 
May  because  he  had  an  English  Congregation. 

Before  the  year  1812  had  closed  Messrs.  Mackintosh  and  W. 
Thomas,  members  of  the  Church,  had  been  sent  out  as  Missionaries. 

Sebuk  Ram  was  stationed  in  Calcutta  for  Bengalee  work, 
and  the  details  given  in  his  journals  show  how  many  services  he 
used  to  conduct  in  the  week.  He  was  quite  as  indefatigable  in 
his  labors  as  Krishna  Pal  had  been. 

On  the  27th  December  1812  a  sea  Captain,  named  John  Miliar 
was  baptized.  He  had  caught  the  contagion  in  regard  to  work 
for  the  oonv-afrsion  of  the  heathen,  for,  we  read  that  although  he 
was  68  years  of  age  yet  he  had  such  a  great  wish  to  go  out  as  a 
Missionary  among  them  that  in  spite  of  his  age  and  infirmities  he 
began  learning  Bengalee.  The  good  old  man  died,  however,  on 
13th  Augus^t  1814. 

In  February  1813  preaching     was  commenced     at  Achanak. 

On  the  7th  of  that  month  Dr.  Marshman  wrote  to  Dr.  Byland: 

"  All  the  brfethren  at  Calcutta  are  endeavouring  in  one  way  or 
another  to  recommend  the  Grospel  to  those  around  them,  ^lis 
I  esteem  a  precious  token  for  good." 

It  was  stated  in  November  1813  that  five  Native  Freachen 
were  employed  in  Calcutta,  and  in  December  that  the  indefatiable 
labors  of  Mr.  Leonard  were  crowned  with,  much  success. 

In  January  18-14  Mr.  Jabez  Carey  was  set  apart  for  his  work  in 
Amboyna,  and  in  February  Messrs.  Eeily  and  Albert  were  sent 
to  Batavia  to  assist  Mr.  W.  Eobinson. 

On  the  13th  April  Mr.  Leonard  reported  to  Mr.  Ward 
on  the  work  in  Calcutta  as  below: — 

I  embrace  an  opportunity  of  sending  a  short  account  of  the 

GENERAL  WOHK  CABRIED  ON  BETWEEN  JAN.    1810  &  DEC.    1815.     85 

present  state  of  the  good  cause  in  and  about  Calcutta.  We  have 
Doteetings  every  night  in  the  w-eek  (Saturday  excepted)  for  those 
who  understand  English,  but  as  our  private  meetings  have  been 
altered  sinc^  I  wrote  to  you  last,  it  may  not  be  superfluous  to 
particularize  the  meetings  of  each  night.  The  meeting  on  Monday 
tiight  is  held  in  the  Vestry,  which  is  frequently  pretty  well 
attended.  On  Tuesday  night  Mr.  Carey  conducts  the  conference 
in  the  Chapel  as  usual  and  preaches  on  Wednesday  evening  to  a 
pretty  full  congregation,  which  has  much  increased  during  the 
last  month.  On  Thursday,  he  receives  enquirers  and  gives  advice 
bo  any  member  who  wishes  to  call  upon  him,  and  I  am  happy  to 
Inform  you  that  a  goodly  number  of  both  descriptions  were  to  be 
seen  at  his  house  last  Tnursday. 

Hitherto  the  Thursday  night  prayer  meeting  has  been  held  at  my 
bouse,  but  the  brethren  and  sisters  (at  least  B,uch  as  have  houses 
suited  for  the  accommodation  of  a  pretty  large  party)  requested  to 
have  it  in  rotation  at  their  own  houses.  We  have  therefore  fixed  upon 
the  five  following  houses,  namely,  Brother  Ward's  (of  the  Gleneral 
Hospital),  Sister  Andrews  (who  has  a  very  large  family  and  other 
Donnections),  Mr.  and  Sister  Gatton's,  Sir.  Scott's,  and  my  place. 
We  are  pretty  well  divided  through  the  city,  therefore  are  favourel 
with  pleasing  opportunities  to  invite  a  friend  or  neighbour  to 
spend  an  hour  or  so  with  us  after  tea  and  the  busy  scenes  of  the 
day.  On  Friday  nights  we  meet  at  Brother  Gordon's  and  on 
Saturday  nights  I  go  into  the  Fort.  The  meetings  at  Gatton's, 
Andrews's  and  Gordon's  are  the  best  attended,  as  they  have  not 
jnly  the  most  extensive  acquaintances,  but  are  also  the  most 
Active  in  winning  parsons  over  to  join  them  in  these  moments  set 
a.part  for  social  worship  and  religious  converse.  Sister  Gatton 
collected  a  party  at  her  lasi  meeting  which  amounted  to  between 
10  and  50,  among  whom  I  obsarved  a  number  of  strange  faces. 
There  is  another  meeting  established  on  Friday  nights  for  the 
accommodation  of  our  brethren  and  friends  wno  reside  at  the 
Bast  end  of  the  city,  as  it  proves  very  inconvenient  to  them  to 
join  constantly,   the  distance  being  very  considerable. 

The  labors  of  the  native  preachers  are  indefatigable.  It 
would  take  a  whole  day  to  do  justice  to  a  week's  work  of  these 
men.  Sebuk  Ram  preaches  in  twenty  different  places  during  the 
week,  some  of  which  are  seven  miles  distant.  He  crosses  and  re- 
crosses  the  river  every  day.  Bhagvat  preaches  at  eleven  in  and  about 
the  town.  Naeloo  at  about  ten,  and  Manik  at  six.  The  Brethren 
Jahans,  Cathan  and  Petruse  speak  occasionally  in  other 
ijuarters  of  the  city.  The  first  four  Brethren  preach  regularly 
luring  the  weak  in  forty-seven  different  houses,   and  are  invited 


to  many  more,  but  their  time  doea  not  admit  of  their  acceptiiig 
thoee  invitations. 

To  take  a  general  view  of  CaJoutta  at  the  prsisent  day,  and  loc^ 
back  merely  at  the  short  period  of  two  yeais,  who  can  help 
wondering  at  the  vast  progress  which  the  Qoepel  has  made  amongst 
all  ranks  from  the  very  highest  to  the  loweat  orders.  It  is  no 
novelty  now  to  see  a  Bible  upon  a  European's  table,  or  for  a  Hindoo 
or  Mussulman  to  read  and  admire  that  blessed  Book,  or  for  the 
praises  of  God  to  be  sung  and  the  voice  of  prayer  to  be  heard  in 
the  families  of  the  great." 

In  October  a  number  of  friends  presented  Sebuk  Ram  with 
£10-15-0  as  a  testimonial  of  his  unwearied  labors. 

In  January  1815  the  congregation  at  the  Chapel  was  stated 
to  ba  between  200  and  300. 

In  September  1815  Mr.  Lawson  removed  from  Serampore 
to  Calcutta  and  took  up  tbe  English  work  of  the  Church,  reporting 
from  time  to  time  to  the  Serampor>3  Missionaries  the  state  of  woA 
in  place  of  Mr.  Leonard  who  was  about  to  remove  to  Dacca.  The 
work  seemed  to  Mr.  Lawson  to  be  very  encouraging.  Mr.  Eustaoe 
Carey  also  removed  to  Calcutta  and  took  up  vernacular  woi^. 

In  the  same  month  the  Serampore  Miserionaries  observed  in 
a  letter: — 

"Our  Brethren  Lawson  and  Eustace  Carey  have  chosen 
Calcutta  as  the  scene  of  their  future  labors,  and  we  hope  they 
will  be  made  a  blessing  to  this  large  city.  Brother  Lawson  went 
to  Calcutta  to  obtain  medical  aid  for  his  eldest  daughter,  and  was 
detained  there  several  months,  during  which  time^  from  a  number 
of  unforeseen  and  unexpected  events,  he  perceived  such  an  opening 
for  labor  that  he  was  induced  to  accept  the  Co-Pastorship  with 
Brother  Eustace  Carey  and  the  three  elder  Brethren." 

Extracted  from   Vol,   VI.  of  the  Periodical  Accounts, 

During  the  course  of  this  month  (October  1815)  Brother  Law- 
son  has  favoured  us  with  the  following  remarks,  which  may  ser^ 
to  illustrate  the  state  of  religion  among  the  members  at  Calcutta 
who  now  have  a  meeting  every  night  in  the  week  in  some  part  of 
the  city. 

15th  October. — "Monday  night  there  were  more  at  the  prayer 
meeting  than  I  have  seen  before,  although  it  had  not  been  announc- 
ed from  the  pulpit  on  Sabbath  Day.  Tuesday  evening  was  so 
unfavourabK^   as   it    respects   the   weather,  that*^  many   oonld   not 

GENERAL  WORK  CAHRIKD  ON  BETWEEN  JAN.    1810  k  DEO.    1815.    87 

Attend.  Last  er^iing,  at  tlie  Fort,  I  preached  to  above  two  hun- 
dred soldiers  besides  others;  a  great  many  stood  on  the  outside. 
ToHlay  the  soldieiB  are  going  to  petition  for  a  place  to  themselves. 
Iliirty  of  them  want  Bippon's  hymn  boc^:  I  have  about  two 
doien.  Please  send  down  some  more,  and  I  will  send  them 
to  the  Fort,  or  carry  them  the  next  time  I  go.  Last  night  there 
wae  a  very  ftdl  meating  aJt  Eustace  Carey  s.  It  seem^  that  nearly 
all  the  church  was  there. 

"Last  night  Eustace  and  I  went  together  into  the  Fort.  I 
suppose  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  attended.  I  preached  from 
'Be  sober.  Be  vigilant,  etc.'  Some  of  the  brethren  of  the  24th 
Begiment  have  arrived  as  invalids.  They  attended  worship  last 
evening.  This  morning  we  had  a  pretty  good  congregation  at  the 
chapel,  and  about  forty  or  fifty  frcwi  the  Fort  were  there. 

"I  hardly  know  what  to  communicate  thiii  time  respecting 
our  labour.  Tuesday  evening  I  understand  the  members  were 
very  unanimous  in  the  business  which  was  then  transacted.  The 
next  day  we  had  a  deputation  frcwi  the  Church,  communicating 
their  wishes  to  us.  We  accepted  of  their  proposal  by  word  of 
mofuih,  for  I  supposed  the  ceremony  of  a  formal  letter  was  unneces- 

"Wednesday  evening,  I  understand,  the  meeting  at  Eustace's 
was  not  quite  so  full  as  before.  But  I  think  a  place  is  full  enough 
whan  there  k  no  more  room  to  sit  down,  which  was  then  the  case. 
At  the  Fort  I  had  a  large  congregation  at  Brother  Daniel's.  They 
wpeaik.  in  the  highest  terms  of  Brother  Trowt.  I  think  they  are 
a  very  pious  body  of  men. 

"One  drcumstance  has  particularly  pleased  me  since  my 
residence  in  Calcutta:  I  have  found,  from  enquiry,  that  three  of 
our  young  people  have  for  a  long  time  past  been  in  the  habit  of 
eazTjing  on  family  worship  alternately  with  their  parents.  This 
oiglit  we  are  to  have  a  prayer  meeting  with  these  young  people  and 
any  who  like  to  attend  in  the  vestry.  We  had  no  sooner  planned 
and  mentioned  it  than  it  was  highly  approved.  It  will  be  our 
constant  aideavonr  to  lead  the  young  by  the  hand.  To  be  enabled 
to  do  tUs  the  better  we  widi  to  collect  a  number  of  good  plain 
infceroating  books,  which  we  shall  form  into  a  'Library  for  the 
Toang.'  We  doubt  not  you  will  assist  us  in  this. 
"TjmA  Sabbath  evening  at  the  Chapel  we  had  a  better  congre- 
gation than  I  have  seen  lately.  I  had  some  conversation  with  a 
yoimg  man,  who  related  to  me  his  experience,  and  whose  character 
aeems  to  be  very  hc^^eful. 

*I  muattdl  jofi  a  little  more  oonceming  what  we  are  doing. 
lAst  Friday  evening  I  had  a  pretty  good  congregation  at  the  Jail. 


After  worship  wae  over,  I  proposed  to  Brother  Gordon  and  others, 
while  we  ware  talking  that  if  every  Friday  evening  preceding  the 
Ordinance  Sabbath  were  devoted  to  particular  prayer,   it  might 
be  the  means  of  solemnizing  our  minds.     They  were  convinced  d 
the  propriety  of  such  a  plan,  and  we  shall  act  upon  it.     If  any 
address    be    given,     it  will  bear  particularly  upon     the     subject. 
Saturday  evening  the  vestry  room  was  nearly  full.     Sabbath  morn- 
ing I  went  to  the  Jail  to  preach,  and  had  a  considerable  number 
to   hear.     They   arc  building  a   very   handsome  place   of  worship 
there.*     In  the  evening  I  preached  to  the  soldiers  in  the  Fort. 
The  Colonel  has  given  them  a  better  place  of  worship  than  th&y 
have  ever  had  before.     It  is  spacious  and  airy,  but  still  so  crowded 
that  many  stand  without.     Our  brethren  tall  us  that  the  Colonel 
sent  his  compliments  to  the  Missionaries  and  requested   them  to 
come  to  the  Fort  every  Sabbath  morning  to  preach  a  sermon  to  the 
soldiers,  as  it  would  prevent  them  from  walking  out  in  the  heat 
of  the  sun.     To-day  I  have  sold  all  the  hymn  books  in  my  posses- 
sion, and  should  ba  very  glad  if  you  would  send  down  more.     The 
soldiers  want  to  form  a  little  library  amongst  themselves,  which 
may  be  very  useful  to  them :  they  have  collected  about  one  hundred 
rupees,  and  if  you  have  any  books  at  Serampore  that  would  suit 
them,  they  would  be  glad  to  purchase  them." 

Extracted  from  Vol.   VI,  of  the  Periodical  Accounts. 

The  following  is  a  letter  from  the  brethren  of  the  72nd  Eegi- 
ment  to  Brother  Lawson  on  their  departure  from  Fort  William: — 

Fort  William,  4th  November  1815. 

"Reverend  Sir, — We  with  grateful  hearts  return  you  thanks 
for  the  many  blessed  sermons  that  we  have  heard  from  you  and 
your  brethren  of  the  Mission  in  this  place.  We  are  led  to  believe 
that  your  ministry  has  done  much  good  among  us ;  it  has  been  the 
means,  through  the  influence  of  the  Spirit,  of  convincing  some  of 
the  hardened  sinners  of  this  regiment  of  the  necessity  of  coming 
to  Christ  for  salvation  and  of  building  up  and  comforting  those  who 
have  already  embraced  the  glorious  Gospel  of  our  dear  Redeemer. 

"Now  our  humble  prayers  are  that  the  Lord,  the  King  and 
Head  of  His  Church,  may  grant  that,  while  you  are  employed  in 
His  service,  you  may  have  the  comfort  of  His  Holy  Spirit  and 
heavenly  grace;  that  you  may  have  the  peace  of  Grod  that  passeth 
all  understanding,  keeping  your  hearts  and  minds  through  Christ 


*  No  further  information  can  be  traced  about  this  handsome  place  of 
worship.       .     . 

GENERAL  WORK  CARRIED  ON  BETWEEN  JAN.  1810  &  DEC.  18]  5.      89 

Jesus;  that  you  and  the  brethren  of  the  Mission  may  have  great 
succeGiB  among  the  Heathen  in  this  country ;  that  the  Lord  may  add 
daily  to  His  Church  such  as  shall  be  eternally  saved  and  that  the 
time  may  soon  come,  when  ths  knowledge  of  the  Lord  shall  cover 
the  earth  as  the  watdrs  cover  the  great  deep;  when  all  nations, 
kindreds,  and  tongues,  shall  join  in  one  universal  song  of  praise^ 
to  the  Lamb  that  sits  on  the  throne,  and  crown  him  Lord  of  all. 

"  Now  since  it  hath  pleased  the  Lord,  of  his  infinite  wisdom 
and  providence,  to  call  us  once  more  to  see  his  marvellous^  works 
in  the  great  deep,  we  sand  this  to  you,  as  a  small  tribute  of  our 
gratitude  for  your  labour  among  us  since  we  came  to  this  place, 
and  may  the  Lord  reward  you  an  hundredfold  in  this  life,  and 
give  you  a  crown  of  righteousness  in  that  day,  when  they  that  turn 
many  to  righteousness  shall  shine  as  the  stars  for  ever  and  ever. 

"  Signed  in  the  name  and  on  behalf  of  the  Church  in  the 
72nd  Kegiment, 

(Sd.)     David  Long,   Elder." 

Extracted  from  Vol.   VI.  of  the  Periodical  Accounts. 

5th  November  1815. — On  the  last  Sabbath  in  this  mouth,- 
Susanna  Mayo,  Benjamin  Holland  and  Hugh  Kiely  of  the  29tb 
Kegim&nt,  quartered  in  Fort  William,  were  received  into  the 
Church  at  Calcutta  by  Mr.  Lawson.  He  has,  at  different  times, 
communicated  the  state  of  things  at  Calcutta  as  follows: — "Last 
evening  and  this  morning,  I  preached  in  the  Fort  to  a  pretty  good 
number  of  soldiers ;  but  the  place  is  naked  now,  our  Cape  brethren 
have  departed.  The  brethren  told  me,  last  night,  that  every 
Sabbath  morning  at  six  o'clock  the  whole  regiment  is  drawn  up 
into  a  square,  and  divine  worship  performed  according  to  the  rule 
of  the  Church  of  England;  and  they  suppose  this  regulation  to 
have  proceeded  from  the  desire  which  many  manifested  to  attend 
the  means  of  grace  in  Calcutta. 

"Our  missionary  prayer  meeting  was  pretty  well  attended 
last  Monday  evening.  Last  evening  but  few  attended  th^  lecture 
at  the  Chapel.  This  evening,  Eustace's  room  was  but  about  half 
full:  Eustace  preached  at  the  Fort;  the  congregation  increases 
there.  We  have  to  mourn  that  our  Calcutta  meetings  rather 
decline;  but  we  do  not  despond.  We  see  more  than  evef  that 
all  our  help  must  come  from  Grod.  It  is  ours  to  labour,  and  His 
to  bless. 

"  I  have   no  particular   news  to  communicate   this    week.     I  . 
hope,  and  believe,  that  there  is  a  little  revival  amoijg  jouv  people. 


.'Several  new  faces  I  occasionally  see  at  our  different  meetings.  Last 
Monday  the  vestry  rooms  were  well  filled,  and  some  sat  in  Chapel. 
Last  evening  Mrs.  Andrews'  room  was  very  well  attended  indeed. 
Threa  blind  men  were  there,  who  had  travelled  a  good  distance 
to  come  among  us.  I  see  them  very  regular  in  their  attendance 
at  the  Chapel.     Our  brethren  in  th©  Fort  are  going  on  very  well." 

"15th  December. — Brother  Lawson  says: — ^We  are  very  low 
when  we  consider  th&  state  of  things  at  Calcutta,  where  some 
members  have  walked  irregularly  for  want  of  more  constant  in- 
spection; but  I  hope  we  shall  be  able  to  labour  unremittingly. 
There  is  comfort  in  trying  to  advance  tfie  cause  of  our  Redeemer 
even  though  our  attempts  should  prove  unsuccessful.  We  are 
gratified  to  see  new  facas  occasionally  at  our  meetings." 

Here  tlie  narrative  for  this  period  must  close  and  the  account 
•of  the  co-pastorship  of  Revs.  John  Lawson  and  Eustace  Carey  witii 
:the  three  Elder  Brethren    (eft  for  another  chapter. 

1  Rev.  Dr.  Adonibam  and  Mrs.  Ann  Hasseltene  Judson. 
F  IB  not  intended  to  give  a  detailed  biographical  acoount  of 
•f  th^se  remarkable  aervante  of  God  as  that  would  swell  out 
arrative  to  an  inordinate  length.  But  as  we  are  most  con- 
l  with  the  incidents  relating  to  their  change  of  sentiment 
ard  to  the  Ordinance  of  Baptism,  prominence  will  be  given  to 
Dr.  Judson 's  baptism  being  a  theme  of  great  interest  to  all 
lean  Baptists  who  visit  Calcutta. 

Portrait  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Jxtdson  at  the  aoe  of  28. 
?y  kind  'permusion  of  the  American  Baptist  Missionary  Union,) 
hey  were  both  American.  He  was  born  on  9th  August 
aind  she  on  22nd  December  1789  so  that  there  was  not  any 
disparity  in  age  between  them,  and  they  were  both  from  the 
of  Massachusetts.  The  Doctor  graduated  at  Brown  Univer- 
1  1807  and  in  the  latter  part  of  1808  was  admitted  into  the 
ary  at  Andover.  Mrs.  Judson  was  educated  at  the  Academy 
adford.  The  latter,  early  in  her  religious  life,  showed  her 
to  be  useful  to  others  by  engaging  herself  in  the  occupation 
tructing  a  school  in  New  England  impelled  mainly  by  that 

She  was  afterwards  engaged  for  several  years  in  teaching 

lools  in  Salem,  Haverhill  and  Newbury.     Dr.  Judson  during 

last    year    of     his    residence    in     the     Andover     Seminary 

in     1810)     met     with     the     Rev.     Claudius     Buchanan's 



0erzuon  entitled  "the  Star  in  the  East."  This  first  led 
his  thoughts  to  Eastern  Missions  and  hd  was  deeply  impressed  with 
the  importance  of  making  some  attempt  to  rescue  the  perishing 
millions  of  the  East,  so  in  February  1810,  he  resolved  to  be  a 
Missionary.  He  now  imbibed  largely  that  spirit  which  had 
for  several  years  been  glowing  in  the  breasts  of  Nott,  Hall,  Mills, 
Eichards,      and  Eice.     There   being  no  Missionary     Society     in 

Portrait  or  Mrs.  Ann  H.  Jxjdson,  who  was  baptized  in  thb  Chapel  with 

Dr.  Jtjdson. 

America  to  which  they  could  look  for  assistance  and  direction. 
Judson  wrote  in  April  1810  to  the  Directors  of  the  London  Mission- 
ary Society,  explaining  his  views,  and  requesting  infoamation  on 
the  subject  of  Missions.  He  received  a  most  encouraging  reply, 
and  an  invitation  to  visit  England  to  obtain  in  person  the  neces- 
sary information.  These  students  while  in  the  Goll^e  had  formed 
a  Missionary  Society  and  they  were  accustomed  to  meet  together 
at  night  beneath  a  haystack  near  the  College  grounds.  On  the  27th 
June  they  addressed  the  Association  of  Congregational  Churches 
at  Bradford  and  the  letter  is  signed  by  Judson,  Nott,  Mills  and 


Newell  the  names  of  Luther  Rice  and  Eichards  being  struck  out 
for  fear  of  alarming  the  Association  with  too  large  a  number  of 

Dr.  Judson  sailed  for  England  on  11th  January  1811  in  the 
English  ship  Packet  which  was  captured  on  the  way  by  a  French 
Privateer  and  was  subjected  to  imprisonment  and  compulsory 
detention  in  France.  He  reached  London  on  the  6th  of  May 
and  the  Directors  of  the  London  Mission  give  him  a  most  courteous 
and  affectionate  greeting,  but  the  joint  conduct  of  the  Mission 
did  not  seem  practicable  to  them.  They  were  willing  to  receive 
and  support  Judson  and  his  associates  as  their  own  missionaries, 
but  did  not  feel  ddsposed  to  admit  the  American  Board  to  a  parti- 
cipation with  them  in  the  direction  of  the  work.  On  the  18th 
June  he  embarked  at  Graveeend  for  New  York  which  he  reached 
on  27th  August,  from  which  it  will  be  seen  that  he  was  scarcely 
six  weeks  in  England. 

On  the  18th  Septembsr    the    American     Board     of  Commis- 
sionei^  for  Foreign  Missions  met  at  Worcester,  Massachusetts  and  ' 
advised  him  and  his  associates  not  to  place  themselves  at  present 
under  the  direction  of  the  London  Missionary  Society.     It  was 
aJso  voted  that: 

"  Messrs.  Adoniram  Judson,  Jr.  (his  father  s  name  was 
also  Adoaiiimn  Judson),  Samuel  Nott,  Jr.,  Samuel  Newell,  and 
Gordon  Hall  be  appointed  missionaries  to  labour  under  the  direc- 
tion of  this  Beard  in  Asia,  either  in  the  Burman  Empire,  etc." 
Thus  was  Judson's  way  opened  to  realize  his  ardent  desire  to 
become  a  missionary  to  the  heathen.  During  the  sessions  of  the 
Association,  Judson  met  Miss  Ann  Hasseltine,  as  the  ministers  used 
to  meet  for  dinner  under  her  father's  hospitable  roof.  Sha  was 
the  youngest  daughter  but  Dr.  Judson  proposed  to  her  to 
accompany  him  in  his  miscobnary  enterprise.  She  had  no  example 
to  guide  her  and  all  her  advisers  discouraged  her,  but  she  over- 
came an  obstacles  and  decided  to  go,  so  they  were  married  on 
5th  February  1812  at  Bradford. 

The  Gazette,  a  Salem  Newspaper,  for  January  31st,  1812, 
contained   a   Notace of  a  Missionary  Ordination  to  beheld  on  the  6th 



February,  which  was  signed  by  Banmel  Worcester,  tbe  first  Secre- 
tary of  the  American  Board.  It  stated  that  Adoniram  Judaotir 
and  the  others^  are  to  be : 

"'  Set  apart  by  fioleinji  Ordinance  as  Christian  Misaionarries 
bo  carry  the  Gospel  of  Salvation  to  the  Heathen,  The 
public  <?xei-cise3  are  to  be  hoi  den  at  the  Tabernacle  in  the 
town  and  to  commence  at  11  o'clock  A.M.  A  collection  mil 
he  made  on  the  occasion  in  aid  of  ths  Mission,  which,  to  embrace 
a  very  unexpected  opportunity  for  oonvsyance  to  India,  is  bow 
fitting  out  with  all  possible  dispatch/' 

The  ordination  duly  came  off  on  the  6th  February  when  the 
Eevs.  Drs.  Spring,  "Worcester,  Woods,  Morse  and  Griffin  took  part 
in  the  service  laying  hands  on  Messrs*  Judson,  Newell,  Nott,  Gordon 
Hall  and  Luther  Rioe  B&  shown  in  the  picture  h€low : 

Thk    Oboinatjon   Sbevick   of    THji    FiYhi    MissiONAftiESi    Jtjbsoit,    Nhwbll, 

NuTT,  Gordon  Rall  .wn>  Rice. 

iBy  hind  jjermiwdmi  of  the.  American  BaptUt  MUsionary  Unitm,) 


The  brief  raport  in  the  Gazette  merely  said :  *'  The  audience:^ 
was  crowded,  the  performancds  solemn  and  impressive  and  the  con 
tribution  in  aid  of  the  mission  munificent/'  viz.,  221  dollars. 
Dr.  Grifi&n  offered  the  introductory  prayer,  Dr.  Woods  preached 
the  sermon.  Dr.  Morse  offered  the  consecrating  prayer,  Dr.  Spring 
gave  the  charge,  and  Dr.  Worcester  gave  the  right  hand  of  fellow- 

On  the  19th  February  1812  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Judson  and  Mr. 
and  Mic^.  Newell  sailed  from  Salem  in  the  Brig  Caravan  (Captaia 
Heard)  bound  for  Calcutta,  regarding  which  the  following  notice 
appeared  in  the  Gazette:  ''On  Tuesday  last  sailed  from 
this  port  the  Brig  Caravan,  Heard,  for  Calcutta.  Passengers 
Rev.  Messrs.  Adoniram  Judson  and  Samuel  Newell,  Missionaries 
to  India^  with  their  ladies:''  A  picture  is  given  below  of  the 
Uaravan  for  the  double  reason  tbat  it  was  the  sister  ship  to  the 

Sketch  of  the  Bmg   "Cahavan"   in  which  Db.   and  Mrs.  Judson  ant> 

Mb.  and  Mrs.  Newell  came  out  to  India  in  1812. 

(By  kind  permission  of  the  American  Baptist  Missionary  Union,\ 


Harmony  which  belonged  to  the  same  owner,  Mr.  Eobert 
Ralston,  of  Philadelphia,  and  which  carried  Messrs.  Nott,  Hall 
and  Kice,  in  addition  to  Messrs.  Lawson  and  Johns,  B.  May  and 
Miss  Green. 

We  now  come  to  the  crucial  period  in  the  lives  of  this  remark- 
able couple,  viz.,   the  change  in   their  sentiments  on  the  subject 
of  baptism.     The  facts  may  be  thus  summarized  from  tbe  letters 
of  Mrs.   Judson.     The  examination  of  the  subject  began  on  the 
Caravan  whila  taking  the  long  voyage  from  America  to     India. 
Before  embarking  Dr.    Judson  had  commenced    a   translation  of 
the     New     Testament     and    continued    it     during     the     voyage. 
While     so     translating     he     used    frequently    to    say     to    Mrs. 
Judson  that  the  Baptists  were  right  in  their  mode  of  administer- 
ing the  Ordinance.     He  had  many  doubts  respecting  the  meaning 
of  the  word  Baptism.  This,  with  the  idea  of  meeting  the  Baptists 
at  Serampore  ,when  he  would  wish  to  defend  his  own  sentimentfi, 
induced  a  more  thorough  examination  of  the  foundation  of  the 
Paedobaptist  system.     The  more  he  examinad  the  more  his  doubts 
increased,  and,  unwilling  as  he  was  to  admit  it,  he  was  afraid  the 
Baptists  were  right  and  he  wrong .    After  they  had  arrived  in  Calcutta 
ion  the   18th  June,   the  very  date  on  which  President   Madison, 
of  the  United  States,   declared  war  against    Great    Britain,    his 
attention  was  turned  for  about  two  or  three- weeks  from  the  subject 
of  Baptism  to  the  concerns  of  the  Mission  and  the  difficulties  with 
JGU>vernment.     But  as  his  mind  was  still  uneasy  he  a^ain  renewed 
the  subject.     Mrs.  Judson  was  afraid  he  would  become  a  Baptist 
so  she  frequently  urged  the  unhappy  consequeiices  if  lie  shoxdd, 
but  he  replied  that  duty  compelled  him  to  satisfy  hie  own  mind 
and  embrace  those  sentiments   which  appeared  most   concordant 
with  Scripture.     She  always  took  the  Paedobaptisjb  side  in  reason- 
ing with  him  even  after  she  was  as  doubtful  of  the  truth,  of  tbeir 
system  as  he  was.     She  tried  to  get  him  to  give  up  the  enquiry 
and  re§jb  satisfied  in  his  old  sentiments  and  frequently  told  Wm 
that  if  he  became  a  Baptist  she  would  not.     He,  however,  replied 


that  he  felt  it  his  duty  to  examine  closely  a  subject  on  which  he 
had  so  many  doubts.  All  this  occurred  during  the  period  of  their 
residence  in  Serampore  in  June  and  July  1812.  About  a  week  or  two 
before  the  arrival  of  their  fellow-laborers  in  the  Harmony,  they  left 
Serampore  and  came  to  live  in  Calcutta  and  put  up  in  the  house 
of  Mr.  Holt,  the  Architect  of  the  Chapel,  and  as  they  had  nothing 
particular  to  occupy  their  attention  they  confined  it  exclusively  to 
the  subject  of  Baptism.  They  found  in  the  library  in  their  room 
many  books  on  both  sidcBi  which  Dr.  Judson  detarmined  to  read 
candidly  and  prayerfully  and  to  hold  fast  or  embrace  the  truth, 
however  mortifying  or  however  great  the  sacrifice.  Mrs.  Judson 
now  commenced  reading  on  the  subject  with  all  h^r  prejudices  on 
the  Paedobaptist  side.  They  had  with  them  Dr.  Worcester's, 
Dr.  Austin's,  Peter  Edwards'  and  other  Paedobaptist  writings 
They  procured  the  best  authors  on  both  sides,  compared  them  with 
the  Scriptures,  examined  and  re-examined  the  sentiments  of 
Baptists  and  Paedobaptists  and  were  finally  compelled  from  a  con- 
viction of  truth  to  embrace  the  former  after  closely  examining  the 
subj-ect  for  several  weeks  and  constrained  to  acknowledge 
that  the  truth  appeared  to  lie  on  the  side  of  the  Baptists. 
It  was  exceedingly  trying  to  reflect  on  the  consequence  of  their 
becoming  Baptists.  The  most  painful  circumstance  attending  the 
change  was  the  separation  which  must  necessarily  take 
place  between  them  and  thedr  missionary  associates  and 
their  Christian  friends  in  America.  Thsy  knew  that 
they  might  find  themselves  without  food  in  a  heatEen 
land,  for  how  could  the  Baptists  of  America  who  were 
feeble,  scattered  and  despised  undertake  to  support  an  expensive 
mission  in  distant  India.  Such  things  wera  very  trying  to  them 
and  caused  their  hearts  to  bleed  for  anguish,  but  Dr.  Judson's 
character  was  of  too  positive  a  kind  to  afiPect  a  compromise  between 
conviction  and  action. 

As  a  consequence,  on  the  27th  August  1812,  he  wrote  the  follow- 
ing fetter  which  is  taken  in  extenso  from  the  Circular  Letter  of 
September  1812:— 



Calcutta,  27th  August,  1812. 

To— The  Rev.   Messrs.  Carey,   Marshman  and  Ward. 

Sirs, — As  you  have  been  ignorant  of  my  late  exercises  of  mind 
on  the  subject  of  Baptifni  this  communication  may  occasion  you 
some  surprise. 

It  is  now  about  four  months  since  I  took  the  subject  of  Bap- 
tism into  serious  and  prayerful  consideration.  My  enquiries  com- 
menced during  my  voyage  from  America,  and,  after  much  painful 
trial,  which  I  will  not  now  detail,  have  issued  in  the  entire  con- 
viction, that  the  immersion  of  professing  believers  is  the  only 
Christian  Baptism. 

In  these  exi^rcises  of  mind  I  have  not  been  alone :  Mrs.  Judeon 
has  been  engaged  in  a  similar  examination  and  has  come  to  the 
same  conclusion.  Feeling,  therefora,  that  we  are  in  an  un baptized 
state,  we  wish  to  profess  our  faith  in  Christ  by  being  baptized  in 
obedience  to  His  commands. 

(Sd.)  A.  JuDSON. 

On  tlie  31st  August  1812  he  sent  a  copy  of  the  above  letter  to 
Dr.  Baldwin,  an  influential  Baptist  Minister  at  Boston  under 
cover,  of  a  few  liiici  exprc^.'Hing  his  grateful  acknowledgmsnts  to  him 
for  the  advantage  he  had  derived  from  his  publications  on  Baptism. 

Th:n  lie  wrote  tn  the  American  Board  sending  them  a  ccpyof 
the  above  letter  to  Dr.  Carey  informing  them  that  ha  ceased 
to  be  their  missionary.  He  sent  a  further  letter  on  1st  September 
to  Dr.  Baldwin  announcing  his  change  of  views  on  this  subject 
and  added :  "  Should  there  be  formed  a  Baptist  Society 
for  tha  support  of  a  mission  in  these  parts,  /  shall  be  ready  to  con- 
sider mifsdlf  their  Missionarj/,"  and  enclosed  in  it  a  letter  from 
Dr.  Marshman  urging  the  Baptist  Ministers  to-  move  in  the  matter. 

On  1st  September  1812,  Dr.  Judson  wrote  to  Dr.  Bolles,  of 
Salem,  reminding  him  of  a  short  interview  he  had  had  with  him 
in  Salem  at  which  he  had  suggested  tha  formation  of  a  Society 
among  th^  Baptists  of  America  for  the  support  of  foreign  missions 
in  imitation  of  the  exertions  of  the  English  and  informing-  him 
that  he  expi^cted  to  be  baptized  next  Lord's  Day. 

AcGOtdingly,  on  the  6th  September  1812,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Judson 


were  baptized  in  thia  Chapel  by  Mr.  Ward,  the  record  regarding 
which  runs  thus  in  the  Circular  Letter  of  September  1812 : — 

On  the  6th  instant  were  baptized  at  Calcutta,  by  Brother 
Ward,  the  Bev.  Adoniram  Judson  and  Mrs.  Judson.  Dr.  Judson 
was  sent  out  as  a  Missionary  by  the  American  Board  of  Commis- 
sioners for  Foreign  Missions  formed  from  Congregational  Churches 
in  the  States  of  New  England,  and  a  few  days  before  his  baptism 
sent  us  the  following  note : — 

(Here  follows  the  letter  of  27th  August  1812.) 

Brother  Judson  is  at  present  under  agreement  with  Govern- 
ment to  proceed  to  the  Isle  of  France. 

On  the  20th  October  1812,  Dr.  Carey  wrote  to  the  Rev.  John 
Williams  in  detail  about  the  baptism  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Judson 
a-nd  about  Mr.  Rice  thinking  closely  on  the  subject.  A  copy  of 
this  lett&r  which,  is  taken  from  the  "  Unpublished  Serampore 
letters: — New  York,  and  London,  1892," — is  given  below  as  the 
details  are  so  interesting. 

My  dear  Brother, — It  is  a  long  time  since  I  wrote  to  you.  My 
numerous  avocations  must  be  Miy  apology,  and  indeed  this  apology 
is  the  true  one  for  want  of  will  is  not  the  cause.  I  shall,  however, 
now  write  you  a  short  note  to  make  amends  for  my  long  silence, 
and  request  a  continuance  of  your  correspondence. 

You  as  well  as  myself  are  acquainted  with  the  circumstances, 
•of  five  brethren  having  been  sent  from  America  to  begin  a  mission 
in  thd  East.  They  have  all  safely  arrived  at  this  place.  Govem- 
meut,  however,  have  absolutely  refused  to  let  them  stay  here, 
a.nd  have  peremptorily  ordered  them  to  leave  tha  place,  and  not  to 
settle  in  any  country  belonging  to  Great  Britain  or  her  allies.  We 
Ibave  tried  our  interest,  but  have  succeaded  no  further  than  to  gain 
permi^ion  for  them  to  go  to  the  Isle  of  France,  to  which  place 
Brother  and  Sister  Newell  went  before  the  arrival  of  the  othet  three. 
It  soon  appeared  that  the  mind  of  Brother  Judson  had  been  much 
employed  upon  the  subject  of  believar's  baptism  and  in  a  little 
while  after  his  arrival,  he  and  Sister  Judson  wished  to  be  baptized, 
with  which  we  complied,  and  thay  were  both  baptized  publicly  at 
Calcutta  in  the  name  of  the  Blessed  Trinity.  I  enquired  of  Brother 
JudBon  what  could  have  induced  him  to  take  this  step  to  wlSch  he 
replied  that  on  his  voyage  he  thought  much  of  the  prospect  of 
meeting  with  us  at  Serampore.     Hs  knew  that  we  were  Baptists, 


and  supposed  that  he  might  probably  be  called  to  defend  infant 
baptism.  This  led  him  to  examine  the  evidence  for  it^  and  the 
further  he  proceeded  in  this  examination  the  clearer  the  evidence 
for  baptizing  believers  only,  and  tKat  by  immersion,  appeared. 
He  frequently  convi-rsed  with  Mrs.  Judson  upon  the  subject  which 
was  the  occasion  of  her  thinking  as  he  did  upon  that  Ordinance. 
Since  his  baptism  he  preached  a  very  excellent  discourse  upon  the 
Ordinance  which  wa.  intend"  to  print,  with  an  account  of  the  change 
in  his  views  in  his  own  words. 

Since  his  baptism,  I  hear  Brother  Rice  has  been  thinking 
closely  upon  the  subject,  and  to-night  I  was  informed  that  he  had 
made  up  his  mind  to  follow  our  Lord  in  His  Ordinanca.  He  dis- 
putes the  matter  with  his  other  Brethren,  and  it  is  difficult  to 
say  what  will  be  the  effect' of  his  conversations. 

Now,  what  IS  to  be  done,  Brethren !  They  expect  to  be  3ifr 
carded  by  the  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Oriental  Missions.  We 
shall  advance  then  temix)rary  supplies,  but  we  are  not  able  to 
invite  them  to  b3come  Missionaries  for  the  Baptist  Missionary 
Society  without  first  writing  to  England  and  receiving  our 
brethren's  consent.  Our  Brethren  Judson  and  Rice  would  also 
be  glad  to  be  American  Missionaries. 

Cannot  our  Baptist  Brethren  in  America  form  a  Missionary 
Society  either  auxiliary  to  our  Society  in  England  or  distinct  from 
it,  as  may  appear  most  eligible,  and  take  these  brethren  as  their 
Missionaries  ?  I  believe  they  ara  of  the  right  stamp.  They  intend 
to  settle  eventually  on  the  Island  of  Java;  but  must  first  go  to  the 
Isle  of  France,  en  account  of  tli3  orders  of  Government.  One  of 
our  brethren  is  also  going  thither,  viz.,  to  Java.  We  will  give  them 
advice  and  everything  else  within  our  power. 

I  think  this  circumstance  opens  a  new  scene  of  duty  to  our 
Baptist  brethren  in  America:  and  though  I  am  persuaided  that 
their  proper  sphere  of  action  is  among  the  Indians  of  North  and 
South  America,  and  in  the  West  Indian  Islands,  yet  thisi  extra- 
ordinary call  should   not  be  lightly  passed  over. 

The  Lord  is  still  carrying  on  his  work;  about  20  are  now 
expecting  to  join  the  Cfhurch  at  Calcutta,  and  to  be  baptized  in  a 
month  or  two  mora. 

I  am,  very  affectionately    yours, 

(Sd.)  W.  Carey. 

Calcutta,  SOfh  October  1812. 


Below  id  a  facsimile  of  Dr.   Carey's  handwriting  taken  from 
tlie  foregoing  l>etter. 


On  receipt  of  Dr.  Judson's  communication,  Dr.  Baldwin  and 
the  other  ministers  at  Boston  sent  out  the  following  Circular,  dated 
23rd  March  1813,  to  other  Baptist  Ministers  at  New  York  and 
elsewhere,  which  is  also  taken  from  the  Unpublished  Serampore 
letters : — 

Boston,  23rd  March  1813. 

Dear  Brethren, — By  the  arrival  of  tha  Reayer  in  this  Port, 
last  Saturday,  from  India,  letters  have  been  received  from  several 
of  our  friends  in  Calcutta,  particularly  from  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Judson, 
Dr.  Marshman  and  Mr.  Rio^.  The  latter  like  Mr.  Judson,  haa 
been  constrained  to  examine  the  subject  of  Christian  Baptism  and 
has  come  to  the  same  result.  He  was  not  baptized  on  22nd  October, 
but  expected  to  be  soon. 

This  change  of  sentiment,  he  has  stated  (as  he  informs  us)  to 
Dr.  Worcester,  the  Secretary  of  the  Board  of  Commissioners  for 
Foreign  Missions.  Ha  has  also  concluded  by  the  advice,  or  in 
concurrence  with  the  Baptist  brethren  at  Serampore,  to  go  with 
Mr.  Judson  to  the  Island  of  Java.  Dr.  Marshman  and  both  of 
thd  above  brethren  unite  in  urging  the  formation  of  a  Baj^tist 
Mission  Society  in  this  country,  in  order  to  take  up  these  brethren 
and  direct  and  support  them  independently  of  our  English 
brethren,  or  as  an  auxiliary  to  the  Baptist  Society  in  England. 

The  events  which  have  taken  place  in  relation  to  the 
foregoing     missionaries,     are  highly     interesting     and  important. 


The  voice  of  Divine  Providence  in  them  seems  loudly  to  call  for 
our  speedy  attention  and  assistance.  We  huve  already  two  Socie- 
ties formed,  as  you  will  perceive  by  the  accompanying  Circidar, 
which  have  this  objective  view.  But,  dear  brethren,  we  want  your 
advice  and  assistance.  We  would  gladly  engage  all  our  Churches 
throughout  the  United  States  in  this  great  work  of  sending  the 
preached  Gospel  among  the  heathen.  The  difficidty  seems  to  be, 
in  part  at  least,  to  fix  ui>on  a  proper  plan.  Can  you  devise  and 
propose  any  plan  for  forming  an  Executive  Committee,  with  suffi- 
cient pov/er  to  carry  into  effect  our  united  efforts?  There  must 
be  somewhere  a  common  centre,  a  general  treasury  into  which  all 
the  money  in  whatever  way  raised  may  flow.  We  have  no  anxiety 
whether  this  deposit  should  be  at  Salem,  Boston,  New  York 
or  Philadelphia,  provided  we  can  only  fall  upon  a  plan  that  will 
unite  all  hearts. 

The  Society  in  Salem  have  already  collected  more  than  $500, 
and  have  voted  one  half  for  the  su])]>ort  of  Mr.  Judson  and  the 
other  for  the  translations. 

Our  infant  Society  in  Boston  has  almost  without  any  elTorl 
received  csubscriptions  to  th?  amount  of  nearly  §  400.  It  will  soon 
be  increased,  no  doubt,    to   several   hundreds  more. 

Will  you,  dear  Brethren,  give  us  your  advice  on  the  following 
p«iwts,  riz. : — 

1.  Will  it  be  best  at  present  to  request  our  Baptist  Brethrsn 
in  England  to  take  these  young  men  under  their  patronags  and 
to  consider  us  only  as  an  auxiliary  Society? 

2.  Shall  we  attempt  to  appoint  and  support  them  ourselves; 
if  so,  who  shall  appoint  them  ? 

We  cannot  doubt,  but  the  subject  must  impress  you  in  a 
sianilar  manner  as  it  does  us,  and  hence  hope  for  your  cordial  co- 
operation. We  hope  your  late  efforts  in  raising  money  for  repair- 
ing the  less  at  Serampora,  by  the  late  fire  will  not  discourage  you 
in  the  present  undertaking,  as  we  will  most  cheerfully  advance  the 
first  necessary  instalment.  We  are,  dear  Brethren,  very  respect- 
fully yours,  in  the  Gospel  of  a  precious  Saviour. 

(Sd.)     Thos.  Baldwin. 


Revs.  Jno.  Williams. 
,,       Jno.  Stainford. 
,,        Archibald  MacCay. 
,,        Daniel  Hatt. 
„        Cornelius  P.  Wykcoff. 

Lucius  Bolles. 
Danl.  Sharp. 


As  the  outcome  of  tha  above  Circular,  the  following  letter  from 
Dr.  Sharp,  dated  6th  May  1814,  was  received  by  Dr.  Marshman 
which  is  taken  from  tbd  Periodical  Accounts: — 

We  have  heard  with  pleasure  of  the  arrival  of  our  missionary 
brethren  at  Serampore.  Thd  same  vessel  brought  us  the  intelli- 
gence that  Mr.  Judson  and  his  wife  had  changed  their  views  on 
the  subject  of  baptism,  and  had  expressed  a  desire  to  be  immersed 
in  the  name  of  the  Lord  J€s,us.  We  have  since  been  informed 
that  Mr.  Riod  has  been  led  to  embrace  similar  views  of  the  same 

This  intelligence  has  made  a  deep  impression  on  our  minds. 
We  cannot  bear  the  idea  that  our  brethren  shoidd  be  negkcted  or 
left  to  suffer,  because  of  their  attachment  to  the  truth :  they  look 
to  us  for  aid,  and  we  Sitand  ready  to  support  them.  We  have 
formed  a  Society  as  you  will  see  by  the  accompanying  circular  (no 
copy  giv^n)  named  "  The  Baptist  Society,"  etc. 

But  it  has  occurred  to  the  brethren  here  that  it  would  much 
advance  the  cause,  and  that  Messrs.  Judson  and  Rice  would  be 
much  more  happy  and  useful  in  the  service,  if  they  were  under 
the  direction  and  intimately  connected  with  our  beloved  brethren 
at  Serampore.  Your  acquaintance  with  the  country,  the  manners, 
prejudices  and  superstitions  of  the  people,  your  knowledge  of  what 
mode  of  procedure  is  likely  to  ba  most  efficient  with  the  blessing 
of  Grod,  a  knowledge  the  result  of  twenty  years'  experience,  thesa, 
and  many  other  considerations,  which  crowd  on  our  minds,  render 
it  desirable  that  our  brethren  should  be  numbered  among  the  Misr 
sion  family.  We  shall  esteem  it  an  honour  and  a  pleasure 
to  render  them  the  pecuniary  aid,  which  from  time  to  time  they 
may  need.  Indeed,  we  anticipate  that  our  exertions  will  not  be 
limited  to  the  support  of  our  American  brethren,  but  that  wo 
shall  be  enabled  to  forward  to  Serampore  our  annual  mite  for 
the  promotion  of  the  general  cause. 

I  remain,  Dear  Brother, 

on  behalf  of  the  Society, 

Yours,  etc. 
P.    S. — Will   you   please   communicate   this    information      to 
Messrs.  Judson  and  Rice. 

On  the  27th  Saptember  1812,  Dr.  Judson  preached  his  sermon 
on  the  subject  of  Baptism  from  Matthew  xxviii.  19-20.  Dr.  Carey 
referred  to  it  in  his  letter  of  20th  October  1812  as  "a  very  excel- 
lent  discoursa,''   and  Mr.   Leonard  in  his  letter  to  Mr.   Ward  of 



2nd  idem, ''  as  one  of  the  best  discourseB  lie  had  heard  oai  Bi^tism." 
He  completed  it  for  press  at  Port  Loiiis  on  Ist  April  1813.  It 
was  subsequently  printed  and  went  through  several  editions  in 

After  the  delivery  of  the  »ermon  there  was  a  baptizing  service 
when  six  person  were  baptized  by  Dr.  Carey  himself.  Of  these 
five  were  native  Portuguese  women,  who  had  been  brought  to  th*» 
knowledge  of  the  Truth  through  the  labours  of  Sebuk  Ram.  Of 
thsse  five  women,  one  was  nearly  90  years  of  age,  (think  of  that !) 
and  the  other  four  were  all  over  60  years  of  aga.  One  of  the  five 
was  also  deaf. 

A  picture  is  given  below  of  the  Baptistary  in  which  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Judson  were  baptized  by  Mr.  Ward  on  the  6th  September 
1812,  and  Mr.  Rice  on  the  Ist  November  of  that  year.  It  is  the 
earliest  that  can  be  obtained. 

The  Baptistbby  in  which  Db  and  Mbs.  Judson  wkbb  baptized  on 

6th  Septembeb  1812. 

(^By  Jt'md  permission  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society^  London.") 

*  The  preseat  writer   has  a  oopy  of  the  fifth  American  edition   which   was 
printed  at  Boston  in  1846. 


It  is  the  very  same  to-day  as  it  was  then  although  on  the 
21st  August  1877 : 

"It  was  unanimously  resolved  that  the  gallery  at  the  east 
end  of  the  Chapel  should  be  removed,  that  the  pulpit  should 
he  removed  from  its  present  jx>sition  to  the  east  end,  and 
that  a  new  Baptistery  should  be  built  in  front  of  that  pulpit,  and 
that  the  old  Baptistery  ba  filled  up,  care  being  taken  to  have  the 
site  marked  with  marble  tiles." 

Although  the  work  was  ordered  to  be  put  in  hand  at  once  it 
was  never  carried  into  effect,  which  can  only  be  regarded  as  Rvine 

During  the  course  of  a  visit,  which  the  Hon'ble  Mr.  John 
Wanamaker  paid  to  Calcutta  in  the  cold  season  of  1901-02,  he 
wrote  on  31st  January  1902  to  Mr.  Hook  offering  to  put  up 
a  Tablet  in  the  Chapel  to  the  msmory  of  Dr.  Judson,  which  prac- 
tically was  intended  to  commemorate  his  baptism.  The  tablet  was 
duly  prepared  and  on  24th  February  1903,  it  was  unveiled  by 
General  Patterson,  the  Consul-General  of  the  United  States.  The 
unveiling  ceremony  was  a  great  success  and  all  passed  off  well, 
tbd  Chapel  being\  full  of  people,  different  Ministers  and  Mission- 
aries of  Calcutta  taking  part  in  the  service.  Dr.  Downie  of  Nellore 
gave  a  special  address  on  this  occasion.  The  cost  of  the  tablet 
was  Rs.  400,  the  whole  of  which  was  paid  by  the  Honourable 
gentleman.  The  picture  overleaf  shows  what  it  looks  like  and 
also  the  inscription  on  it.  There  is  oub  line,  however,  in  the 
upper  part  which  unfortunately  escapes  observation.  It  runs 
thus: — "As  my  Father  hath  sent  me  even  so  send  I  you.'  St. 
John  XX.  21. 

At  the  time  of  his  baptism.  Dr.  Judson  was  under 
an  agreement  with  Government  to  proceed  to  the  Isle  of 
Frano3!.  The  passports  from  the  Government  of  Massa- 
chusetts, which  Judson  and  Newell  had  brought  out  were 
not  accepted  by  tha  leading  Magistrate  of  Calcutta — Mr.  Charles 
Fuller  Martyn — when  they  w^re  presented  before  him  so  he  im- 
mediately reported  to  Government  that  two  missionaries  had 
arrived  in  the  Caravan  who  pretended  to  b^  Americans  by  birth 



tliough  he  suspected  they  were  British  subjects.  He  taought 
they  made  this  statement  so  as  to  escape  deportation  to 
England  as  "unlicensed  British  subjects."  Negotiations  with 
Government  led  to  their  being  granted  permission  to  go  to 
the  Isle  of  France,  v^hich  although  a  British  possession  was  not 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  East  India  Company.  The  only 
vessel  that  was  available  was  a  very  small  one  which  oould  accom- 
niodate,  but  one  family  and  in  it  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Newell  embarked 
on  4th  August,  Dr.  Judson  and  his  wife  being  left  bahind  for  the 
next    opportunity.     But     before    that    opportunity      occurred  th^ 




Hli»13  *^  Ott  Jt^tt  l|t  mi^t  tft|  4»r#    AMI  ltil3IIi.T1IL  iif|b.^jr>4  *li»l»J|1 

VMS    Urmn^trn  tt^ij  4[|(lrii4t(  ttifti  \r\io  injUnLV  lii  iSli.  Il|i»  A^ttrictfi 

The  Judson  Mkmokial  Tablet  (witfi  inscription)  which  is  in  the 

Ifarwoinj  arrived  on  the  10th  August  with  the  other  batch  of 
missionaries.  Messrs.  Hall,  Rice  and  Nott  preseaited  a  memorial 
to  Government  for  permission  also  to  go  to  the  Isle  of  France  which 
was  granted.  But  there  was  a  delay  and  that  delay  was  Mr. 
Marty n's  opportunity.  The  details  though  interesting  are  too 
long  for  insertion  here  but  they  are  givan  in  Mr.  Marehman's  book 
and  in  Mrs.  Judson*s  letters.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  Messrs.  Hall  and 


Nott  escaped  to  Bombay  in  the  ship  Commerce,  and  Dr.   Judson: 
i^nd  Mr.  Rice  eventually  left  on  30th  November  1812,  for  the  Isle 
af  France.     But  there  is  one  incident  to  clear  up  and  that  is  about 
blie  order  wiiich  reached  them  practically  at  the  very  last  moment. 
tdirs.    Judson   says: — 

"  We  had  just  sat  down  to  supper,  when  a  letter  was 
banded  to  us.  We  hastily  opened  it,  and  to  our  great  surprise 
and  joy,  it  was  a  pass  from  the  Magistrate  for  us  to  go 
:>n  board  the  Creole  the  vessel  we  had  left.  Who  procured  this 
pass  for  us,  or  in  what  way,  we  are  still  ignorant,  we  could  only 
i^iew  in  it  the  hand  of  God,  and  wonder." 

Mr.  Marshman's  book,  however,  accounts  for  this  incident 
bJius : — 

"  It  appears  that  when  Mr.  Marty n  reported  that  lie  had 
>rdered  the  vessel  in  which  Mr.  Judson  and  his  wife  and  colleague 
iad  embarked  for  the  Mauritius  to  be  detained,  Lord  Minto, 
i^meiilibering  that  he  had  previously  given  them  permission  to 
)toeMd  to  that  island,  did  not  deem  it  advisable  £o  interrupt  their 
>rogresB«  At  any  rate  they  would  be  out  of  the  territories  of  the 
BCotloiirabla  Oompany." 

Anyway  they  proceeded  on  their  voyage  and  after  a  lengthened 
paonjjlje  arrived  in  safety  at  the  Mauritius  on  the  17tli  January 
181S.-  '  They  found  that  Mrs.  Newell  had  died  there  on  the  30tli 
Ke^il^ber  1812  the  very  date  that  they  had  bft  India.  Mr. 
Kewi^  left  the  Mauritius  for  Ceylon  on  24th  February  1813,  and 
,  ftnaBy  left  for  Bombay  where  ha  joined  Hall  and  Nott  on  7tli 
^  Uarcli  1814. 

Messrs.  Judson  and  Rice  commenced  preaching  to  the  soldiers 
and  to  the  patients  in  the  Hospital  and  continued  doing  so  until 
the  beginning  of  March  when  Mr.  Bice's  health  failed  and  it  was 
thougbt  best  that  he  should  return  to  America  for  the  double 
purpose  of  recruiting  his  health  and  exciting  the  Missionary  zeal 
of  the  Baptist  Churches  in  that  country.  He  accordingly  sailed 
for  the  United  States  on  the  11th  of  that  month. 

After  mucTi  deliberation.  Dr.  Judson  resolved  to  attempt  a 
Mission  at  Penang  so  took  a  passage  to  Madras  in  May  whencs 
they  hoped  to  get  a  passage  to  Penang,  but  they  failed  to     get 


one.     As  they  feared  to  remain  long  in  Madras^  l^t  they  should 
be  deported  to  England,  after  a  few  days'  stay  there,  they  sailed    ); 
on  the  22nd  June  for  Rangoon,  where  they  arrived  on  13th  July 
and  occcpied  the  Mission  House  erected  by  the  Serampore  Mission. 

It  was  not  till  5th  September  181&  that  Dr.  Judson  reoaived 
intimation  of  the  formation  of  the  Baptist  Board  of  Miseionfl  'n 
America  and  their  appointment  of  him  as  their  missionary.  Dur- 
ing the  interval  he  had  been  shown  as  an  Agent  of  the  Serampore 
Mission  at  Rangoon. 

When  the  Judsons  arrived  at  the  Mission  House,  Mrs.  Felix 
Carey  was.  in  it,  but  Mr.  Carey  had  gone  to  Ava  by  order  of  the 
King.  In  August  Mr.  Carey  and  family  embarked  in  a  brig  for 
Ava,  but  the  vessel  was  upset  in  the  riyer  and  he  alone  was  saved 
with  difficulty.  After  the  fii"st  twelve  months  of  their  stay  Mrs. 
Judson's  health  began  to  decline,  so  in  January  1815  she  embarked 
for  Madras  where  she  recovered  entirely  and  accordingly  returned 
in  the  April  following.  A  son  was  born  to  her  on  11th  September 
1815,  but  died  on  4th  May  1816.  In  October  1816  thsy  were 
joined  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hough  from  America  who  brought  out 
a  printing  press.  In  December  1817  Dr.  Judson  left  Rangoon 
for  Chittagong  for  the  purpose  of  benefiting  his  health,  but  owing 
to  misadventures  lie  got  carried  away  to  Madras,  which  he  c«^uld 
not  leave  till  20th  July  for  Rangoon.  While  he  was  away  Mr 
Hot^gh  received  a  menacing  order  to  appear  immediately  at  the 
Court  House  to  give  an  account  of  himself.  This  he  did,  but  was 
detained  there  three  days  when  he  and  Mrs.  Judson  drew  up  an 
appeal  to  the  Viceroy,  which  Mrs.  Judson  herself  prasented  to  him 
and  he  immediately  commanded  that  Mr.  Hough  should  receive 
no  further  molestation.  Mrs.  Judson  started  with  Mr.  Hough 
and  his  family  to  r:iturn  to  Bengal  as  there  was  no  news  of  her 
husband,  but  changed  her  mind.  The  latter  went  on  but  she 
returned  to  Rangoon,  and,  a  few  days  afterwards,  the  Doctor 
found  his  way  there.  On  the  19th  September  1818,  Messrs.  Cole- 
man and  Wheelock  arrived  with  their  wives.     On  the  27th  June 


1819,  i.e.,  seven  years  after  their  arrival  in  the  East  the  first 
Burmese  convert  was  baptized. 

In  June  1820  Mrs.  Judson's  health  became  very  low  and  a 
ica  voyage  to  Bengal  was  undertaken.  She  arrived  in  Calcutta 
HI  8th  August  and  remained  at  Serampora  till  the  end  of  the 
rear.  On  the  5th  January  1821  they  arrived  at  Rangoon  but  as 
ihe  had  not  derived  much  benefit  by  the  change,  by  the  oommdnce- 
xient  of  August  she  was  again  laid  low.  She  embarked  for  Bengal 
4nd  thence  for  England.  She  reached  England  safely,  and  was 
'>liere  till  August  1822,  when  she  proceeded  to  the  United  States 
irhere  she  arrived  on  tha  25th  September  of  that  year.  While 
ilie  was  at  Washington  the  Baptist  General  Convention  held  a  Sae- 
oon  in  that  City  and  at  her  suggestion  several  important  measures 
were  adopted. 

But  she  did  not  like  being  away  from  her  husband  so  on  the 
hid  June  1823  she  again  sailed  for  India  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wade 
jrho  were  coming  out  to  strengthen  Judson'si  hands.  They  arrived 
in  Calcutta  on  19th  October  1823  and  after  a  few  weeks  sailed 
for  Rangoon. 

Dr.  Price,  a  medical  missionary,  had  arrived  at  Rangoon 
with,  his  wife  in  December  1821  and  when  Mrs.  Judson  reached 
Calcutta  in  October  1823  she  found  that  war  might  break  out  at 
any  time  with  Burma  and  that  the  Emperor  had  ordered  Dr. 
Judson  and  Dr.  Price  to  take  up  their  residence  in  Ava.  In  May 
1824  an  English  army  under  Sir  Archibald  Campbell  arrived  in 
Rangoon,  which  was  taken  on  the  23rd  idem,  but  previous  to  that 
Mesars.  Hough  and  Wade  had  been  bound  with  chains,  imprisoned 
by  the  Burmese  and  subjected  to  much  suffering  and  insult.  On 
8tb  June,  Dr.  Judson,  Dr.  Price  and  others  (at  Ava)  were  seized* 
and  imprisoned.  The  sufferings  and  hardships  of  the  missionaries 
during  this  war  of  1824-25  form  a  narrative  of  thrilling 
interest  which,  though  intensely  interesting,  would  be  out  of  place 
here.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  if  it  had  not  been  for  the  special 
support  that  Mrs.  Judson  received  from  aBove  to  carry  her  through 


all  the  heroic  effortBi  she  made  on  behalf  of  her  husband  and  the 
others,  they  would  all  have  miserably  perished.     It  is  not  permitted 
to  every  Christrian  lady  to  perform  such  heroic  deeds.     After  an 
imprisonment   of  one  year  and   seven   months  Dr.    Judson  found 
himself  free.     The   treaty  of  peace  was  signed  on  24th  February 
1826  and  on  the  6th  March  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Judson  and  infant  girl 
Isft  for  Rangoon  where   they   arrived  on   the  21st  idem.     On  the 
9th  April  1826,  Dr.  Judson  left  Rangoon  with  Mr.  Crawford,  the 
Conunissioner  on  an  exploring  expedition  and  eventually  fixed  upon 
the  site  of  a  town  on  the  Salween  River  which  they  called  Amherst 
after  the  then  Governor-General  of  India.     Dr.  and  Mrs.   Judson 
settled   at  Amherst  on  ths   2nd  July   1826,  but  after  only  a  few 
months,  during  the  absence  of  Dr.  Judson  from  the  station,  Mrs. 
Judson  was  attacked  by  fever  and  died  on  the  24th  October  1826 
and  soon  afterwards,   her  little  girl   who  was  aged  two  years  and 
three     months    died      also.     Dr.    Judson     returned    to    Amherst 
on  24th    January    1827.     After    this    Dr.    Judson's    station    wa^ 
Moulmein     where    he    was    employed     chiefly    in     the     work    of 
translation.     The  last  leaf  of  his  translation   was   finished  on  the 
31st  January   1834,  and  a  rsvised  translation  was  put  to  press  in 
1840.     The    prospects    of   the    Mission    became   very    ©ncoura^ng. 
On  10th  April  1834,  he  married  Mrs.  Sarah  Boardman,  the  widow 
of  one  of  his  colleagues.     Her  hsalth  visibly  declined  in   1844,  so 
a  voyage  to  America  was  determined  upon  and  Dr.  Judson,   with 
the  three  children,  accompanied  hsr  on  the  26th  April  1845,  but 
she  died  at  St.  Helena  on  1st  September  1845.     Dr.  Judson  con- 
tinued the  voyaga  and  arrived  safely  in  America  on  15th  October 
1845.     On  the  2nd  June  1846  he  married  Miss  Emily  Chubbuck 
and  on  11th  July  they  embarked  for  Moulmein  where  they  arrived 
on  the  30th  Novamber  1846.     In  the  early  part  of  1850  his  own 
health  began  to  fail  so  a  sea  voyage  was  determined  upon  and  on 
3rd  April  1850,  he  embarked  on  a  French  barque  aceompajiied  by 
Mr.   Ranney  of  the  Moulmein   Mission,   but  he  breathed  his  last 
•on  the  12th  April  and  was  buried  at  sea.     Immediately  preceding 

'■■  ■•         ■■.■.■)••.•■,■>.-■■...•       "••■•■■•<'•>.■•■:  v 


...".', 'rt J.,:. ^■.  ;-w.    .  \   ■      •  »     .      •  \ 



death  he  gave  instructions  to  his  servant  in  English  and 
rmese  to  take  caraof  poor  mistress.  His  companion,  Mr.  Ranney, 
J  stated  that  his  death  was  like  falling  asleep.  All  Dr.  Judson's 
^es  were  singularly  talented  women. 

The  present  writer  has  in  his  possession  an  autograph  letter 
dch  Dr.  Judson  wrote  to  his  fellow-workers,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  O.  T. 
itter  from  Chummerah  on  the  11th  i^ebruary  1833.  This  letter 
&  never  been  published  so  he  gives  on  the  opposite  page 
fascimile  of  the  concluding  portion  of  it  which  may  interest 
me  of  the  readers  of  this  book. 

The  Rev.  Lutheb  Rice. 
He  was  born  at  Northborougli,  Wbroester  County,  Massa- 
cliuiietts,  on  the  25tli  March  1783.  His  parents  were  members  of 
the  Cougrcgational  Cluirch,  his  mother  being  a  woman  of  renuui- 
able  intellectual  vigour.  He  attended  the  public  Bchools  of  the 
neighbourhood,  and  was  apt  in  acquiring  knowledge.  While  Btill 
a  mere  youth  the  wonderful  self-reliance,  for  which  he  was  always 
distinguished,  displayed  itself,  for,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  entered 
into  a  contract  to  visit  the  State  of  Georgia,  to  assist  in  obtain- 
ing timber  for  shii>-building,  without  oonsuRing  his  parents,  and 
was  absent  six  months.  Soon  after  this  he  became  greatly  con- 
cerned alK)ut  his  soul,  and  suffered  the  acutest  mental  agony  for 
many  months.  At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  united  witli  the  Con- 
gregational Church  of  Northborough  on  the  14th  March  18Q2.  He 
was  from  the  beginning  a  most  active  and  consistent  Chiisti'ao 
worker.  He  infus€^d  a  new  and  higher  type  of  piety  into  Mi 
family  and  the  Cliurch,  and  made  it  a  special  duty  to  oonveree 
frequently  with  ths  impenitent.  He  was  from  the  start  of  h» 
Christian  career  deeply  interested  in  Missions  and  Missioniary  pub- 
lications. During  all  this  time  he  was  labouring  upon  his  father'i 
farm.  His  mind  was  now  directed  to  the  Christian  ministry  and 
he  resolved  to  secure  a  college  and  theological  education.  He  spent 
three  years  at  Leicester  Academy  and  paid  his  expenses  by  teach- 
ing school  during  the  vacation  and  giving  lessons  in  singing  at 
night.  He  made  such  rapid  progress  at  the  Academy  thai  he  was 
able  to  complete  his  collegiate  studies  in  three  years,  having 
entered  Williams  College  in  1807.  While  in  College  he  became 
even  more  deeply  interested  in  Missions  and  infused  the  same 
enthusiasm  into  the  minds  of  his  friends  Mills  and  Richards. 

On  the  7th  September  1808,  when  a  student  at  Williams  Col- 
lega,  he    with  four     young     men     formed     the  Sodety  of  "  The 

THE   REV.  LUTHEB   RICE.  113 

Brethren "  a  secret  organization  the  purpose  of  which  was  "  to 
effect  in  the  persons  of  its  members  a  mission  or  mieisions  to  the 
heathen.'*  Two  of  the  original  five  of  the  "  Haystack  prayer- 
meeting  *'  were  members  of  this  Society. 

A  Society  of  enquiry  on  the  subject  of  missions  was  formed 
through  hisi  instrumentality,  and,  about  the  same  time  a  branch 
Society  at  Andover  Seminary,  where  Judaon  and  his  friends  caught 
the  new  awakening.  They  must  preach  the  Gospel  totha  pagan 
nations.  After  graduating  from  Williams  College  he  with  the 
other  members  of  tha  organization,  entered  the  theological  Sem- 
inary at  Andover.  There  among  others,  Adoniram  Judson  was 
added  to  the  roll.  Judson,  Nott,  Mills,  Newell,  Richards  and  Rice 
prepared  a  Memorial  to  the  General  Association  of  all  the  evange- 
lical ministers  of  Massachusetts  convened  at  Bradford  in  June  1810 
urging  the  pressing  claims  of  the  heathen  and  asking  for  an  appoint- 
ment in  the  East.  The  names  of  Richards  and  Rice  were  omitted 
from  the  Memorial  at  its  presentation,  the  number  being  so  large. 
On  the  29th  June  1810  as  a  result  of  the  appeal  which  these 
young  men  placed  before  the  General  Association  (Congregational) 
at  Bradford,  Mass,  the  Foreign  Missionary  Society  in  America  came 
into  existence  with  the  election  of  the  American  Board  of  Commis- 
sioners for  Foreign  Missions,  and,  later,  the  Baptist  General  Con- 
vention of  1814,  The  American  Bible  Society,  The  American 
Tract  Society,  Tha  Baptist  General  Society,  The  Columbian  Col- 
lege, the  Newton  Theological  Seminary  and  other  kindred 

In  a  letter  written  on  18th  March  1811  ha  says: — "I  have 
delibarately  made  up  my  mind  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  the 

Judson,  Nott,  Mills  and  Newell  were  appointed  by  the  Board 
as  missionaries,  Bice  and  Richards  being  omitted.  But  Rice  had 
Bet  his  heart  upon  going,  and,  as  soon  as  the  way  opened,  promptly 
applied  for  appointment  and  was  accepted  upon  the  condition  that 
he  would  himself  raise  the  money  necessary  for  his  passage  an3 

8    . 

114  THE    bTORY    of    the    LALL-UA2AK    UAPTIST    CHURC" 

outfit,  which  he  did  within  a  few  days.     The  following  is  from  the 
Memorial  Volume  of  that  Board : — 

In  the  meantime  Mr.  Luther  Rice,  a  licentiate  preacher 
from  the  Theological  Institution  at  Andover,  whose  heart 
had  long  been  engaged  in  the  miissionary  cause,  but  who 
had  been  restrained  from  offering  himself  to  the  Board 
by  particular  curcumstances  presented  himself  at  the  Com- 
mittee with  good  recommendations  and  with  an  earnest  desire  to 
join  the  Mission.  The  case  was  a  very  trying  one.  The  Com- 
mittee were  not  invested  with  full  powers  to  admit  missionaries, 
and  they  still  felt  a  very  heavy  embarrassment  from  the  want  of 
funds.  In  view  of  all  the  circumstances,  however,  they  did  not 
dare  to  reject  Mr.  Rica,  and  they  came  to  the  conclusion  to  assume 
the  responsibility  and  admit  him  as  a  missionary,  to  be  ordained 
with  the  four  other  brethren  and  sent  out  with  them." 

The  Harmony  (Captain  Brown),  proposed  sailing  on  short  notice 
from  Philadelphia  to  Calcutta  and  could  take  the  missionaries  as  pas- 
sengers. In  the  latter  part  of  January  the  Resolution  was  taken. 
The  Ordination  of  the  missionaries  was  appointed  to  be  on  the 
Thursday  of  the  next  week — the  latest  day  which  would  leave 
time  for  them  to  get  on  to  Philadelphia  in  season.  Notice  was 
immediately  given  to  the  friends  of  the  mission  in  the  vicinity 
and  means  were  put  in  operation  with  all  possible  activity,  aud 
to  as  great  an  extent  as  the  limited  time  would  allow  for  raising 
the  requisite  funds. 

While  these  preparations  were  in  making,  it  came  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  Committee,  that  the  brigantine  Cara/variy  of 
Salem,  was  to  sail  for  Calcutta  in  a  few  days,  and  could  carry 
out  three  or  four  passengers,  and  after  attention  to  the  subject, 
it  was  deemed  advisable  that  two  of  the  missionaries,  with  their 
wives,  should  take  passage  in  that  vessel. 

This  lessened  the  general  risk,  and  was  attended  with  several 

"According  to  appointment,  on  the  6th  of  February, 
the  missionaries  were  ordained  at  the  Tabernacle  in  Salem.  A 
season  of  more  impressive  sc^emnity  has  scarcely  been  witnessed 
in  our  country.  The  sight  of  five  young  men,  of  highly  raspectaUo 
talents  and  attainments,  and  who  might  reasonably  have  promised 

THE   KEV.   LUTHEB   RICE.  115 

lienLselves  very  eligible  situations  in  our  Churches,  forsaking 
arentSy  and  friends,  and  country,  and  every  alluring  earthly 
tx>spect,  and  devoting  themselves  to  the  privations,  hardships^ 
ad  perils  of  a  mission  for  life,  to  a  people  sitting  in  darkne^  and 
I  the  region  and  shadow  of  death,  in  a  far  distant  and  unpropi- 
OTis  clime,  could  not  fail  deeply  to  affect  every  heart  not  utterly 
estitute  of  feeling.  Nor  less  affecting  were  the  views  which  the 
liole  scene  was  calculated  to  impre^  of  the  deplorable  condition 
f  the  pagan  'world,  of  the  riches  of  divine  grace  displayed  in  the 
k)6pel,  and  of  the  obligations  on  all  on  whom  this  grace  is  con- 
jrred,  to  use  their  utmost  endeavours  in  making  the  Gospel 
niversally  known.  God  was  manifestly  present;  a  crowded 
nd  attentive  assembly  testified,  with  many  tear®,  the  deep  interest 
rliicH  they  felt  in  the  occasion ;  and  not  a  f  aw  remember  the  scene 
ri€h'  fervent  gratitude,  and  can  say,  it  was  good  to  be  there." 

Mr.  Rice  was  among  the  five  thus  ordained  on  6th  February 
812  at  Salem.  Dr.  Judson  and  Mr.  NewfeU  with  their  wivea 
ailed  from  Salem  in  the  Caravan  on  12th  February  and  Mr.  Bice 
tnd  the  other  two  Nott  and  Hall  (not  Richards)  went  to  Phila- 
klphia  and  from  there  sailed  in  the  Harmony  for  Calcutta  in  com- 
>any  with  some  English  Baptists. 

Th-e  subject  of  baptism  was  discussed  during  the  voyage,  Mr. 
Mee  taking  a  firm  stand  for  the  Paedobaptist  view.  From  the 
ournal  which  Dr.  Johns  kept  of  the  voyage  and  which  was  printed 
it  Serampore  during  1812  it  appears  that  Mr.  Rice  himself  fii^st 
ntroduced  the  subject  of  baptism  on  the  15th  of  March  and  Dr. 
Tohns  had  some  conversation  with  him.  On  the  25th  March  Mr. 
Etice  acknowledged  that  the  labours  and  successes  of  the  Baptists 
01  India  excited  the  attention  of  tha  Americans  and  directed  the 
^W8  of  the  Paedobaptists  to  that  part  of  tlie  world.  On  7th 
^pril  Dr.  JoISob  recorded : — 

"This  evening  Brother  Lawson  with  myself  and  our  Paedo- 
baptist brother  Rica  had  a  long  conversation  on  our  difference 
>f  sentiment.  It  continued  to  a  late  hour*'  and  on  19th  April 
le  recorded,  "This  evening  Mr.  Rice  resumed  hie  extracts  on 
lie  swbjsct  of  baptism.  From  some  conversation  he  and  Mr.  Hall 
leld  whilst  I  was  present  I  can  see  that  there  is  not  perfect  satis- 
action  on  the  subject  at  least  with  Mr.  H."  and  on  5th  June  it 


is  stated  that  a  littb  book  of  Dr.  Johns'  led  to  some  little  discus- 
sion on  baptism.  From  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that  it  was 
thought  that  the  most  impression  had  been  made  on  Mr.  Hall, 
and,  in  fact,  Dr.  Carey  said  that  Mr.  Rice  was  thought  to  be  the 
most  obstinate  friend  of  Paedobaptism  among  the  Missionaries. 

The  Haimony  reached  Calcutta  on  the  10th  August.  At  Gal* 
cutta,  Mr.  Bice  joined  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Judaon,  and  in  Septemba 
1812,  Mrs.   Judson  wrote  thus  about  him: — 

"Soon  after  w©  were  baptized.  Brother  Rice,  oompalled  from  a 
sense  of  duty,  began  to  examine  the  subject  more  thoroughjy  then 
ever  before,  although  he  had  had  his  doubts  respecting  it  for  some 

The  following  letter,  dated  25th  October  1812,  was  accordingly 
penned  to  Dr.  Carey  and  speaks  for  itself.     It  is  taken  from  the 
Circular  Letter  of  November  1812. 
Reverend  and  Dear  Sir, 

Having  been  much  occupied  of  late  in  attention  to  the  subject 
of  baptism,  I  take  the  liberty  to  apprise  you  of  the  issiue  of  my 
inquiries.  For  this  purpose,  permit  ma  Bb  transcribe  part  of  a 
letter  recently  transmitted  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Board  of  Com- 
miseioners.  Dr.  Worcester:  'Tha  subject  respecting  the  solemn 
and  important  Ordinance  of  Christian  baptism  presented  itself  to 
my  mind  in  such  an  attitude  thai  I  could  not  oonscientioiisly  lefrain 
from  examining  it.  With  very  considerable  means  at  oonmiaiid 
I  have  endeavoured,  I  trust,  with  prayerfulness,  and  in  the  fear 
of  God,  and  with  no  small  impression  of  the  delicacy  and  high 
responsibility  of  my  situation,  to  give  it  a  .careful  and  serious 
examination.  But  it  is  with  emotions  particularly  affecting,  that 
I  proceed  to  inform  you,  that,  as  the  result  of  that  examination 
I  am  comp&lled  to  relinquish  the  view  of  the  sacred  Ordinanoe 
which  I  have  formerly  apprehended  to  be  highly  important.  I  am 
satisfactorily  convinced  that  those  only  who  give  credible  evidence 
of  piety  are  proper  subjects,  and  that  immersion  is  tlie  proper 
mode  of  baptism. 

Baing  thus  satisfied,  impressions  of  duty  impel  me  to  request, 
Dear  Sir,  that  this  sacred  Christian  right  may  be  administered 
to — 

(Sd.)    Luther  Ricb. 
He  was  accordingly   baptized  singly  by   Mr.    Ward  at     the 

THE   REV.  LUTHER   RICE.  117 

Chapel  on  the  1st  Novembar  1812  and  on  the  30th  idem  he  sailed 
from  Bengal  with  the  Judsons  for  the  Isle  of  France,  owing  to 
the  continued  and  bitter  hostility  manifested  by  th&  British 
authorities  in  India  against  missionaries.  The  party  arrived  at 
Port  liOuis  on  the  17th  January  1813  and  shortly  after  Mr.  Rice 
suffered  so  much  from  liver  complaint  that  his  haalth  became  quite 
precarious,  so  it  was  decided  that  he  should  return  to  the  United 
States  to  try  to  enlist  the  interest  of  th&  Baptist  Churches  of 
America  in  the  cause  of  Foreign  Missions  as  both  Dr.  Judson  and 
lie  were  strangers  to  the  Baptist  community.  While  th^y  were 
"Siscussing  various  plans  an  unexpected  opportunity  oflFered  of 
getting  to  the  United  States  by  going  to  Brazil  in  a  Portuguese 
"vessel  and  he  did  not  let  the  opportunity  slip  so  embarkeS  appa- 
rently on  the  11th  March  as  will  be  seen  from  the  copy  of  his 
letter  to  Br.  Marshman  which  is  given  below  from  the  Circular 
lietter  of  April  1813.  It  speaks  for  itself  and  though  it  may  be 
considered  rather  long  it  is  worthy  of  careful  perusal. 

Port  Louis,  11th  March  1813. 

Dear  Brother  Marshman, 

Probably  it  will  surprise  you  to  learn  that  I  have  departed  from 

this  place  for  America.     Such,  an  event  was  as  littla  expected  by 

me  perhaps  as  by  anyone  when  I  left  Calcutta,   but  the  ways  of 

Providence  are  mysterious  and  past  finding  out.     An  opportunity 

of  a  cheap  and  probably  quick  passaga  to  America  offers,  and  we 

are  all  of  opinion  that  it  may,  to  a  considerable  extent,  subserve 

the  missionary  cause  for  me  to  visit  our  Baptist  brethren  in  that 

oountry.     I  have  indead  some  private  reasons  for  wishing  to  make 

such  a  visit,  but  they  are  c*uch  that  I  could  not  think  it  my  duty 

to  be  influenced  by,  or  to  encounter  the  expense  and  loss  of  time 

which  will  unavoidably  be  incurred,  were  there  not  an  important 

missionary  object  to  be  obtained.     I  shall  hope  to  kindle  the  zeal, 

or,  if  it  be  ali^ady  kindled,  to  increase  its  ardour,  of  our  brethren 

in  tha  United  States ;  bring  about  the  formation  of  a  Baptist  Mis- 

donary  Society,  having  the  heathen  for  its  object  and  contribute 

eomething  to  their  interest  at  home,  while  benevolent  efforts  are 

produced,  and  a  benign  influence  extended  to  foreign  parts.     For 

it  is  a  settled  opinion  with  me,  that,  whatever  may  be  the  success 

or  disappointment  of  truly  missionary  exertions,  the  good  result- 


ing  to  those  who  make  them,  will  always,  be  a  sufficient  oompensa- 
tiou.     Ut  that  will  lose  his  lift  for  Christ's  sake,  shall  mve  H. 

Being  already  about  one-third  of  the  way  from  India  to  the 
United  States,  I  hope  to  be  able  to  pass  to  that  country,  effect 
the  objects  in  view  there,  and  rejoin  Brother  Judson,  in  a  year 
and  a  half ^  possibly  in  less  time ;  at  farthest,  within  the  compatt 
of  two  years,  if  it  please  God  to  make  my  way  prosperous.  Our 
views  of  different  missionary  fields  at  present  are  such,  that  on 
my  return  I  shall  expect  to  find  Brother  Judaon  at  Fenang.  I 
shall  take  with  me  a  Malay  grammar  and  a  dictionary,  that,  if 
possible,  the  time  may  not  be  wholly  lost  to  my  future  labours. 
I  hope  also  to  gain  a  more  established  and  complete  restoration  to 
health.  But  if  calculations  deceive  me,  and,  on  returning  I  should 
find  Brother  Judson  at  Rangoon,  instead  of  Penang,  I  shall  not 
be  greatly  disappointed  if  only  his  situation  shall  be  such  that 
I  can  rajoin  him  in  the  mission,  this  last  consideration  I  cannot 
think  of  relinquishing. 

From  what  we  learn  by  Mr.  King,  mate  of  the  brig  in  which 
I  take  passage,  and  who  left  Salem  the  latter  part  of  August,  the 
war  will  jjrobably  either  cease  (which  God  grant  may  be  the  case) 
or,  if  continued,  will  drag  on  rather  sluggishly,  so  that  the  internal 
resources  of  the  country  may  not,  it  should  seem  be  materially 
affectad.  I  hope  especially  that  the  missionary  spirit  will  not 
receive  a  check,  and  it  is  consoling  to  reflect,  that  God  can  and 
often  does,  over-rule  most  disastrous  events  for  the  advancement 
of  His  own  cans?.  Surely  the  wrath  of  man  shall  praise  Hiniy 
the  remainder  He  will  restrain,  Happy  is  it  for  us  that  there  is  » 
Being  of  infinite  wisdom,  goodness  and  power  who  worhdh 
all  things  after  the  coiinsel  of  His  own  will. 

I  cannot  prevail  on  myself  to  close  without  returning  my 
thanks  for  your  kind  attentions  while  I  was  in  Bengal,  and  request- 
ing to  be  most  affectionately  remembered  to  all  the  Mission  family. 

Yours,  etc., 
(Sd.)    LuTHEB  Rice. 

He  mus,t  have  reached  Brazil  in  June  as  he  wrote  from  there 
on  5th  June  1813  to  America  as  below:  "Brother  Judson  and 
myself,  Having  determined  upon  attempting  to  effectuate  a  mission 
at  Penang,  having  the  Malay  countries  generally,  for  its  ultimate 
object,  were  waiting  the  opportunity  of  a  passage  to  that  place. 
But  as  an  opportunity  unexpectedly  offered  of  getting  to  the 
United  States  by  coming  to  this  place  (Brazil)  in  a  Portuguese 
veaael,  the  posture  of  affairs  was  such  that  we  deemed  it  expedient 
for  me  to  avail  myself  of  it  and  visit  our  brethren  in  our  native 

THE   REV.  LUTHER   RICE.  119 

country  under  a  sincere  conviction  that  the  missionary  cause  would 
be  more  advanced  by  the  formation  of  a  Baptist  Society  in  America 
that  should  afford  us  the  necessary  patronage,  than  by  our  becom- 
ing the  missionaries  of  a  foreign  Society,  it  was,  we  conceived, 
clearly  our  duty,  as  well  as  much  better  comported  with  our  feelings 
than  the  other  alternative  could,  to  cast  ourselves  into  your  hands, 
and  the  hands  of  the  Baptist  Churches  in  America.'* 

He  arrived  at  New  York  on  7th  September  1813,  went  imme- 
diately to  Boston,  and  communicated  with  the  Board,  who,  however, 
received  him  with  much  coldness,  and,  rather  rudely,  dissolved 
his  relations  with  themselves.  He  now  completely  identified  him- 
self with  the  Baptists  by  whom  he  was  warmly  received  in  Massa- 
chusetts, New  York  and  Pennsylvania.  The  Baptist  Society  for 
Propagating  the  Gospel  in  India  and  other  Foreign  Parts,  which 
had  bean  organized  at  Boston  in  January  1813,  in  order  to  under- 
take the  support  of  the  Judsons,  extended  the  hand  of  patronage 
to  him  and  encouraged  him  to  visit  tbe  widely  scattered  Baptist 
Churches  of  the  South  and  West.  He  jo\irneyed  throughout  the 
entire  length  of  the  country  and  met  with  the  most  encouraging 
success  and  travelled  as  far  South  as  Georgia  and  was  everywhere 
greeted  with  the  utmost  cordiality.  Between  May  1813  and  May 
1814  seventeen  Baptist  Societies  were  established  for  the  purpose 
of  supporting  foreign  missions,  the  majority  of  them  the  result  of 
his  efforts. 

Dr.  Judson's  conversion  to  Baptist  principles  and  his  appeal 
to  the  Baptists  of  America  had  an  electrical  effect  on  the  Churches 
and  the  Society  at  Boston  assumed  the  support  of  the  Judsons. 
The  twelfth  article  of  its  constitution  reads  : — 

"Should  Societies  be  formed  in  other  places  having 
th«5  same  objects  in  view,  the  Board  will  appoint  one 
or  more  persons  to  unite  with  delegates  from  such  other 
Societies  in  forming  a  General  Committee,  in  order  more  effectually 
to  accomplish  the  important  objects  contemplated  by  this 

Mr.  Rice  travelled  through  the  States  on  the  Atlantic  sea- 
board as  far  South  as  Georgia,  arousing  missionary  enthusiasm 
everywhere     he    went     and     organising  missionary  Societies.     He 


suggested  that  a  Greneral  Conference  should  be  held  at  Philadelphia 
about  the  first  of  June  1814. 

In  the  Massachusetts  Baptist  Missionary  Magazine  for  Decem- 
ber 1813  appeared  a  proposal  of  Mr.  Rice  that  the  time  and  place 
of  the  General  Convention  be  immediately  fixed  so  that  delegates  may 
be  duly  appointed.  Accordingly,  on  18th  May  1814,  delegates 
assambled  at  Philadelphia  from  the  various  Baptist  Foreign  Mis- 
sion Societies  from  Boston  to  Savannah,  a  distanoa  of  more  than 
1,000  miles,  to  meet  for  Conference.  Dr.  Richard  Furman  wa» 
President  and  Dr.  Baldwin,  Secretary.  The  Convention  organized 
tha  General  Missionary  Convention  of  the  Baptist  Denomination 
in  the  United  States  of  America  for  Foreign  Missions  (in  1846 
the  Southern  Baptists  withdrew  because  of  a  diffarence  of  opinion 
on  the  Slavery  question,  and  in  1*846  the  name  of  the  Society  wae 
changed  to  The  American  Baptist  Missionary  Union).  After 
several  days'  deliberation  the  Convention  (with  thia  long  title)  was 
formed.  The  Ma&sachiTsctts  Baptist  Missionary  Magazine  in  report- 
ing the  meeting  said  : — 

"Perhaps  no  event  has  ever  taJ^en  place  among  the 
Baptist  Denomination  in  America,  which  has  excited  more 
lively  interest  than  the  late  Missionary  Convention  held  in  the  dty 
of  Philadelphia." 

On  his  Southern  tour  Mr.  Rice  collected  about  1,300 
dollars,  made  arrangements  for  future  contributions,  and 
organized  about  twenty  Missionary  Societies,  and,  throughout 
the  country,  about  seventy  Societies.  On  the  21st  of 
May  a  constitution  was  adopted.  In  it  provision  was  made  for  a 
Triennial  Convention  and  the  Rev.  Luther  Rice  and  Rev.  Adomi- 
ram  Judson  were  appointed  as  missionaries.  On  25th  May  1814 
Rev.  Luther  Rice  was  formally  appointed  a  missionary  of  t£e 
Board,  being  the  first  man  to  receive  such  appointment;  the  Rev. 
Adoniram  Judson  was,  the  second.  The  Resolution  with  reference 
to  Mr.  Rice  reads  as  below: — 

"Resolved,  that  Mr.  Rice  be  appointed  under  the  patronage 
of  this  Board,   as  their  missionary,  to  continue  his  itinerant  ser- 

THE   BEV.  LUTHER   RICE.  121 

rices  in  thes^  United  States  for  a  reasonable  time,  with  a  view  to 
izcite  the  public  mind  more  generally  to  engage  in  missionary 
exertions,  and  to  assist  in  originating  Societies,  or  institutions  for 
arrying  the  missionary  dzsign  into  execution." 

The  general  expectation  was  that  he  would  return  to  India  as 

Till  be  seen  from  what  he  wrote  to  Dr.  Judson  on  30th  September 

L814  :— 

"I  hope  'in  the  course  of  five  or  six  months  to  get  the 
Baptists  so  well  rallied  that  the  necessity  of  my  remaiining  will 
QO  longer  exist." 

A  year  later,  i.e.,  on  10th  October  1815,  he  wrote  the  follow- 
ing letter  to  Dr.  Carey,  which  is  taken  from  the  Periodical 
Accounts : — 

"Having  opportunity  by  Brother  Hough  (who  is  about  to  sail 
bo  the  East,  with  a  view  of  joining  Brother  Judson  in  Missionary 
Labours)  I  cannot  refuse  myself  the  pleasure  of  writing  a  few  lines, 
tlK)ugh  my  present  engagements  will  not  allow  me  to  write  many. 
Last  spring  I  forwarded  to  your  care  a  quantity  of  things  for 
Brother  Judson,  from  which,  and,  from  the  communications  of 
Dr.  Stoughton,  you  have  learned  what  is  going  on  among  us  in 
this  country,  relative  to  Missionary '  operafions.  Soon  after  my 
I'eturn  to  the  United  States  from  India,  the  openings  of  Pro- 
vidence presented  to  my  mind  the  practicability  of  a  very  general 
"Pinion  of  Baptist  Churches  in  this  country  in  Missionary  efforts. 
To  attain  this  grzat  object  nothing  could  be  more  apparent,  than 
*he  importance  cf  widely  diffusing,  among  the  Church  as  real  in- 
formation upon  the  subject  of  Missions.  After  the  formation  of 
^e  General  Missionary  Convention,  and  the  appointment  of  the 
^iiptist  Board  of  Missions,  it  became  evident  to  me  that  a  con- 
nection might  be  formed,  between  the  Board  and  the  numerous 
«»ptist  Associations  in  the  United  States,  of  such  a  nature  as 
*bould  actually  impart  the  necessary  intelligence  throughout  the 
•^hole  Denomination  in  this  country,  annually.  To  establish  this 
^nncietioa.  and  to  put  into  operation  a  system  of  regular  intsrcouree, 
^  jtwt  suggested,  I  perceived  would  require  great  exertion,  and, 
^  no  other  person  appeared  to  take  hold  of  this  business  in  the 
'Planner  necessary  to  its  accomplishment  I  determined  to  make  the 
^ort  myself.  To  effect  this  object  in  conjunction  with  the  forma- 
'^on  of  Mission  Societies,  I  have  been  engaged,  without  intermia- 
Slon  ever  since  my  return  from  India,  and  I  apprehend  it  will 
f^nire  at  least  a  year  and  a  half  from  the  present  time  to  bring 
4is  businass  to  that  degree  of  maturity,  which  duty  requires  me 


to  aim  at  before  I  return  to  the  Missionary  field.  I  consider  my 
life  as  absolutely  devoted  to  the  Missionary  cause,  and,  under  this 
impression,  cannot  but  think  it  my  duty  to  employ  my  time  and 
exertions,  and  to  wear  out  my  little  earthly  existence,  in  that  way 
which  offers  the  prospect  of  the  greatest  advantage  to  tliis  cause 
ultimately.  I  certainly  wish  not  to  remain  here  any  longer  than 
my  stay  will  more  promote  the  Missionary  interest  than  my  labours 
among  the  heathen  oould  do.  I  cherish  the  hope,  however,  of  once 
more  seeing  you  and  the  dear  Mission  family  at  Serampore,  and 
of  being  ultimately  associated  with  my  most  dear  brother  Judson 
in  the  Missionary  field." 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Triennial  Convention  in  Philadelphia 
which  was  held  in  1817  he  reported  that  he  Had  travelled  during 
a  very  short  time  7,800  miles,  collected  nearly  3,700  dollars,  and 
aroused  a  warm  interest  in  Missions  everywhere.  These  journks 
were  "through  wildernesses  and  over  rivers,  across  mountains  and 
valleys,  in  heat  and  cold,  by  day  and  by  night,  in  weariness  and 
painfulness,  and  in  fastings  and  loneliness." 

These  journies  and  these  labours  were  crowned  with  great 
success :  there  was  a  rapid  increase  in  Missionary  Societies  and  sncli 
large  contributions  for  missions  that  the  surplus,  was  invested 
from  time  to  time.  In  fact  so  effective  was  hiis  work  that  the 
Board  was  not  inclined  to  lose  his  services. 

In  the  ccursa  of  his  travels  he  became  so  impressed  with  the 
need  of  a  higher  standard  of  education  for  Baptist  Ministers  that 
he  directed  much  of  his  energy  to  the  establishment  of  a  Baptist 
Institution  of  learning.  The  fruit  of  his  labours  was  the  Columbian 
College  at  Washington,  D.  C,  now  one  of  the  infiuential  schools 
of  the  country.  He  was  deeply  impressed  with  the  school  opened 
in  Philadelphia  under  Drs.  Stoughton  and  Chase  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  young  men  for  the  Ministry.  Eighteen  were  in  course  of 
preparation  there.  He  urged  the  founding  of  a  college  at  Washing* 
ton  D.  C.  and  through  his  efforts,  46 J  acres  were  purchased  ad- 
jacent to  the  city  and  a  building  capable  of  accommodating  80 
students  was  begun.  The  Convention  took  the  institution  under 
its     supervision,     and     in    the     report     made     to     it     in    1821 

THE   REV.   LUTHER   RICE.  123 

there  was  set  forth  a  most  gratifying  statement  of  the  progress  of 
the  college.     Mr.  Rice  was  appointed  its  Agent  and  Treasurer. 

About  this  time  he  originated  the  Columbian  Star,  pub- 
lished at  Washington,  still  serving  as  Missionary  Agent.  His  addi- 
tional labours  as  Agent  for  the  College  were  overwhelming.  Diffi- 
culties, arose,  the  expanses  of  the  College  were  not  met,  and  Mr. 
Rice  was  prostrated  by  sickness  arising  out  of  his  terrible  anxieties. 
The  College  seemed  threatened  with  ruin  in  its  very  inception.  A 
warm  discussion  arose  in  the  Convention,  which  met  in  1826  and 
it  was  then  determined  to  separate  the  educational  movement  from 
the  missionary  operations.  Other  financial  agants  were  appointed 
for  the  College,  but  Mr.  Rice  still  collected  money  for  its  funds 
and  laboured  earnestly  with  an  unshaken  faith  in  its  final  success, 
and  before  he  died,  he  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  his  wishes  prac- 
tically fulfilled.  He  sacrificed  his  life  for  the  welfare  of 
the  Institution,  which  he  originated  and  which  he  loved  so  well. 

From  1817  to  1826  the  Convention  diverted  some  of  its  efforts 
to  the  work  of  Home  Missions  and  to  the  task  of  establishing  an 
Institution  of  higher  learning,  buC  in  X826  it  was  voted,  that  the 
Triennial  Convention  devote  itself  solely  to  the  prosecution  of 
Foreign  Missions.  In  1826  Mr.  Rice  ceased  to  be  the  Agent  of 
the  General  Convention  and  devoted  himself  wholely  to  the  interests 
of  the  Columbian  College. 

During  a  collecting  tour  through  the  South,  he  was  taken 
seriously  ill  at  the  house  of  a  friend  of  his,  Dr.  Mays,  at  Edge- 
field, South  Carolina,  where  he  died  on  the  25th  September  1836, 
and  was  buried  at  Point  Pleasant  Church  in  that  City. 

The  following  is  the  memorial  inscription  on  the  marble  slab 
erected  by  th^  Baptist  Convention  of  the  State  of  South  Carolina, 
written  by  men  who  knew  him  well  and  loved  him  dearly  for  his 
self-sacrificing  labours  in  tie  cause  of  Christian  Missions  and  min- 
isterial education. 




March  25th, 

A.D.  1783. 

Beneath  this  marble  are  deposited 

the  remains  of 

Elder  Luther  Kicb. 


September  25tb, 

A.D.  1886. 

A  minister  of  Christ,  of  the  Baptist  Denomination. 

He  was  a  native  of  Northboro',  Massachusetts, 

And  departed  this  life  in  Edgefield  Distiict,  S.  C. 

In   the   death   of  this   distinguished  servant  of  the  Lord, 
great  man  fallen  in  Israel." 

Tlian  he,  perhaps,  no  American 
has  done  more  for  tlie  great  Mis- 
sionary Enterprise. 

It  is  thought  the  first  American 
Foreign  Mission,  on  which  he 
went  to  India,  associated  with 
Judson  and  others,  originated 
with  him. 

And  if  the  Burmese  have  cause 
of  gratitude  towards  Judson,  for 
a  faithful  version  of  God's  Word, 
so  they  will  through  generations 
to  come.  Arise  up  and  call  Rice 
blessed  for  it  was  his  eloquent 
appeals  for  the  heathen  on  his 
return  to  America,  which  roused 
our  Baptist  Churches  to  adopt  the 
Burman  Mission  and  sustain 
Judson  in  his  arduous  toils. 


No  Baptist  has  done  more  for 
the  cause  of  education.  He 
founded  the  Columbian  College,  in 
the  District  of  Columbia,  which 
he  benevolently  intended  by  its 
central  position  to  diffuse  know- 
ledge, both  literary  and  religious, 
through  these  "United  States." 
And  if  for  want  of  deserved 
patronage  that  unfortunate  Insti- 
tution which  was  a  special  subject 
of  his  prayers  and  trials  for  the 
last  fifteen  years  of  his  life,  failed 
to  fulfil  the  high  pui'pose  of  its 
Founder,  yet  the  Spirit  of  edu- 
cation awakened  by  his  labors 
shall  accomplish  his  noble  aim. 

Luther  Rice, 

With  a   portly  person   and  commanding  presence,  combined  a  strong 
and  brilliant  intellect. 

As  a  theologian  lie  was  orthodox, 

A  Scholar,  liis  education  was  liberal. 

He  was  an  elegant  and  powerful  preacher 

A  self-denying  and  indefatigable  philanthropist. 

His  frailties  with  his  dust  are  entombed  ; 

And  upon  the  walls  of  Zion  his  Virtues  engraven. 

By  order  of  the  Baptist  Convention  for  the  State  of  South 

This  monument  is  erected  to  his  Mer^ory. 

THE   REV.  LUTHER   RICE.  125 

His  love  for  the  Columbian  College  was  seen  in  his  dying 
request.  "Send  my  Sulky  and  horse  and  baggage  to  Brother- 
Brooks,  with  directions  to  send  them  to  Brother  Sherwood,  and 
say  that  all  belong  to  ths  College." 

As  a  preacher  Mr.  Rice  was  rarely  excelled.  He  was  digni- 
fied in  appearance,  and  unusually  attractive  in  his  style.  His 
Barmons  were  characteristically  doctrinal,  and  weighty  in  funda- 
mental truths.  He  was  eminently  gifted  also  in  prayer.  He 
wrote  a  work  on  Baptism,  which,  however,  was  not  published. . 
He  was  elected  in  1815  to  the  Presidency  of  Translyvania  at  Lex- 
ington, Kentucky,  and  also  to  that  of  Georgetown  College,  Ken- 
tucky, both  of  which  he  declined,  as  the  two  great  obi2cts  of  his 
life — Missions  and  ministerial  education — absorbed  all  the  energies 
of  his  soul  and  body.     No  portrait  of  him  is  procurable. 

The  25th  was  a  prominent  date  in  Mr.  Rice's  life  as  will  be 
seen  below: — 

25th  March  ITSS.—Bsite  of  Birth. 

2oth  March  1812, — Date  of  admission  in  regard  to  labours  of 

25th  Octdbtr  1812.— B&ie  of  letter  to  Dr.  Carey  asking  for 

25 th  May  181  j^, — Date  on  which  the  Convention  at  Philadel- 
phia appointed  him  their  first  missionary  and  Dr.  Judson  their 

25th  September  1836.— 'Date  of  death. 

Much  of  the  foregoing  information  has  been  collected  by 
American  friends  from  American  publications  which  are  not  suffi- 
ciently known  to  any  but  American  Baptists.  Thus  passed  away 
a  remarkable  servant  of  God  who,  though,  he  was  practically  the 
starter  of  two  Missionary  Societies,  viz,,  those  of  the  Congrega^ 
tionalists  and  the  Baptists,  was  not  permitted  to  labour  as  a  mis- 
sionary in  any  heathen  land,  thus  exemplifying  the  saying  "Man 
proposes,  but  God  disposes.'' 

The  reader,  who  has  come  thus  far  will  probably  be  of  opinion 
that  the  Bev.  Luther  Rios  was  about  as  remarkable  a  man  as  Dr. 
Judson  but  he  is  overshadowed  by  the  latter.  This  is  no 
reason,  however,  why  a  tablet  should  not  be  erected  in  the  Chapel 
commemorating  his  baptism,  similar  to  the  one  commemorating^ 
Dr.  Judson's. 



Before  closing  this  chapter  some  readers  might  like  to 
know  what  happened  to  all  the  missionaries,  who  came  out  in  the 
(*araran  and  th*  Harmony,  so  the  details  below  may  interest 

Dr.  Jiulam  (B) 
Saml.  Newell  00    ... 

•Gordon  Hall  (C)  ... 
Saml.  Nott  (C) 

Luther  Rice  (B)      ... 

John  Lawson  (B)  ... 
Dr.Wm  Johns  (B)... 
Robt.  May  (0) 

Missionariett  per  •*  Caravan.** 

Died  mh  April  ]860,agoil  61. 
Died  8l8t  May  18S1,  aged  37. 

Landed  18rh  Jum^   1812. 

Missionaries  per  ••  Harmonjf.'* 

Died  10th  March  1826,agel4i 

Left  India,  September  18I& 
Die<l  in  America,  Ut  Jolly 
1869,  aged  81. 

Landed  lOtli  August  1812. 

Left  India  11th  March  181S. 
Died  in  America  26th  Se])- 
tember  1886,  aged  58. 

Died  22nd  October  1826,  ngetl 
38  years. 

Depo'ted  Ist  April  1818.  Died 
in  England  <date  not  traced) 

Died  12th  August  1818,  aj^^i 
80  yea^s. 

i.e.  four  Congregationalists  and  four  Baptists,  or  five  Americans 
and  three  English.  Of  this  number  Mr.  Lawson  got  special  per- 
mission from  Lord  Minto  to  remain  in  order  to  complete  a  fount 
of  Chinese  type,  and  Mr.  May  because  he  come  out  to 
an  English  congregation  and  not  as  a  missionary  to  the 
heathen.  Dr.  Johns  was  deported  back  to  England  on  Ist 
April  1813  and  the  five  Americans  were  driven  out  of  Bengal  by 
the  Government.  Dr.  Judson  was  permitted  to  work  the  longest, 
but  Mr.  Nott  lived  to  the  advancad  age  of  81  in  America,  where 
lie  died  on  1st  July  1869. 


The  simple-minded  Mrs.  Jore,  a  devout  member  of  the 
Church,  who  died  on  8th  July  1815. 

It  was  the  poor  who  attended  the  Chapel,  but  they  were  rich 
faith.     The  following  narrative  of  one  of  these  members  is  of 
ifficient  interest  to  find  a  place  in  this  history  as  typical  of  many 
its  kind.     It  is  taken  from  the  Periodical  Accounts: 

On  the  8th  July  (1815)  died  at  Serampore,  Mrs.  Jora,  one 
the  Calcutta  members,  of  whom  her  son  wrote  as  follows  in  a 
tter  to  Mr.  Ward.  After  mentioning  his  own  efforts  to  bring 
)r  to  attend  upon  the  Word  at  the  Lall-Bazar  Chapel,  he  added : 
Qe  evening  she  returned  from  the  Chapel  accompanied  by  Krishna 
'  which  circumstance  I  was  not  a  little  rajoiced,  and  at  another 
nte,  with  Mrs.  Mitchell,  an  old  acquaintance  of  hers,  with  whom 
^  was  glad  to  meet,  and  whose  conversation  and  society  she  ev^r 
•luiously  sought.  She  afterwards  became  very  regular  in  h^r 
^ndance  at  the  Chapel,  and  left  entirely  the  Romish  Church, 
enduring  the  sneers  and  ridicule  of  her  friends  and  relations,  who 
ook  a  dislike  to  her  for  changing  her  religion  (as  they  termed  it), 
mt  she  the  more  steadfastly  clave  to  the  Protestant  faith.  Her 
ife  since  then,  which  has  been  an  increasing  one  of  prayer,  humi- 
ty,  self-denial  and  patience  in  sickness,  without  murmuring,  will 
»  better  ascertained  by  a  reference  to  those  of  your  Church,  who 
wk  an  interest  in  her  welfare,  than  by  my  describing  it.  Permit 
e,  however,  to  say  this  much  that  though  she  was  very  devout 
xaa  her  widowhood  ever  since  my  birth  (a  period  of  nearly  34 
Mirs)  in  the  Bomish  persuasion,  she  was  more  so  in  her  converted 
ate;  often  did  I  with  pleasure  hear  her  say  how  merciful  the 
Imighty  had  been  to  her  in  reclaiming  her  from  the  errors  of 
e  Bomish  religion.  She  used  at  the  same  time  to  lament  that 
e  was  not  able  to  read  the  Scriptures  in  Bengalee,  yet  she  could 


read  a  little  French  and  Portuguese.  She  considered  it  no  trouble, 
nor  pain,  even  in  sickness,  when  she  could  stir  abroad  to  go  wherever 
she  could  hear  the  Word  of  Grod.  And  her  constant  conver8a;ti(m 
with  those  around  her  was  "Let  us  heartily  apply  to  the  salvatiim 
of  our  souls.''  I  had  almost  omitted  one  circumstance,  which 
attended  the  near  approach  of  death  and  which  formed  a  favourable 
and  indubitable  sign  of  her  having  died  in  the  Lord.  The  Oiund- 
ranuggure  (Chandemagore)  priest  being  informed  that  she  wu 
dangcruusly  ill,  came  to  see  her,  but,  instead  of  coming  to  console 
her,  Ik-  came  to  shake  her  faith ;  but  the  Lord,  in  whom  she  had 
trusted  f-treugthened  her  to  baffle  his  inimicable  attempt.  He  began 
by  telling  her  that  as  she  would  soon  die  she  had  better  prepare 
af^ainst  that  hour  by  recanting  the  religion  she  had  embraced  and 
by  confessing  her  sins  to  him  and  thus  die  in  the  faith  in  which 
she  was  brought  up  from  lier  infancy.  She  replied  that  she  was  ready 
to  obey  the  summons  of  her  Lord;  that  she  was  firmly  fixed  in 
the  true  and  pure  religion  she  had  by  Divine  aid  embraced;  that 
she  confessed  daily  to  Him,  who  was  really  able  to  pardon  her 
sins;  and,  that  nothing  ha  could  tell  her  would  induce  her  to 
retract.  He  then  left  her,  pouring  imprecations  on  her  and  telling 
her  that  she  was  going  to  Hell  and  that  those  who  turned  her 
away  from  her  original  faith  could  not  have  been  her  friends  but 
her  enemies.'' 

To  ^Ir.  Ward  also  she  related  this  encounter  with  the  Romish 
pricfet  who  spoke  with  great  vehemence  against  the  missionaries. 
She  exi)Osed  many  of  the  gross  superstitions  she  had  witnessed  in 
the  Roniisli  Church,  and  though  scarcely  able  to  speak,  in  con- 
sequence of  a  most  painful  ulcer  in  her  throat  and  great  weakness, 
she  gave  with  much  courage  a  reason  of  the  hope  that  was  in  her. 
Her  devotional  character  was  truly  eminent.  She  once 
acknowledged  to  Mr.  Ward  that  such  were  the  joys  she 
felt  when  in  the  water  at  the  time  of  her  baptism  that 
she  wished  at  once  to  be  removed  from  the  watery  grave 
to    the    general    assembly    above.      She    expressed    the    deepest 


gratitude  to  the  Missionaries  for  having  brought  the  Gospel 
to  the  poor  in  tho  native  language.  It  was  not  an  uncommon 
thing  to  see  this  pious  woman  half  an  hour  before  the  time  of 
worship,  sitting  in  the  chapel  at  Calcutta  apparently  in  prayer 
and  waiting  to  drink  at  the  wells  of  salvation.  She  assisted  some 
of  the  poor  Native  brethren  living  at  the  chapel  with  oil,  that 
they  might  hold  extraordinary  meetings  for  prayer.  Dr.  Marsh- 
man  saw  her  on  the  day  on  which  she  died  and  found  her  mind 
in  a  most  pleasing  frame,  resigned,  though  in  extreme  pain,  she 
seemed  to  fear  nothing  so  much  as  offending  her  gracious  God  by 
murmuring  through  excess  of  pain.  Dr.  Marshman  took  his  formal 
leave  of  her  by  commending  her  to  the  Father  of  mercies  in  which 
exercise  she  evidently  felt  most  deeply  engaged.     . 

It  is  very  unfortxmate  that  this  excellent  person's  date  of 
baptism  has  not  been  traced. 


The  Co-Pastorship  of  the  Revs.  John  Lawson  and  Eustace  Cabet 


By  the  end  of  1815  over  500  persons  had  been  admitted  into 
the  Church  by  baptism  or  otherwise,  and  though,  of  oourss,  some 
might  not  be  alive  in  January  1816  or  resident  in  Calcutta,  the 
number  of  souls  to  be  cared  for  was  more  than  the  three  senior 
missionaries  could  well  look  after  in  addition  to  their  already 
onerous  duties,  and,  considering  that  they  were  residing  at  Seram- 
pore,  which  was  more  than  15  miles  distant  from  Calcutta.  It 
must  also  be  borne  in  mind  that  their  printing  press  had  been 
burned  down  on  11th  March  1812,  which  caused  them  much 
anxiety  and  entailed  much  labour  in  the  building  of  a  new  struc- 
ture. Moreover,  at  about  this  time  they  were  contemplating  the 
establishment  of  the  Serampore  College.  Added  to  all  was  the 
fact  that  their  faithful  Calcutta  correspondent,  Mr.  Leonard,  had 
removed  to  Dacca,  and  they  were  beginning  to  feel  the  weight  of 
years  after  their  long  stay  in  a  trying  tropical  climate.  It  was 
natural,  therefore,  that  they  should  seek  some  relief  in  their 
arduous  toils. 

Before,  however,  we  proceed  to  give  an  account  of  their 
stewardship  of  over  3J  years,  the  two  persons,  who  now  oome  on 
the  scene  must  first  be  introduced  to  the  reader  and  this  will  bs 
done  as  briefly  as  is  advisable.  Mr.  Lawson,  being  the  senior  of 
the  two,  will  be  introduced  first.  No  Biography  of  him  has  ever 
been  published,  which  makes  it  the  more  difl&cult  to  marshal  up 
the  facts  of  his  life  before  the  reader.  The  present  writer  was 
engaged  a  few  years  back  in  searching  out  all  the  information  he 
could  about  him  as  Mr.  Lawson  was  his  maternal  grandfather, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  descendants,  but  the  information  then  col- 
lected was  not  condensed  into  a  Biography,  so  will  be  drawn  upon 
for  the  present  sketch. 



The  Rev.  John  Lawson. 

He  was  bom  at  Trowbridge  in  WilteHire,  England,  on  the  24th 
T 1787,  of  godly  parents,  who  belonged  to  the  Baptist  Cfhurch  in 
>  town.  He  spent  his  childhood  and  early  youth  at  Trowbridge. 
OL  a  child  he  was  made  acquainted  with  the  Holy  Scriptures 

tJie  impressions  produced   by  his  mother's  instructions  were 


Enlarged  from  a  miniature  done  "by  himself  which  w  in  the  possession  o) 

the  writer,^ 

itwards  strengthened  by  the  kind  attentions  of  the  master  to 
ae  care  his  education  was  entrusted,  who  often  convensed  and 
fred  witE  him  in  th&  most  solemn  and  affectionate  manner, 
sainted  mother  died  in  1793  when  he  was  only  6  years  of  age 
her  death  was  one  of  the  events  that  most  impressed  them* 


selves  on  his  mind.  As  he  grew  up  lie  felt  a  strong  propensity  to 
beoome  an  artist.  He  commenced  cutting  different  figures  in  pieces 
of  wood,  and,  without  any  assistance,  brought  them  to  such  per- 
fection that  those  who  saw  them  were  astonished  and  convinced 
that  the  hand  of  Nature  had  formed  him  for  an  Artist.  His  father 
went  to  London  to  seek  out  a  suitable  situation  for  him  and  suc- 
ceeded in  getting  him  articled  to  a  wood  engraver.  Lawson  was 
delighted  when  he  heard  the  news,  and  all  necessary  arrangements 
having  bean  made  he  left  his  home  at  Trowbridge  in  June  1803 
for  the  great  city.  The  parting  scene  was  touching.  His  father 
requested  two  things  of  him — one  was  to  read  his  Bible  and  the 
other  to  attend  Divine  worship  on  the  Sabbath,  which  he  promised 
to  do.  He  put  his  Bible  into  his  box,  which  he  wished  him,  as 
he  valued  his  eternal  interests,  to  make  His  principal  study,  saying 
at  the  same  time  very  affectionately: — 

"  I  hope  now,  as  you  are  going  beyond  the  reach  of  a  parent's 
eye  to  a  place  where  you  will  be  surrounded  with  snares  and 
dangers,  you  will  not  fail  to  attend  the  ministry  of  the  Gospel  every 
Sunday,  and  I  particularly  wish  you  to  make  Eagle  Street  (where 
Dr.  Ivimey  was)  your  constant  place  of  hearing." 

His  aged  grandmother  also  urged  him  with  tears  in  her  eyes 
to  read  has  Bible  and  attend  a  place  of  worship,  which  he  promised 
to  do.  He  then  received  their  parting  benedictions  and  left  the 
place  of  his  nativity  to  enter  the  great  city  where  all  was  new  and 

Arrived  in  London  he  applied  himself  diligently  to  his  woA 
and  made  rapid  advances  in  the  art,  but,  alas!  he  forgot  hi» 
pron^ises  to  his  father  and  his  grandmother.  He  neglected  to  read 
his  Bible  and  seldom  attended  any  place  of  worship.  He  oontinnel 
in  this  course  for  nearly  three  years  when  in  "one  of  his  serious 
intervals  he  was  led  to  read  his  Bible  and  to  visit  the  forsaken 
Chapel  and  it  pleased  God  by  these  means  to  convince  him  of  sin 
and  make  him  acquainted  with  the  blessings  of  salvation. 

He  twice  attended  the  Surrey  Cfhapel  where  Rowland  Hill 
used  to  preach,  but  afterwards  he  attended  the  Eagle  Street  Ohapd 


id  eventually  offered  himself  as  a  candidate  to  tlie .  Church  meet- 
g  in  the  latter  place.  After  being  accepted  he  was  baptized  on 
e  28tii  September  1806,  along  with  17  other  young  men  among 
liom  was  Dr.  Hoby,  who  subsequently  wrote  biographies  of  the 
evs.  W.  H.  Pearce  and  W.  Yates. 

Soon  after  his  admission  to  the  Church  his  mind  became  im- 
«8sed  with  the  importance  of  Missions,  and,  thinking  lie  might 
x>mote  the  great  cause  by  the  knowledge  of  the  art  he  had 
quired,  he  made  known  his  desire  and  was  recommended  to  the 
aptist  Missionary  Society.  The  Society  engaged  his  services  and 
Laoed  him  und^  the  care  of  Mr.  Sutcliff  of  Olney  under  whom 
9  entered  upon  a  preparatory  couree  of  studies.  This  course  of 
udies,  however,  was  not  carried  out  to  the  extent  he  wished 
irough  its  having  been  judged  desirable  for  him  to  make  himself 
aeter  of  punch-cutting  in  order  to  improve  the  different  typea 
t  India.  This  necessitated  his  return  to  London  and  nearly  a 
sar's  close  application.  Thus  Gk)d,  step  by  step  prepared  His 
irvant  for  his  special  work  in  the  Mission  field. 

In  September  1810  it  was  judged  necessary  by  the  Society 
lat  Mr.  Lawson  and  Dr.  Johns  ^ould  go  out  to  India  by  way 
:  America  and  preparations  were  made  accordingly,  but  before 
le  Designation  Service  Mr.  Lawson  married  Miss  Frances  Butter- 
orth,  a  dau^ghter  of  the  Rev.  John  Butterworth  of  Cow  Lane 
aptist  Chapel,  Coventry,  on  the  28th  September  1810. 

One  Designation  Service  was  held  on  the  4th  Octx)ber  1810,  at 
lie  Carter  Lane  Chapel,  Southwark,  and  another  at  the  Eagle  Street 
faapel  on  the  18th  idem.  On  the  2nd  November  1810  the  ship 
eres  in  which  they  had  embarked  at  Gravesend  sailed  for  New 
ork  where  they  arrived  on  23rd  December  after  a  very  boisterous 
usage  across  the  Atlantic.  In  May  1811  they  tried  to  start  for 
ttdia,  but  the  vessel  had  to  put  back  having  met  with  a  disaster 
t>  sea  in  a  violent  gale.  They  had  therefore  to  remain  in  America 
wing  to  some  political  misunderstanding  with  England,  so  Mr. 
awson  preached  at  different  places  and  among  then  Dr.  Stxmgh- 


ton's  Church.  He  was  very  acceptable  as  a  preacher  and  often 
had  thoughts  that  if  obliged  to  leave  India  he  would  return  to 
labour  in  America.  Dr.  Johns  spent  his  time  in  raisiiig  money 
for  the  translations.  Finally  they  left  i^iiladelphia  for  India  in 
the  Harmony,  Captain  Brown,  on  18th  February  1812  and  arrived 
in  Calcutta  on  Monday  the  10th  August  following. 

On  their  arrival  at  Calcutta  they  learned  that  all  the  mk- 
sionaries  had  been  ordered  away  and  afterwards  they  were  told 
that  permission  had  been  given  to  the  Baptist  Missionaries  to 
remain  during  the  pleasure  of  the  Court  of  Directors.  Mrs.  Law- 
son  having  been  safely  delivered  of  a  girl  on  the  11th  August  they 
were  necessarily  detained  in  Calcutta  for  a  while,  after  whidi  they 
removed  to  Serampore  where  Mr.  Lawson  applied  hiTinft<>lf  to  the 
work  that  was  required  of  him.  By  the  end  of  1812  it  is  stated 
that  he  was  cutting  a  fount  of  Chinese  type.  The  two  principal 
things  to  which  Mr.  Lawson  devoted  himself  at  Serampose 
were :  (1)  Cutting  moveable  metal  Chinese  types  to  be  substituted 
for  wooden  blocks,  and  (2)  Reducing  the  ^ize  of  the  types  of  the 
languages  in  India  and  for  these  he  is  entitled  to  the  thanks  of 
the  religious  public. 

While  thus  usefully  employed  on  the  above  work  the  following 
order  was  issued  by  the  Government  on  the  5th  March  1813  for 
all  unlicensed  persons  to  leave  the  country  and  the  names  of  Messn. 
Johns,  Lawson  and  Robinson  were  included  in  what  might  be^ 
termed  "the  black  list." 

I  am  directed  by  the  right  Honorable  the  Governor-General 
in  Council  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter  dated  the  3(Hh 
January  last,  regarding  Messrs.  Johns,  Lawson  and  Robinsoiir 
and  to  inform  you  that  it  is  contrary  to  the  public  orders  of  the 
Honorable  the  Court  of  Directors  for  the  Government  to  permit 
British  subjects,  who  come  out  to  India  without  their  express  per- 
mission to  remain  in  this  country.  His  Lordship  under  all  the 
circumstances  of  their  cases,  does  not  feel  himself  warranted  in 
acceding  to  the  indulgence  submitted  by  you  on  their  behalf. 

2.  Messrs.  Lawson,  Johns  and  Eobinson  will  therefore  be 
respectfully  desired  to  prepare  themselves  to  embark  for  Bngland 


on  one  of  the  ships  of  the  next  fleet,  expected  to  sail  from  this 
Port  by  the  Ist  of  April  next. 

(Sd.)  C.    M.    BlCKBTTS, 

Secretary  to  Government, 
Council  Chamber,  5th  March  1813. 

Upon  a  representation  b^ing  made  to  the  Government  of  Mr. 
XiawBon's  great  usefulness  in  connection  with  the  type  work,  he 
w«B  allowed  on  26th  March,  to  remain,  but  Dr.  Johns  was  per- 
emptorily ordered  to  rstum  to  England  immediately,  so  left  on 
1st  April  1813.  In  the  meantime  Mr.  Lawson  had,  on  the  13th 
March  been  committed  to  the  Kuttra, — where  under-trial  peiBons 
were  detained, — under  orders  of  Mr.  Charles  Fuller  Martyn  the 
Magistrate,  for  refusing  to  sign  the  document  consenting  to  be 
deported.  Dr.  Marshman,  however,  on  going  to  see  Mr.  Ericketts, 
the  Secretary  got  him  released  within  a  short  time. 

Mr.  Lawson  having  taught  the  natives  to  cut  punches  and 
reduce  the  size  of  types  found  his  importance  diminished  as  the 
usefulness  of  Monohur  the  head  man  increased,  so  he  did  not 
deem  it  necessary  any  longer  to  give  his  time  to  this  mechanical 
work.  He  found  sample  scope  for  his  ministerial  gifts  among 
the  European  and  East  Indian  members  of  the  congr-^ation  in 
Calcutta,  and  among  the  European  soldiers  in  the  Fort.  The 
irregular  walk  of  some  of  the  members  of  the  Church  in  Calcutta 
led  the  senior  brethra^n  to  decide  that  one  Pastor  or  more  should 
reside  in  Calcutta  to  take  a  more  careful  oversight  of  the  members. 
Prior  to  this  the  missionaries  had  taken  it  in  turo 
to  oome  down  to  Calcutta  from  Serampore.  This  led  to 
the  designation  of  Mr.  Lawson  and  Mr.  Eustace  Carey  as  Co- 
pasters.  The  details  of  the  work  done  during  their  Co-pastorship 
are  given  further  on.  On  19th  October  1819,  Mr.  Lawson  severed 
liis  connection  with  this  Church  and  was  appointed  the  flrst  Pastor 
of  the  Circular  Bead  Church  which  had  been  formed  by  the  junior 
brethren.  He  laboured  7  years  for  that  Church  in  that  position 
and  on  22nd  October  1825,  was  gathered  to  his  fathers  and  was 
buried   by  the  Kev.   J.   Thomason  of  St.   John's  Church  on  the 


23rd  idem  in  tihe  South  Park  Street  Cemetery  where  his  gravt 
can  be  seen  at  the  present  day.  He  was  only  38  years  of  age  when 
he  died. 

The  following  extract  from  Statham's  ''  Indian  ReooUections." 
is  of  interest  as  it  gives  the  recollections  of  a  fellow-labourer  in  the 

The  recollections  of  Lawson   are  still   fresh   upon   my   mind. 
He  was  a  genius  of  no  common  mould ;   in  all  that  he  undertook 
he  excelled;    and  the  longer  you  were  conversant  with  him,  the 
more  would   admiration  be  excited.     In  the  succeeding   chapter, 
I  shall  make  a  f«eble  effort  to  rescue  his  memory  from  oblivion, 
by  giving  a  brief  memoir  of  this,  talented  man,  the  materials  for 
which  aire  taken  from  a  small  peridical,  of  which  he  was  the  editor, 
mz.,    The    Calcutta   Auxiliary    Missionary    Herald,    published  in 
January   and     February     1826.     [This  is  evidently  a  reprint  <rf 
Dr.  Yates'  Memorial  Sermon  for  Mr.  Lawson.] 
Oh!  happy  was  thy  exit,  blissful  saint; 
No   pining  sickness  tir'd  thee — care  opprest — 
No  grief  domestic  marr'd  thy  coming  rest ; 
Short  was  thy  warning — sweet  thy  dying  plaint; 
Calm,  sunny  were  thy  thoughts — ^thine  accents  faint; 
By  virtuous  children  lov'd,  by  friends  carest. 
Thy  sorrowing  flock  thou  leavest,  peaceful,  blest; 
Oh  I  happy  was  thy  exist,  blissful  saint. 
So  falls  the  goodly  palm  tree,  as  it  grew. 
With   clustering  dates,   and  graceful  foliage  crown'd: 
Nor  lightning  scorch'd,  nor  age  consumed  its  hue; 
Its  dirge  is  sung,  in  most  pathetic  sound. 
By  grateful  pilgrims,  who  had  often  staid. 
Refreshed  and  cheer'd,  beneath  its  cooling  shade. 


It  may  here  be  mentiomsd  that  Mr.  Lawson's  elder  brother, 
William,  was  a  Lieutenant  in  the  Boyal  Navy  and  wee  wounded 
while  serving  under  the  distinguished  Nelson  in  one  of  his  naval 
engagements.  Mr.  Lawson  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  this 
brother  about  a  month  after  his  arrival  in  Calcutta  after  years  of 
absence  from  home. 

The  Rev.  Eustace  Carey. 

He  was.  born  on  22nd  March  1791  at  Paulerspury.  He  was  the 
son  of  Thomas  Carey,  who  was  a  younger  brother  of  Dr.  Carey. 



ence  Eustaod  Caxey  was  a  nephew  of  Dr.  Carey,  and  this  fact 
OTild  always  be  borne  in  mind.  He  was  baptized  on  7tli  July  1809, 
id  in  August  went  for  tuition  to  Mr.  Sutcliff  of  Olney.  In 
12  he  went  to  Bristol  College,  which  he  left  in  the  autumn  of 
►13.  On  the  9th  December  1813  he  married  Mies  Mary  Fosbrook; 
I  the  19t£  January  1814  his  Designation  Service  was  held  at 
orthampton  and  on  18th  February  1814,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carey 
ibarked  for  India  from  Portsmouth.  The  name  of  the  vessel 
s  been  traced  from  the  Supplement  to  the  Calcutta  Gazette  of 
h  August  1814,  as  the  Europe,  Captain  Gelston,  which  left  on 
e  22nd  February  and  arrived  at  Calcutta  on  the  29th  July  1814. 


Rev.   J.  Lawson. 

On  Ist  August  1814  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carey  arrived  at  Seram- 
re.  Mr.  Carey  had  come  out  under  a  license  under  the  new 
larter  Act  of  1813  and  was  the  first  missionary,  who  had  landed 


in  India  after  the  passing  of  the  new  Act  which  came  into  opera- 
tion from  10th  April  1814.  A  few  days  after  his  landing  he  paid 
the  needful  visit  to  the  Government  authorities,  but  the  businen 
was  soon  over.  Dr.  Carey  wrote  that  it  reminded  him  of  the 
difference  betwe:?n  these  days  and  those  in  which  he  first  cams 
out  to  India.  He  was  invited  by  the  senior  missionaries  to  tab 
the  oversight  of  the  native  ChurcH,  instruct  native  enquirers  aad 
give  attention  to  such  native  brethren  as  were  devoting  them- 
selves to  preaching  among  the  heathen  and  accordingly  lie 
gave  himself  up  to  the  acquisition  of  Bengalee.  Mr. 
Carey  and  Dr.  Yates  would  have  liked  to  have  formed 
a  Station  at  Berhampone,  but  this  was  over-ruled  by  tlie 
senior  missionaries,  who  invited  Lawson  and  Eustace  Carey 
to  occupy  Calcutta  and  requested  Dr.  Yates  to  stay  at  Serampore 
to  assist  in  the  translations.  And  thus  it  came  about  that  he 
was  apiK)inted  Co-pastor  at  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  with  Mr.  Lawson. 
The  controversy  with  the  Junior  Brethren  arose  and  eventually 
the  Circular  Koad  Church  was  formed.  On  7th  October  1819 
Mr.  Carey  resigned  his  Co^pastorship  and  throw  himself  into  ver- 
nacular work  connected  with  the  Circular  Road  Church.  But 
one  day  as  he  was  preaching  at  the  Chapal  gate  in  1822  with  a 
converted  Brahmin  named  Bagchee,  a  rdspectable  Mahomedan 
was  a  hearer.  Hie  name  was  Sujaat  Ali.  After  careful  Mid 
prayerful  consideration  he  wias  baptized  by  Dr.  Yates  at  Howrah 
on  the  8th  May  1824.  The  story  regarding  this  man  is  very  inter- 
esting and  will  be  given  in  a  later  Chapter.  Mr.  Carey  s  health 
failed  and  he  finally  left  India  in  June  1824  via  America 
for  England.  He  remained  several  months  in  America 
and  arrived  in  England  in  August  1825  where  he  was  permitted 
to  labour  in  the  interests  of  the  Mission  and  the  Missionary  Society 
till  19th  July  1855  when  he  died  in  the  64th  year  of  his 

Having  thus  introduced  the  Cc-pastors,  it  becomes  necessiury 
to  detail  the  events  of  thsdr  Co-pastorship. 

The  designation  service  took  place  on  the  11th  January  1816 


and  the  record  regarding  it  runs  as  below  in  the  Periodical  Ac 
counts : — 

"After  a  suitable  hymn  and  an  introductory  prayer, 
Brother  Ward  giave  an  account  of  the  different  forms  of  Churdh. 
Government  and  particularly  of  that  under  which  the  Church  waa 
then  acting.  This  was  followed  by  questions  respecting  the  choice 
of  the  two  brethren  as  Co^Pastors  and  by  a  confession  of  faith 
from  each  of  them.  After  the  laying  of  hands  by  the  three  elder 
Pastors,  and  the  ordination  prayer  by  Brother  Carey  he  addressed 
the  two  brethren  from  Col.  iv.  17,  and  Brother  Marhsman 
addressed  the  Church  from  Psalm  ii.  16.  The  service  was  closed 
with  prayer  by  Brother  Ward.  Tha  whole  was  in  a  high  degree 
solemn  and  impressive." 

Mr.  Lawson,  took  up  the  English  work  and  Mr.  Eustace 
Carey  the  vernacular  work  as  it  was  estimated  that 
there  were  a  million  souls  in  Calcutta.  The  latter  thus  became 
the  first  European  vemacuar  preacher  resident  in  Calcutta.  Mr. 
Lawson  Ifecame  the  Calcutta  correspondent  for  the  senior  mis- 
sionaries in  succession  to  Mr.  Leonard :  but  he  did  not  write  as 
frequently  to  them  as  the  latter  used  to  do.  There  used  to  be 
four  services  at  the  Chapel  on  Sundays  aw  below : — 

8  A.  M. — Bengalee  Service. 

10  A.  M. — ^English  service  by  one  of  the  elder  Brethren  from 

3  p.  M. — Bengalee  service  by  one  of  the  elder  Brethren  from 

7  p.  M. — ^English  service  by  one  of  the  Brathren  resident  in 

Also  service  at  the  jail  in  the  morning  and  afterwards  in 
the  Fort. 

Tuesday  evening  a  lecture  in  the  Chapel  by  Dr.  Carey. 

Wednesday  evening  another  in  the  Fort  by  one  of  tha  younger 
men  . 

The  very  day  of  the  Ordination  Mr.  Lawson  wrote : — 

"We  are  going  on  much  as  usual  in  Calcutta.  I  hope  our  younger 

^'people  are  gradually  advancing  in  Divine  things.     May  they  be 

our  joy  here,  and  crown  of  rejoicing  in  glory.     We  have  set  them 

140  THE    6T0BY   OF    THE    LALL-BAZAK    BAPTIST    OHUBOH. 

to  work  in  the  formation  of  a  society  for  visiting  and  relieving 
tlie  poor,  which  is  to  be  called  the  Juvenile  Charitable  Institu- 
tion. They  seem  to  enter  upon  this  with  delight,  and  I  think  it 
will  be  the  means  of  uniting  them  together  and  of  calling  forth 
their  gifts,  as  reading,  and  explaining  the  Sacred  Scriptures  and 
prayer  are  to  attend  every  visit.  Our  congregation  in  the  Fort 
is  codarged,  as  a  Regiment  from  Berhampore  haa  lately  arrived, 
among  whom  are  brethren  baptized  by  Dr.  Marshman. 

"  This  morning  Eustace  Carey  and  I  intend  attending  a  Church 
meeting  in  the  Fort.  Yesterday  we  went  together  to  the  Hob^ 
pital  to  see  some  sick  brethren  of  the  59th  Regiment.  We  thought 
it  prudent  to  pay  our  respects  to  the  Doctor  before  we  went  and 
he  politely  gave  us  permission  to  visit  the  soldiers  whenever  we 
wished.  We  found  five  or  six  brethren,  with  whom  in  a  little 
room  allotted  to  Brother  M.,  we  joined  together  in  prayer.  I  am 
much  pleased  with  the  spirituality  and  stability  of  these  good 

From  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that  at  the  very  outsefc 
of  his  Co-pastorship,  Mr.  Lawson  saw  the  importance  of  a  Juvenile 
Association  for  Christian  work  and  this  was  prior  even  to  the 
formation  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  in  England. 
This  Juvenile  Society  under  various  names  did  useful  work  in 
Calcutta  for  many  years  and  eventually  opened  a  Hall  in  Bow 
Bazar,  on  the  19th  November  1852.  In  1854  the  Calcutta  Young 
Men's  Christian  Association  was  formed  and  in  1856,  the  Juvenile 
^ciety  adopted  the  latter  name. 

In  another  note  he  said  : — 

"I  wish  I  could  communicate  to  you  the  news 
of  our  prosperity  in  Calcutta.  We  feel  it  quite  a 
blessing  that  Brother  Gordon  livesso  near  us.  I  spoke  to  him 
a  few  days  ago  respecting  Robert,  and  was  gratified  with  what 
I  could  collect.  We  may  be  assured  that  he  would  not  speak  of 
his  son's  conversion,  but  on  very  good  grounds.  I  had  some  agree- 
able conversation  last  evening  with  Jahans,*  and  have  reason  to 
hope  that  he  is  a  pious,  humble  young  man.  The  young  man  of 
whom  I  formerly  wrote  has  not  attended  very  much  of  late:  I 
know  not  the  cause.  I  saw  him  last  week  at  our  Thursday  evening 
prayer-meeting.  The  two  brethren  baptised  by  Brother  Eustace 
Carey  last  Lord's-day  appear  to  be  very  spiritual  men.     We  were 

*  A  joong   man  trained   op,  from  the  begiDning,  in  the  Benevolent  Institao 
tion,  in  which  he  filled  the  office  of  monitor  for  sever^  ^ears. 


at  th©  Church-meeting  when  they  related  their  experience,  ani: 
were  qidte  gratified  and  refreshed:  they  seetm  to  have  entered 
deeply  into  the  very  spirit  of  religion,  and  are  well  versed  in  thisr 
tilings  of  God." 

In  1816  thirty-eight  were  admitted  into  the  Church  of  whom, 
twenty-three  were  soldiers  of  the  59th  Kegiment;  in  1817  thirty- 
seven  wera  admitted  of  whom  only  seven  were  soldiers;  in  1818- 
there  were  twelve  admissions  and  in  1819  only  eight  admissions. 

In  the  same  year  a  mat  hut  was  constructed  at  Dum  Dumi 

for  services  and  Mr.     Lawson  used  to  go  out     there  to  conduct 

the  service  for  the  soldiers. 

Mr.  E.  Carey  recorded  their  work  as  below: — 
"The  members  of  the  Cliurch  and  oongregatdon  were 
scattered  over  a  wide  surface  and  we  devoted  one  day  in  every 
week  to  visiting  them,  holding  a  religious  servica  with  each- 
family.  We  had  one  or  two  meetings  in  commodious  houjses  each 
week  for  prayer  and  expositing  the  Scripture  at  which  many 
friends  besides  those  of  our  denomination  were  present. 

Two  or  three  services  were  also  held  in  Fort  William,  which 
were  well  attended  by  the  soldiers,  many  of  whom  were  brought 
into  Church  fellowship  and  were  truly  devout  and  exemplary 

The  following  letter  from  the  Regimental  Pastor  of  the  59th 
Regiment  to  Mr.  Lawson  is  so  interesting  that  it  is  inserted  w 

"12th  September  (1816).  When  our  regiment  arrived  inr 
Fort  William,  we  had  in  full  communion  seventeen  persons. 
From  the  above  number  eleven  still  remain.  Two  have  left  our 
communion,  but  laare  going  on  well ;  and  three  have  been  excluded. 
One  has  been  restored,  who  was  excluded  at  Java ;  he  walks  very 
orderly.  One  has  died  in  full  hope  of  eternal  life.  The  Lori* 
has  been  graciously  pleased  to  incline  the  hearts  of  others  since 
our  arrival,  who  have  left  their  sinful  practices,  and  hiave  been 
constrained,  through  the  awakenings  of  conscience,  to  read  and 
hear  His  preached  word,  which  has  been  the  means  of  adding! 
to  our  communion,  twenty-one.  One  of  the  latter  has  been  ex- 
cluded, and  is  still  living  in  open  rebellion  against  God ;  another 
useful  brother  (John  Smith)  has  been  discharged  from  our  church, 
and  has  since  gone  to  England ;  we  have  also  just  received  the  in- 
telligence of  another  (who  was  baptized  with  the  above)  a  useful 


member,  suddenly  appearing  before  his  God.  So  ihat,  €m  the 
whole  we  remain,  at  present  in  full  communion,  thirty  m!eiinbe>i:s. 
The  indulgences  shown  in  this  garrison  have  been  very  great;  for 
our  superiors  have  at  all  times  favoured  us  in  every  request  which 
we  have  asked  from  them,  and  have  permitted  us  to  assemble  for 
the  worship  of  God  in  such  places  as  were  vacant. 

"  Our  meetings  in  general  are  well  attended :  when  the  r^ 
ment  is  all  together,  we  have  from  sixty  to  a  hundred;  besides 
otheirs  who  live  in  d/iff&rent  parts  of  the  Fort,  we  have  a  few 
who  have  permission  from  the  surgeon  to  meet  for  reading  and 
praying  as  often  as  they  choose :  this  has  been  of  much  importance 
to  a  few  individuals,  who  have  been  for  a  long  saason  lingering 
in  sickness.  We  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  some  have  died 
with  the  pardoning  love  of  God  shsd  abroad  in  their  souls,  and  are 
now  in  glory. 

"May  the  Lord  reward  you  all  for  your  labour  of  love,  and 
give  you  many  souls  for  your  hire,  and  at  last  crown  you  with 
glory,  which  is  the  sincere  prayer  of  us,  your  unworthy  brethren. 

"In  the  name  and  on  the  behalf  of  the  Church  in  H.  M.'s 
59th  R&giment. 


"Private  in  H.  M.'s  59th  Regiment.." 

During  1816,  one  of  the  Deacons  died,  but  it  has  not  been 
possible  to  trace  the  name.  Two  other  Deacons  were  appointed 
during  that  year  apparently  to  fill  vacancies,  but  their  names  are 
not  mentioned. 

However,  on  4th  October  1816,  Dr.  Carey  baptized  at  Seram- 
pore,  Mr.  J.  W.  Ricketts  whose  career  was  so  remarkable  a  one, 
that  a  whole  Chapter  will  be  devoted  to  detailing  the  more  im- 
portant incidents  in  it. 

About  a  year  after  his  Ordination  as  Co-pastor  Mr.  Carey 
became  sick  and  had  to  go  up-country  for  a  change,  so  Dr.  Yated 
kindly  supplied  the  necessary  services  for  him  for  about  six 

On  4th  January  1817,  the  missionaries  received  a  donation 
of  Rs.  286  from  a  few  soldiers  of  the  59th  Regiment  towards  the 
spread  of  the  Gospel  among  the  heathen.  They  stated  in  their 
letter : 

"It    is    but    little    to  support  such     a  cause,  when  the  calls 


of  eo  many  aroimd  you  are  so  urgent  for  the  bread  of  life :  liow- 
«ver,  tlie  cause  is  TSod's  and  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  must  extend 
to  every  tribe  and  nation.  We  have  received  its  balmy  message 
into  our  own  heairts,  and  do  rajoioe  in  hope  of  the  glory  of  God : 
mud  we  should  rejoice  abundantly  if  others  were  brought  to  love 
the  Saviour." 

On     the     9th    February,   Mr.   Lawson    wrote    to    Mr.    Ward 

"  The  Sircar  will  bring  to  you  four  hundred  rupees,  the  mite  of 
the  poor  soldiers  in  the  Fort.  It  is  a  willing  offering  to  the  Lord. 
1  am  happy  to  say  that  our  prayer  meetings  appear  to  be  on  the 
increasa,  but  I  speak  with  trembling  ""and  rejoice  with  fear.  We 
3ee  new  faces  among  us  frequently,  and  have  in  a  good  measure 
conciliated  the  esteem  and  gained  the  attendance  of  several^  who 
Jong  kept  at  a  distance  from  us.  Last  Thursday  evening  we  had 
jft  prayer  meeting  at  Brother  Jahans',  where  we  had  a  large  room 
well  filled.  Brother  Gordons  prayer-meeting  the  next  evening 
was  full,  and  we  had  new  comers  ait-  the  Saturday  evening  meeting 
for  the  young  people.  We  have  begun  a  Thursday  morning  lecture 
st  Itali  (Entadly),  to  be  held  alternately  at  the  houses  of  two 
friends.  We  hope  thus  to  get  some  stragglers  to  hear  us,  who 
would  not  come  to  any  regular  place  of  worship." 

On  the  23rd  February  1817  Mr.  Lawson  baptized  three  persons 
one  of  whom  was  Mr.  J.  C.  Fink,  who  was  a  member  of  the 
Missionary  Society  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Church  regarding  whom 
more  is  said  further  on  in  this  narrative. 

On  the  1st  March  1819  the  young  members  of  the  Church  at 
Calcutta,  who  had  long  supported  a  Sunday  School  drew  up  and 
printed  an  address  to  the  public  proposing  the  formation  of  an 
Association  to  be  called  "The  Baptist  Sunday  School  Society" 
before  even  the  formation  of  the  Sunday  School  Union  in  England. 
Their  letter  and  the  proposed  rules  are  given  in  e.rtenso,  being 
taken  from  the  Circular  Letter  for  the  period  March  to  Juno  1819. 
The  reader  may  not  be  acquainted  with  these  letters,  but  may 
be  interested  in  noting  the  names  that  are  put  forward  as  Teachers 
and  Officers: — 


The  eminent  success  which  has  attended  the  establishment  of 
Sunday   Schools  in  Britain,   has  puggested  the  idea  of   a  similar 


tSchool  iu  Calcutta,  >\'h€re  the  vast  uumber  of  ignorant  children 
who  are  seeu  in  the  streets  on  the  Sabbath  day,  presents  a  melaa 
choly  spectacle,  and  loudly  calls  for  the  exercise  of  Christitt 

Under  lai  serious  view  of  these  facts  an  Association  has  beei 
formed,  bearing  the  denomination  of  "  The  Baptist  Sunday  QchoA 
Society,"  the  object  of  which  is  to  provide  for  the  religious  in- 
struction of  all  such  youth  as  may  be  found  willing  to  partalce 
of  the  privilege. 

In  laying  thif}  address  before  you  it  is  needless  to  enter  into 
an  examination  of  the  various  benefits,  which  are  likely  to  result 
to  the  rising  generation  from  Sunday  Schools  in  Calcutta,  since 
the  experience  of  a  long  course  of  years  in  Europe  hae  borne 
abundant  testimony  to  their  utility.  Suffice  it  to  say,  that  the 
object  now  in  view,  is  not  to  solicit  assistance  for  defraying  tiie 
expense  attending  th&  general  education  of  the  class  of  ehildren 
above  referred  to  (for  the  public  liberality  has  already  made 
sufficient  provision  for  this  purpose),  but  merely  to  raise  a  small 
fund  which  may  provide  suitable  books  for  their  religious  instrao* 

It  is  hoiKid,  therefore,  that  a  small  portion  of  your  liberalily 
will  be  permitted  to  run  in  this  new  channel  of  benevolence  undtf 
the  influence  of  which  hopo,  a  copy  of  the  rules  which  have  been 
framed  for  the  management  of  the  Baptist  Sunday  School  Society, 
is  now  submitted  to  your  perusal. 

We  remain.  Your  obedient  servants, 
(Sd.)     J.  Reily. 
9,       B.  (tobdov. 
Calcutta,  1st  March  1819. 

Rules  for  the  formation  of  an  Association  for  Sunday  School! 
in  the  City  of  Calcutta. 

1.  That  an  Association  be  formed  for  the  religious  instmO' 
tion  of  indigent  children  in  Calcutta,  which  shall  be  demominaiied 
The  Baptist  Sunday  School  Society. 

2.  That  the  sole  object  of  this  Association  be  to  oommuni- 
cate  religious  knowledge  to  those  who  may  be  brought  under  il» 

3.  That  for  the  accomplishment  of  this  purpose  six  teadien 
be  chosen  duly  qualified  for  the  office  as  it  respects  their  personal 
ability  and  their  disposition  to  promote  gratis  the  objects  of  this 

4.  That  of  this  number  two  shall  attend  for  one  month  ai 
eight  o'clock  every  Sabbath  morning  in  the  vestry  of  the  Lall  Basal 


lapal  for  the  performance  of  their  duties  in  the  Suflday  School, 
lo  after  the  expiration  of  that  period  shall  be  relieved  by  two 
hers  in  alternate  succession. 

5.  That  the  business  of  the  School  consists  of  instructing 
e  children  in  reading  the  Sacred  Scriptures  and  hearing  them 
peat  portions  of  Scripture,  with  endeavours  on  the  part  of  the 
sachers  to  explain  and  impress  Divine  truth  upon  their  minds, 
id  the  School  be  invariably  opened  with  prayer  and  closed  with 
-ayer  and  singing  a  hymn. 

6.  That  all  the  teachers  be  requested  to  use  their  utmost 
LcLeavours  to  bring  children  under  these  means  of  instruction. 

7.  That  for  the  promotion  of  these  and  other  objects,  a 
Loeting  of  the  teachers  shall  be  held  once  in  threa  months;  or 
ftener  if  necessary,  at  such  place  as  may  he  hereafter  appointed 
»  consider  and  decide  upon  matters  calculated  to  secure  efficiency 
*  the  institution. 

8.  That  the  following  persons  be  the-  present  Teachers,  viz.^ 
Messrs.  R.  Gordon,  J.  C.  Fink,  J.  W.  Ricketts,  J.  R.  Douglas 
id  Mr.  J.  Johannes. 

9.  That  Messrs.  Reily  and  Gordon  be  Secretaries  to  tha  Insti- 
Ltion,  and  Mr.  Ricketts  be  Treasurer. 

10.  That  to  excite  a  friendly  interest  on  behalf  of  "The 
aptist  Sunday  School  Soci&ty,"  and  thus  to  provide  for  its  sup- 
)rt,  these  rules  be  printed  for  circulation  within  a  proper  sphere 
id  a  book  opened  for  the  reception  of  Subscriptions  and 

(Sd.)    J.  Reily. 

,,       R.   Gordon. 

Not  content  with  the  above  effort  the  younger  members  wrote 

I  the   Senior  Brethren  on  the  29th  Miarch   1819  suggesting   the 

arting   of   a  fund  towards  the   liquidation  of  the   dabt  on   the 

bapel,    but  this  will   find  a  place  in  another  chapter.     Suffice 

to    say    that    these    movements  make  it  clear  to  all  what    in- 

>rest    the    younger    members    took    in  the   temporal  as    well  as 

I  the  spiritual  welfare  of  the  Church. 

The  end  of  the  Co-pastorship  came  later  on  this  year,  for 
1  the  7th  October  Rev.  Eustaca  Carey  resigned  and  was  followed 
f  Mr.  Lawson  on  IBe  19th  idem.  The  latter  was  elected  Pastor 
•-the  Circular  Road  Church  on  the  25th  idem. 


Mr.  J.  W.  RicKETTs:  the  East  Indian  Patriot 


{By  kind  j)ermiAmm  of  the  Princi'pal  of  the  Doveton  College,  Calcutta,  /i 
an   oil- painting  which  ts  in  tihe  Library  of  that  College.) 

From  wLat  has  been  stated  in  the  previous  chapter  it  will 
remembered   that    Mr.    Eicketts  was   baptized   at  Sarampore 


'.  Carey  on  the  4th  October  1816.  It  will  be  necessary,  however, 
bh.  the  aid  of  the  little  book  entitled  "Eaet  Indian  Worthies," 
blished  by  Mr.  Herbert  A.  Stark  and  Mr.  E.  Walter  Madge, 
1892  to  draw  up  a  brief  biographical  sketch  showing  how  Mr. 
cketts  became  connected  with  the  Lall  Bazar  Church  and  the 
tptist  Mission. 

It  is  on  raoord  in  '*  East  Indian  Worthies  "  that  Mr.  Ricketts 
IS  the  Bon  of  Ensign  John  Ricketts,  who  fell  before  the  siege 
Seringapat^m.  He  was  bom  towards  the  close  of  1791  and 
as  entrusted  to  some  friends  who  brought  him  to  Calcutta  whero 
8  was  placed  under  Mr.  Burney  in  the  Upper  Military 
rphanage  at  Kidderpore.  It  is  then  stated  that  before  he  was 
xteen  years  of  age  he  left  school  to  begin  life  as  an  apprentice 
L  the  Hon'ble  East  India  Company's  service,  and  sailed  for 
^hooolen,  which  at  that  time  was  a  British  Settlement.  This 
'ould  bring  us  to  the  year  1807.  The  Island  of  Amboyna,  how- 
ver,  would  seem  to  be  where  he  went  and  not  Bencoolen,  for 
^lien  Mr.  Jabez  Carey  reached  the  island  in  the  early  part  of 
814,  he  found  Mr.  Ricketts  already  there.  He  was  at  the  time 
Secretary  to  the  English  Resident,  and  became  the  Secretary  to  tlie 
iible  Society,  when  it  was  formed. 

Being  awtakened  through  young  Carey's  influence  to  a  more 
deep  and  lively  sense  of  his  obligations  to  the  Saviour,  he  thought 
it  his  duty  to  return  to  Bengal  and  labour  for  the  salvation  of  his 
own  countrymen,  wliich  he  accordingly  did  and  brought  with 
lim  the  following  letter  from  Mr.  Jabez  Carey  dated  2l6t  March 

"The  bearer  of  this  letter  is  Mr.  Ricketts  about  whom  I 
wiot&  before.  He  is  now  going  to  Bengal  and  wishes  to  engage 
in  the  work  of  the  Mission.  He  was  brought  up  under  Mr. 
Burney  and  seems  not  to  have  lost  his  former  serious  impressions. 
In  the  last  two  or  three  months  he  has  been  much  awakened  and 
brought  to  consider  his  case;  has  hardly  given  himself  any  rest 
light  or  da.y ;  and,  at  last  has  given  up  his  very  favourable  pros- 
lectft  here  to  engage  in  the  work.  I  have  no  need  to  speak  much. 
it  Mm;  wlien  he  arrives  you  will  see  him.     He  seems  determined 


to  leave  all  and     follow     Christ.     He  is  Secretary  of  tlie  Bible 
Society  here  and  subscribes  to  it  100  Bupees  annually." 

The  record  regarding  his  baptism^  in  tbe  Circular  Letter  <tf 
October  1816  runs  as  below: — 

On  the  first  Lord  s  Day  of  the  montb  was  baptized  at  Seram- 
pore  by  Brother  Carey,  Mr.  J.  W.  Ricketts,  whose  education 
under  Mr.  Burney  seems  to  have  sown  the  good  seed  in  his  heart, 
this  we  hope  has  been  watered  froim  heaven  at  Amboyna,  from 
whence  he  lately  came  into  Bengal  with  the  design  of  endeavour- 
ing to  do  good  to  the  Natives. 

He  remained  at  S:?rampore  some  time,  where  he  was  instructed 
in  the  doctrines  of  grace  and  the  nature  of  missionary  work,  after 
which  he  agreed  to  go  and  attempt  to  realize  his  wish  respectiBg 
his  own  countrymen. 

On  the  30th  Novsmber  1816,  the  missionaries  addressed  him 
a  long  letter  which  contains  much  sound  advice  as  to  what  to  do 
and  what  not  to  do.  He  reached  Moorstedabad,  to  which  he  had 
expressed  a  wish  to  go,  in  December  and  his  first  leitter  from 
there  l3ears  date  the  17tli  of  that  month.  There  are  other  letteiB 
from  him  bearing  the  following  dates:  1817,  6th  January,  1st  Feb- 
ruary, 1st  March,  1st  April  and  Ist  August,  all  of  which  contain 
interesting  items  of  news,  also  others  of  the  same  year  bearing 
"date  25tli  April,  Ist  May,  2nd  June,  1st  July,  1st  September, 
1st  and  10th  October  and  3rd  November;  1818,  1st  January,  4tili 
February,  2nd  ]March,  1st  May,  1st  June,  7th  and  29th  July, 
3rd  September  and  2nd  Octobiir.  He  had  obtained  permission 
to  erect  a  bungalow,  and,  assisted  by  ia  Native  brother,  had  b^n 
to  itinerate  around  him  and  to  oi)en  schools  for  the  instruction 
of  native  children.  The  missionaries  had  recorded  of  Tn'm  in 
their  Review  for  1817  the  following  eulogium: — "His  mild  and 
steady  deportment,  and  the  deep  acquaintance  he  appears  to 
have  with  the  Divine  Word,  give  us  reason  to  hope  that,  if  sudi 
be  the  will  of  God,  ha  will  prove  a  useful  laborer  in  the  Lord's 
vineyard,'  but  these  hopes  were  not  fulfilled,  for  on  21st  October 


1818  he  addreyssed  the  following  letter  to  Serampore  from  Moorshe- 
<labad : — 

"I  am  now  labouring  under  a  dietrsesing  bowel  complaint 
which  has  afflicted  me  for  some  time  past,  and,  I  do  not  eee 
any  favourable  prospact  of  a  cure  in  this  place,  suiTounded  as 
we  are  with  stagnant  water  and  subject  to  nauseous  smells  and 
exhalations.  I  fear  I  shall  be  obliged  to  go  down  to  Calcutta 
for  medical  treatment." 

Apparently  he  did  not  wait  for  a  reply,  but  left  immediately 
for  we  next  raad : 

Since  writing  the  above  "  Brother  Ricketts  has.  left  his  station 
and  given  up  the  design  of  returning  and  has  been  invited  to 
remain  at  Sarampore." 

It  does  not  appear  that  he  went  to  Serampore  as  he  was  in- 
^ted  to  do,  because,  according  to  "Bast  Indian  Worthies"  he 
fieeins  to  have  obtained  a  situation  in  the  Office  of  the  Board  of 
Customs,  Salt  and  Opium — afterwards  amalgamated  wi|th  the 
Board  of  Revenue — and  rose  to  be  Deputy  Registrar.  He  remained 
connected  with  the  Lall  Bazar  Church  as  his  name  was  men- 
tioned in  1819  in  connection  with  the  Sunday  School  Society. 
His  connection  with  the  Church,  however,  ceased  on  16th  August 
1825  regarding  which,  the  entry  in  the  Church  Register  of  1825 
runs  "Excluded  for  non-attendance.^  On  the  7th  March  1826 
ie  was  received  into  the  Circular  Road  Church  on  relating  his 

"  East  Indian  Worthies ''  will  now  be  followed  for  the  events 
connected  with  the  remainder  of  his  life.  Realizing  the 
fact  that  there  was  no  public  school  for  the  increasing  East 
Indian  community  he  convened  a  meeting  of  "parents,  guardians 
and  friends"  at  his  own  residence  on  1st  March  1823  and  the 
outoome  of  the  gathering  was  the  founding  of  the  Parental 
Academic  Institution,  now  called  the  Doveton  College.  He  was 
its  first  Honorary  Secretary. 

The  members  of  the  East  Indian  community  felt  keenly  the 
politdcal  disabilitieB  under  which  they  were  suffering  and  accord- 


ingly  determined  to  submit  to  the  British  Parliament  a  petkkm 
for  the  redress  of  certain  of  them. 

The  best  legal  advice  was  obtained  for  drawing  up  this  docu- 
ment.    It   passed   through   the   hands  of  the   eminent  Barrirten 
Mr.   Theodore  Dickens  and  Mr.    (afterwards  Sir)  Thomas  Turton 
and  of  Eev.  W.  Adam,  who  had  seceded  from  the  Baptist  to  the 
Unitarian  body.     The  petition  was  published  in  the  various  news- 
papers and   was   largely   signed.     A   public  meeting   was  held  at 
the   Town   Hall   on   20tli   April  1829   at   which   Mr.   Ricketts  w« 
unanimously     elected      Agent  of   the    "  East      Indians."     It  waa 
resolved  tliat  he  should  convey  the  i>etition  to  England  and  that 
a  fund  should  be  raised  for  the  purpose.     Subscriptions  amount- 
ing to  over  Rs.   17,000  were  subsequently  received.     Mr.  Bicketta 
consented  to  undsrtake  the  journey  to  England  in  return  for  the 
bare   expenses   incurred  by   him;    but  the   Committee   authorised 
him  to  draw  £500  per  annum  while  in  England.     He  accordijigly 
sailed   in  the   Andromache   and   arrived   in   London   on  the  27ih 
December  1829.     On  the  29th  March  1830,  the  petition  was  laid 
before  the  House  of  Lords  and  on  the  31st  idem,   Mr.   Bicketta 
was  examined  at  the  bar  of  that  House  by  their  Select  GonunittM 
on  the  affairs  of  India.     On  the  4th  May  of  that  year  it  was  laid 
before  the  Houi:e  of  Commons  by  the  Hon'ble  Mr.  W.  W.  Wynn 
and    on    the    21st    and     24th     June    he    was    examined    by    a 
Special     Committee     of     the     Lower     House.     A     summary    of 
his       ^ividence     before     both  Houses  is  given  in  the    appendioea 
of    "East   Jndiian    Worthifes.'^     Having   made  «anramgeme(ntiB   fOE 
the     further    agitation     of     the     subject     in     England     he     re- 
embarked    for    India    on    the    Linnaeus ,    which    sailed    on    tho 
8th     July     1830.     On     his     way     back    he     broke     journey     at 
Madras   and   was   presented  to   the   Governor,   the   Hon'ble     Mr. 
Lushington,  who  received  him  kindly  and  invited  him  to  Govern- 
ment House.     On  the  3rd  March  1831  the  East  Indians  of  Madru 
gave  him  a  *'  national  '  dinner  and  on  his  entering  the  banquet- 
ing-hall  the  band  struck  up  "  Ricketts'  March  "  which  waa  q)ecially 
composed  for  the  occasion.     When  he  returned  to  Calcutta  another 


large  and  repreeentative  meeting  was  held  at  the  Town  Hall  on 
the  28th  idem  to  accord  him  a  welcome  back.  On  the  pro- 
position of  Mr.  H.  L.  V.  Derozio  it  was  resolved  that  Mr.  Ricketts 
flhould  be  entertained  at  a  public  banquet  and  presented  with  a 
handsome  silver  vase  bearing  a  suitable  inscription  and  that  ho 
should  be  asked  to  sit  for  his  portrait  in  oils.  The  vase  was 
purchased  at  a  cost  of  1,232  sicca  rupees  and  the  picture  was  the 
gratuitous  work  of  Mr.  Charles  Pote,  a  distinguished  East  Indian 
artist,  and  hangs  in  the  Library  of  the  Doveton  Collage.  Per- 
mission having  been  given  by  the  Principal  of  the  Doveton  College 
for  a  photograph  to  be  taken  off  from  it  the  writer  is  able  to 
include  it  in  this  book.  Tha  East  Indians'  Petition  in  Parliar 
ment  Brought  about  the  insertion  of  the  clause  in  the  Charter  Act 
of  1833  that  all  persons  without  reference  to  birth  or 
colour  were  eligible  to  the  Civil  and  Military  Services  of  Govern- 
ment, and  the  subsequent  adoption  of  the  Lex  Loci  Act  of  the 
India  Law  Commissioners. 

Mr.  Ricketts  got  permission  to  resume  his  duties  in  the  Ofl&ce 
of  the  Board  of  Customs,  but  it  was  not  long  before  he  obtained 
the  appointment  of  Additional  Principal  Sudder  Amin  (or  Sub- 
Judge)  of  Gya,  where  h^  died  on  the  28th  July  1835  at  the  age 
of  43  years,  and  the  whole  native  community  of  the  place  evinced 
their  respect  for  his  public  character  by  following  his  remains 
to  the  grave. 


The  Story  of  Mahomed  Bakur,  a  Mahomedan  Convert. 

The  story  is  so  interesting  that  no  apology  is  made  for  repro^ 
ducing  it  from  the  Periodical  Accounts. 

On  the  29th  June  1814,  Dr.  Carey  baptized  at  Serampore 
Mahomed  Bakui',  a  nativo  of  Shiraz  in  Persia. 

The  circumstances  regarding  this  young  man  were  somewhat 
singular.  He  was  about  21  years  of  age  at  the  time  of  his  baptism; 
was  born  at  Shiraz  where  his  mother  was  still  living  at  the  time. 
At  the  age  of  12  he  came  to  Bengal  with  his  father,  who  died 
at  Dacca,  where  a  gentleman  talked  with  him  respecting  the 
Gospel,  and  against  Mahomed.  At  first  he  was  prejudiced 
against  the  truth,  but  in  a  short  time  he  perceived  that  he  was 
in  the  wrong.  A  part  of  a  Gospel  baing  given  to  him  he  read 
it  and  became  more  convinced.  From  Dacca  he  removed  to  Cal- 
cutta, where,  becoming  acquainted  with  brother  Petruse,  the  latter 
brought  him  to  Brother  Carey.  A  short  time  after  this,  to  avoid 
the  persecution  raised  against  him  by  his  Mussulman  acquaintances, 
he  went  to  Serampore  and  remained  two  or  three  months  under 
instruction.  Having  occasion  to  go  to  Calcutta  to  recover  a 
trifling  sum  owing  to  him  he  was  obliged  to  call  at  the  house  of 
a  Mussulman  of  property,  who  treated  him  with  great  external 
respect,  but  gave  him  in  the  tobacco  which  was  prepared  for  him, 
some  intoxicating  drug,  by  which  he  became  completsly  insensible. 
In  that  state  they  cut  his  clothes  in  pieces  and  conveyed  him  oh 
board  a  ship  lying  off  Calcutta,  then  on  the  point  of  sailing  for 
Muscat.  After  being  on  board  some  time  he  recovered  his  senses 
and  found  himself  in  the  hold  of  the  ship.  He  then  attempted 
to  oome  on  deck  and  complain  to  the  Pilot  that  the  Captain  was 
carrying  him  away  without  his  consent,  but  he  was  beaten  in  the 
head  and  other  parts  of  the  body  in  the  most  violent  manner,  the 
scars  of  which  were  visible  on  the  day  of  his  baptism.  They  also 
tied  his  hands  and  fset  and  kept  him  in  this  state  till  the  Pilot 
had  left  the  vessel  and  they  were  out  at  sea.  He  was  then  brought 
on  deck  and  made  to  work  in  the  ship  on  a  daily  allowance  of  three 
biscuits  and  water.  He  was  three  times  tied  up  by  the  arms  in 
the  blazing  sun  and  ordered  under  pain  of  worse  tortures  to  re- 
nounce Christ.  He  defied  their  threats,  declaring  that  he  was 
no  longer  a  Mussulman »  but  a  Christian.  After  they  had  sailed 
16  days,  a  violent  storm  came  on  and  continued  some  days  which 


>bliged  tbem  to  put  into  Goa.  Here,  in  the  darkness  of  the  night 
lie  let  himself  dofwn  into  a  small  boat  and  got  to  land  where  he 
prevailed  on  a  Port-uguese  to  conceal  him  till  the  ship  departed 
which  was  after  seven  days.  He  then  had  a  passage  given  him 
to  Bombay  by  a  European,  who  wished  to  be  instructed  in  Persian. 
From  Bombay  to  Madras  he  obtained  his  passage  by  working  on 
board  a  ship  proceeding  thither.  At  Madras  he  happily  heard 
of  Brother  Loveless,  who  treated  him  with  the  greatest  kindness 
and  introduced  him  to  the  "Friend-<in-n€ed  Society'  at  that  plac^, 
which  paid  his  passage  to  Calcutta,  from  whence  he  hastened  to 
Serampore  to  communicate  the  joyful  news  of  his  deliveranoa  from 
"so  great  a  death.''  After  that  he  proceeded  to  Digah  where 
the  missionaries  had  long  been  wishing  for  a  Brother,  who  oould 
speak  the  Hindustanee,  and  where  it  was  hoped  God  would 
prosper  him  in  doing  much  good  among  the  Hindus  and  the 
followers  of  Mahomed. 



Christian  Preacher. 

Elderly  Baptist  residents  of  Calcutta  may  be  more  or  leai 
familiar  with  his  name,  but  probably  few  know  the  interesting 
details  of  his  conversion. 

His  father  was  a  famous  physician  in  the  service  of  the  Prime 
Minister  of  the  Nawab  (King)  of  Oude.  Sujaat  Ali  was  the  eldert 
in  the  family,  being  born  in  the  year  1791.  There  were  four  ecmSy 
and,  as  he  was  the  eldest,  he  was  called  the  Burra  Mirza  and  was 
well  trained  in  Arabic  and  Persian.  He  was  a  Moshdhih  and 
after  his  father's  death  he  was  looked  upon  aA  the  head  of  the 
family  and  was  the  jKDsseesor  of  an  immense  fortune.  He  did  not 
care  for  worldly  enjoyments,  but  preferred  the  pleasures  of  travel. 
He  had  often  heard  of  the  City  of  Calcutta  and  the  many  wonder 
ful  things  to  be  seen  in  it,  so  he  was  desirous  of  visiting  Calcutta 
and  other  parts  of  Bengal  and  India  and  then  return  to  the  home 
of  his  father's  and  live  and  die  thare.  At  that  time  he  wa6  a  great 
opponent  of  Christianity  and  not  at  all  inclined  to  regiard  Chriat 
as  a  Divine  being. 

He  started  on  his  journey  in  1822  and  lodged  at  Howrah. 
He  used  to  cross  the  river  daily  to  come  over  to  Calcutta  to  visit 
the  famous  places  in  it.  One  day  as  he  happened  to  be  walking 
through  Bow  Bazar  he  pass-sd  by  the  Chapel  and  saw  a  crowd 
at  the  gate.  This  attracted  his  attention  and  when  he  came  near 
he  enquired  the  reason  of  the  concourse  and  was  told  in  reply 
that,  a  person  within  was  saying  (in  the  vernacular)  that  JeenB 
Christ  was  God's  son.  At  hearing  these  words  Sujaat  Ali  wai 
quite  indignant  and  felt  so  angry  that  he  cried  out  tauba^  totfii 
and  left  the  place  in  a  rage.  But  these  words  rankled  in  hia 
heart  and  as  he  could  not  get  rid  of  the  idea  he  wanted  to  con- 
vince the  preacher  that  he  was  wrong  about  Christ  being  the  Son 

MUNSHI    SUJAAT    AU.  155 

of  God,  SO  he  came  again,  bub  finding  the  Chapel  shut  he  wrote 
with  chajfiooal  on  the  steps,  ''  I  Sujaat  AU  came  here  to  see  you, 
but  you  were  not  here — when  you  came  again  wait  for  me."  The- 
person  who  had  been  preaching  when  Sujaat  Ali  first  saw  the 
crowd  was  Eustace  Carey  and  with  him  was  a  Brahmin 
convert  named  Bagchee.  When  Eustace  and  his  native  preacher 
were  walking  up  the  steps  of  the  Chapel  the  next  time  they  came, 
they  saw  the  charcoal  writing  referred  to  above,  so  they 
waited,  when  Sujaat  Ali  made  his  appearance,  and  was 
found  to  be  the  man  to  whom  the  native  preacher  had  given  a 
Hindustani  New  Testament  on  the  first  occasion  as  Mr.  Eustace 
Carey  spoke  in  Bengali  only.  He  had  been  reading  that  New 
Testament  and  was  much  impressed  with  its  holy  truths.  There 
was  much  argument  and  discussion  and  searching  of  the  Scriptures 
and  eizhortation.  He  was  convinced  of  sin  and  needed  the  in« 
■traction  which  the  missionaries  could  impart.  As  Mr.  Carey 
did  nob  know  suflScient  Hindustani  he  sent  him  over  to  Dr.  Yates 
at  Howrah.  His  mind  opened  to  the  reception  of  the  truth.  He 
believed  in  the  Lord  Jesus  and  became  anxious  of  pardon  through 
His  blood. 

Shortly  after  he  had  to  go  through  a  severe  struggle.  Hie 
mother  and  others  had  come  down  to  Howrah  with  a  view  to 
take  him  back  home  and  the  mother  actually  threatened  to  kill 
herself  if  he  professed  Christi'anity ;  but  his  arguments  prevailed 
with  her,  so  that  she  did  not  carry  out  her  intention  when  he 
was  actually  baptized.  The  missionaries  found  him  to  be  a  true 
follower  of  Christ  and  made  arrangements  for  his  baptism,  which 
was  conducted  by  Dr.  Yates  in  the  river  near  Howrah  on  the 
8th  May  1824  in  the  presence  of  a  large  concourse  of  people  who 
Ifliembled  on  the  bank,  as  well  as  by  seamen  of  the  vessels  around. 

The  following  extract  from  Statham's  Indian  Recollections 
gives  full  details  regarding  this  interesting  event : — 

iti  the  month  of  May  1824,  a  Mussulman  moonshee  of  respec- 
table character  and  attainments,  was  baptized  in  the  river  Ganges^ 
9kt  the  ghaut  before  my  house  at  Gusserah  (Goosery),  by  Mr.  Yates. 


The  event  wae  a  source  of  much  astonishment  to  the  natives,  and 
produced  a  iKDwerful  effect  upon  the  minds  of  many  "Wah!  Wahl. 
6aid  one  to  another,  this  is  strange,  passing  strange,  that  one  of  our 
tcacliers  should  become  a  Christian ! "  A  Brahmin  was  bapt^'zed 
but  the  other  day,  and  now  a  Mussulman  monshee  follows  in  the 
same  path  !  "  ''  Why,  wo  must  all  be  Christian  bye-and-bye,  for,  as 
our  ahaatrriK  declare  one  new  religion  shall  eat  up  all  the  old  ones," 
said  another  Hindoo,  partly  in  jest  and  partly  in  earnset.  Hundreds 
of  natives  lined  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  bshaved  in  the  most 
orderly  manner,  whilst  Sujaat  Ali,  the  moonshee,  seemed  deeply 
affected  by  the  solemn  ordinance." 

At  the  time  of  his  baptism  he  was  33  years  of  age  and  was 

a  very  fine-looking  man  in  the  prime  ol  life  as  wuU  be  seen  from 

the  portrait  below,  which,  hov/ever,  does  not  show  him  off  ae  well 

as  the  colored  portrait  from  which  th^e  photograph  is  taken. 

Portrait  op  Munsui  Sujaat  Ali,  as  he  was  when  baptized. 
(^From  a  hand-painted  portrait  which  ist  in  the  possession  of  the  writer,') 

The  Mahomedans  were  exasperated.  One  took  him  into  a 
tx)urt  and  in  a  rage  told  him  that  if  he  were  not  living;  under 
a  Christian  Government  he  would  cut  him  to  pieces^  but  Sujaal 
Ali  witnessed  a  good  confession. 

After  his  baptism  Mr.  W.  H.  Pearce  took  him  on  aa  a  com- 

MUNSHI    8UJAAT    AU.  157 

positor  in  the  Persian  Department  of  the  Baptist  Mission  PresSj 
but  he  had  set  his  heart  to  give  his  time  and  his  talents  to  the- 
preaching  of  the  Gospel.  As,  however,  the  climate  of  Bengal 
did  not  seem  to  suit  him  he  became  so  seriously  ill  that  his  death 
was  feared.  The  Doctor  said  to  him:  "I  can  relieve  your  pain, 
but  I  cannot  cure  you,  you  will  be  troubled  with  it  as  long  as  you 
live."  In  reply  Sujaat  Ali  said:  "Well  Doctor,  if  that  be  the^ 
case  where  is  the  use  of  taking  medicine  seeing  I  never  shall  be 
cured ; "  but  he  was  prevailed  upon  to  take  the  medicine 
which  by  God's  blessing  led  to  his  recovery.  He,  however,  natur^ 
ally  thought  that  a  visit  to  his  native  clime  would  set  him  up 
again  so  consulted  the  European  brethren,  but  Mr.  W.  H.  Pearca 
strongly  objected  fearing  that  he  might  not  be  able  to  resist  the 
tears  of  his  relatives.  After  a  good  deal  of  consultation  and 
prayer  to  God  for  direction  he  was  allowed  to  carry  out  his  own 
wish,  and,  having  obtained  the  permission  of  the  mis- 
fflonaries,  he  set  about  preparing  for  the  journey.  He 
made  it  a  missionary  tour  and  took  with  him  some  of  the 
Native  Preachers  and  a  good  supply  of  Scriptures  and  tracts. 
Thus  they  travelled  from  village  to  village  sowing  the  seed  of  the 
Kingdom  wherever  they  halted  or  landed,  until  they  reached 
their  destination.  Sujaat  Ali  then  asked  his  Christian  brethren 
to  encamp  under  an  umbrageous  tree  while  he  went  forward  to 
acquaint  his  brethren  and  his  father's  house  of  his  arrival.  As 
soon  as  the  news  spread,  they  all  heartily  welcomed  him,  saying, 
Burr  a  Mirza  has  oome,  Burr  a  Mirza  has  come,  bring  the  hookah 
and  the  musical  instruments  and  let  us  rejoice.''  But  the  Chris- 
tian man  remarked:  "Not  the  Hookah,''  on  which  they  enquired 
the  reason,  so  he  told  them  that  he  was  now  a  Christian,  that 
he  believed  that  Isa  Masik  is  Khuda  Ka  Beta.  Hearing  this  they 
rose  with  great  anger  and  thrust  him  from  them,  but  soon  after 
th^  calmed  a  bit  and  enquired  the  reason  for  this  change  of 
religion.  He  gave  them  his  reason  by  pointing  out  the  claims 
of  Christianity.  They  listened  patiently  to  him,  but,  whenever 
he  alluded  to  Jesus  Christ  as  being  the  Son  of  God,  they  became 


•  enraged  calling  out  tauha,  tauha ;  then  they  bade  him  Begone! 
He  left  tliiam  with  an  aching  heart  and  returned  to  his  ChnstiaB 
brethren,  telling  them  of  his  ill-success.  They  were  acoordingly 
making  ])reparations  to  depart  when  a  messenger  came  saying  that 
his  brethren  would  like  to  siee  him  again  in  order  to  have  a  little 
further  conversation  with  him.  He  complied  with  bheip  request, 
but,  soon  i>erceiving  their  intentions,  after  a  little  more  talk,  which 
was  only  argumentative  and  stormy,  he  was  only  too  thankful  to 
k'avo,  for  their  rage  was  ko  intensified  that  he  was  afraid  of  his 
life,  seeing  that  they  had  threatened  him  that  if  he  did  not 
give  up  his  Christian  failli  within  24  hours  he  would  be  beheaded, 
and  they  could  have  carried  out  their  threat  and  would  have 
escaped  punishment,  for  there  was  no  Magistracy  in  that  part  of 
the  country  in  those  days. 

After  this  trial  he  returned  to  Calcutta,  but  the  trip  up- 
country  had  not  inii)roved  his  health  much.  He  laboured  in 
connection  with  tlie  South  Village  Churches  for  some  time,  but 
in  IS.'^l  lie  was  taken  .seriously  ill  and  himself  thought  that  he 
was  on  the  verge  of  eternity.  Mr.  W.  H.  Pearce  was  delighted  with 
his  j^eace  and  confidence.  On  being  asked  what  were  his  motives  in 
])reaching  tl:e  Gospel  he  ^s^iid : 

"Tlic  heart -searching  God  into  whose  presence  I  am  just 
about  to  enter,  is  witnc^is  that  I  have  not  pursued  this  work  from 
any  regard  to  wealth  or  honour.  I  have  done  it  from  a  desire 
to  glorify  His  name,  to  honor  my  Saviour  and  to  benefit  my  coun- 

When  a«ked  in  an  interval  of  easa  from  his  attacks 
of  fever,  whctlier  he  was  not  disposed  to  murmur  at 
liis  long  and  distressing  sufferings,  he  said :  "  O  no,  Shall 
not  the  child  with  whom  the  father  tafcas  the  most  trouble 
be  the  7nost  gratefvlJ'  On  its  being  enquired  if  he  had  a  good 
hope  of  eternal  life  he  said :  "  Christ  hath  said  Him  that  cometh 
to  me  I  will  in  no  wise  cast  out,  I  know  I  have  come  to  him  by 
faith  and  that  he  has  received  me.  Christ  is  a  rocE.  He  ahakfis 
not;  I  am  built  on  Him  and  know  I  am  safe  for  eternity. ** 

1IUN8BI    8UJAAT   MI. 


On  hiM  reocyvery  it  was  deemed  expadient  that  he  should  try 
the  river  air.  With  this  view  he  proceeded  to  Monghyr  where 
he  z^ained  hia  health  within  a  year  or  so,  and  then  came  back 
to  Calcutta  where  he  labored  for  the  Lord  in  many  ways. 

In  1835  Mr.  W.  H.  Pearce  wrote  of  him  that  he  was  a  lovely 
Ghfistian  character  and  added : 

"He  preaches  excellently  and  lives  so  oanaistently  that  every 
one  admires  and  loves  him.  Had  the  Gos^x^l  been  successful  in 
making  from  tbs*  proud  revengeful  Mus«almen  only  one  a  meek 
devoted  follower  of  Christ,  the  money  hithorto  si>ent  would  have 
bden  well  expended.  But,  Blessed  be  God!  Hindus  and 
Mahomedans  not  a  few  are  already  -n  glory." 

The  portrait  below  shows  him  as  he  was  at  about  this  time. 


{By  permisium  of  Mr,  B.  Belchamhers  from  a  hand-painted  portrait  in  his 



A  few*  years  later-  when  Mr.  Pearce  wae  himself  dying  S 
All  stood  near  his  bed  directing  him  to  Christ  with  these  ^ 
(in  the  vernacular) :   Fear  not,  fear  not,  the  Lord  is  standing 

The  remainder  of  his  life  was  spent  in  the  Lord's  servi< 
and  around  Calcutta  and  at  the  age  of  76  years  the  end 
on  the   25th   October    1865   consequent  on  an  attack  of  cho 
He    was  buried  in  the  Circular  Road  Cemetery,  the  filneral  ee 
being  conducted  by  I>r.  Wenger. 

The  portrait  below  shows  him  as  he  was  a  few  years  h 
he  died. 

Portrait  of  Mttnshi  Sttjaat  Ah  in  old  aqb. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  inscription  on  his  grave. 

In  Memory  of  Munshi  Sujaat  Ali,   for  40  years  Missio 
in  connection  with  the  Baptist  Mission.     Died,  25th  October 
Aged  76  years. 

,  MUNSm    SUJAAT    AH.  161 

With  a  piety  exemplified  by  a  life  of  purity 
Devoted  for  zeal  he  united  great  gentJenese 
And  thus  won  the  esteem  of  all  who  knew  him 
And  the  love  of  many^  who  will  not  cease 
to  cherish  the  memory  of 

This  beloved  Disciple. 

[Under  the  above  is  a     tablet  to  the     memory  of  his  wife 




Strict  or  open  Communion — which! 

When  the  missionaries  banded  themselves  into  a  Clmrcli  on 
the  24th  April  1800,  it  was  on  the  lines  of  "Strict"  (or,  Ck»e) 
Communion  as  Pailicular  Baptists.  Dr.  Marshman  and  Mr. 
Ward  were  oj)en  Conimunionists  when  they  left  Ei^laod, 
and  "the  beloved  Commander  of  the  Criterion''  as  they 
usually  designated  Captain  Wickes,  though  a  PresbyteriaOi 
always  communed  with  them  on  the  voyage.  But  Dr.  Carey 
had  imbibed  the  principle  of  Strict  Communion  from  Mr. 
Fuller  and  the  other  ministers  of  North  amptonshiie,  and, 
<n\  the  foniiation  of  the  Church  at  Serampore  persuaded 
hLs  i-olloagueB  to  adopt  it.  The  Communion  Table  was, 
therefore,  closed  against  all  who  did  not  belong  to  the 
Baptist  persuasion  and  Captain  Wickes  on  his  return  to  Bengil 
was  informed  though  not  without  the  deepest  reluctance— that 
the  rules  of  the  Church  no  longer  permitted  him  to  unite  with 
them  at  the  Sacramsnt.  Mr.  Ward  more  particularly  deplored 
this  rigid,  and,  as  he  thought,  unlovely  proceeding,  thougli  h« 
considered  it  hi«  duty  not  to  destroy  the  harmony  of  th^  Church 
and  Mission.  But  after  thd  Rev.  Mr.  Brown  had  taken  up  hii 
pernianjnt  residence  at  Serampore  in  April  1803,  the  subject  waa 
frequently  brought  under  discussion,  and  Mr.  Ward  urged  the 
reconsideration  of  a  rule  which  debarred  many  Christian  frieodi 
from  partaking  of  the  Sacrament  at  the  Mission  Chapel,  in  con- 
junction with  those  whom  (hay  held  in  high  esteem.  Dr.  Mar* 
man  was  iiitiuenced  by  these  arguments,  and  brought  Dr.  Carey 
round  to  the  same  views,  and  the  Communion  Table  was  opened 
to  all  who  professed  the  same  Christian  sentiments.  This  wai  Ji 
1805  aft<«r  the  Church  at  Serami)ore  had  for  more  than  five  years 
adhered  to  the  practice  of  Strict  Communion. 


As  one  result  of  the  relaxation  to  "open"  Communion,  Mrs. 
rown  the  wife  of  the  Senior  Chaplain,  then  the  head  of  the 
cclefiiastical  Department  at  the  Presidency,  partook  periodically 
thje  Ordinance  with  the  missionaries.  Mr.  Ward  recorded  in 
s  journal,  that  the  alteration  was  not  effected  by  his  arguments, 
LOUgh  he  should  have  thought  it  an  honor  if  it  had  been  so,  that 
leir  newly  arrived  brethren  (Moore,  Rowe,  Biss,  Mardon  appa- 
>ntly).  had  adopted  it  cheerfully  and  that  all  the  sisters  seemed 
>  have  been  previously  on  "  the  amiable  side  of  the  question." 

"I  rejoice,  he  said,  that  the  first  Baptist  Church  in  Bengal 
as  shaken  olf  that  apparent  moroseness  of  temper  which  has  so 
-yng  made  us  appear  unlovely  in  the  sight  of  the  Christian  world- 
-  am  glad  that  this  Church  considers  real  rdigton  alone  as  the 
lound  of  admission  to  the  Lord's  Table.  With  regard  to  a  Church 
bate,  a  stricter  union  may  be  required,  but,  to  partake  of  the 
x>rd's  Supper  worthily  requires  only  that  a  man  s  heart  be  right 
owards  God." 

Mr.  Fuller,  however,  when  he  heard  of  the  change  upbraided 
he  missionaries  for  their  disregard  of  a  "  positive  ordinance  ''  but 
lis  language,  though  earnest,  was  always  kind  and  dignified. 

However  in  the  year  1811  they  again  reverted  to  the  practice 

>f  Strict  (or.   Close)  Communion,  and  the  following  is  the  record 

Ui  Mr.   Marshman's  book  about  this  matter :   - 

During  the  present  year  (1811)  the  Church  at  Serampore 
reverted  to  the  practice  of  strict  Communion  after  having  for 
four  years  (it  was  really  six  years)  adopted  the  opposite  rule  of 
admitting  to  their  Communion  Table  tfiose  Christian  and  mis- 
sionaxy  brethren,  who  did  not  coincide  in  their  views  of  the 
Ordinance  of  baptism.  The  chief  agent  in  this  movement  was 
Dr.  Maishman.  Mr.  Fuller,  a  staunch  strict  oommunionist  had 
for  some  tiuie  engagiid  in  a  controversial  correspondence  with  Mr. 
Ward  on  this  question.  Mr.  Ward  brought  it  to  a  close  by  stating 
that  be  was  >iot  ccnvince3  by  his  reasoning,  and  that,  in  his  judg- 
Hient  men  might  fall  into  mistakes  regarding  not  only  common 
commands,  but  positive  institutions  and  yet  not  incur  a  fbrfeHure 
of  the  right  of  Communion,  but  he  thought  the  matter  one  of 
veary  small  moment  compared  with  the  great  work  of  evangelising 
the  heathen.  Dr.  Marshman,  however,  appears  to  have  been  con- 
idncad  by  Mr.  Fuller's  arguments  and  transmitted  his  own  views 


on  the  subject  in  a  very  elaborate  epistle.  But  he  hesitated  long 
to  bring  the  question  forward  in  a  practical  sEape,  leet  he  should 
wound  the  fealings  of  his  afPectionate  colleague.  At  length  he 
coiuniunicated  hie  thoughts  to  Mr.  Ward  by  letter  and  proposed 
that  the  Church  at  Serampore  should  resume  its  former  principle 
on  the  subject  of  Communion,  stating  that  he  was  willing  to  take 
upon  himself  the  responsibility  and  the  odium  of  announcing  Uiiff 
change  of  practice  to  those  who  had  hitherto*  communed  witii 
them.  On  the  spur  of  the  moment  Mr.  Ward  replied  that  he 
would  rather  die  than  go  in  for  such  a  measure.  Dr.  Careys 
mind  was  not  free  from  doubts,  but  he  thought  Strict  Communkm 
the  safer  side.  The  other  missionaries  were  disposed  to  coincide 
with  him  and  with  Dr.  Marshman  and,  Mr.  "Ward.  -with  hii 
habitual  sweetness  of  disposition,  said  he  should  offer  no  further 
opposition,  and  make  no  attempt  to  divide  the  Church,  only  ht 
wished  it  to  be  distinctly  known  to  all  whom  the  decision  might 
affect,  that  "the  change  was  not  made  with  his  consent." 

In  recording  the  event  in  bis  own  journal  Mr.  Ward  remarked: 

"  Mr.  Pritchet,  the  Independent  missionary,  preached  in  the 
morning  after  which  Brother  Marshman  interdicted  him  the  Loid'f 

But  this  wide  and  irreconcdlable  diffiarence  of  opinion  was  never 
suffered  to  produce  the  slightest  alienation  of  feeling  or  to  inte^ 
rupt  the  liarmony  of  their  co-operation. 

When  Dr.  Ryland  heard  of  this  he  was  exasperated  beyonl 
measure  and  gave  vent  to  his  indignation  in  the  strongest  language^ 
upbraiding  Dr.  Marshman  with  having  set  up  a  '^Baptmt  Cuto." 
It  may  be  remarked  here,  in  passing,  that  years  afterwards,  the 
gentleman,  who  ussd  to  record  the  minutes  of  the  Lall  Baur 
Church  invariably  wrote  that  so  and  so  were  "Baptisted,"  not, 
baptized,  evidently  tinged  with  the  idea  of  a  "  Baptist  Caste." 

But  the  Church  is  now  practising  Open  Communion  and  hu 
done  so  for  many  years  past  to  the  knowledge  of  the  present  writer, 
although  all  the  documents  relating  to  the  Trust  describe  it  M 
a  Particular  Baptist  Church.  How  or  when  the  change 
was  made  is  not  traceable  from  the  records  which  are  extant. 
There  is  no  Minute  or  Resolution  of  the  Church  on  the  subjaci 
on  record  since  16th  June  1825,  nor  anything  to  indicate  when 
the  change  was  made. 


Licenses  and  Passports. 
As  shown  in  the  introductory  chapter  Mr.  Wilberforce  and 
his  friends  succeeded  in  getting  a  certain  important  Resolution 
paesed  in  1792  when  the  Charter  Act  for  1793  was  under  discus- 
sion. Had  it  been  acted  up  to  much  of  what  subsequently  took 
pUoe  in  India  would  have  been  averted,  but  the  enemies,  of 
religioii  were  ddtermined  that  it  shoi^ld  be  inoperative  so  ignored 
it  entirBly,  hence  all  the  scenes  that  Have  been  described  in  aome 
of  tbd  preceding  chapters. 

When  therefore  in  1813  the  discussion  about  the  renewal  of 
the  Company's  Charter  for  another  twenty  years  came  up  the 
~  "iight  had  to  be  gone  through  over  again  and  Mr.  Fuller  and  Mr. 
».-3obert  Hall  and  their  friends,  and  Mr.  Charles  Grant  and  his 
.:  iriends  had  to  fight  strenuously  and  were  at  length  successful 
;  so  far  as  to  obtain  in  the  Act  which  received  the  Royal  assent 
^  on  the  2  let  July  1813  the  insertion  of  a  clause  relating  to  persons 
?  desirous  of  going  to  India  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  the 
irdigious  and  moral  improvement  of  the  natives,  beneficial  in 
^  their  result  though  not  such  as  to  preclude  absolutely  the  oppres- 
%mons  of  a  resolved  infidelity  and  despotism. 

The  principal  clauses  in  that  Act  ara  Nob.  33,  34,  35,  36,  of 
which  the  following  is  a  brief  official  abstract  as  given  in  volume 
I.  of  Dr.  Cox's  History  of  the  Baptist  Mission: — 

K  the  Court  of  Directors  think  fit  to  refuse 
^  the  Applica4)ion  for  permission  made  in  behalf  of 
such  person,  they  are  to  transmit  the  application  to 
the  Board  of  Commissioners,  who,  if  they  see  no  valid  objection 
to  granting  the  permission  may  authorise  the  said  penson  to  pro- 
ceed to  any  of  the  Company's  principal  Settlements  provided 
with  a  certificate  of  sanction  from  the  Directors.  The  Court  of 
.  Directors,  however,  may  maJka  representation  concerning  such 
person  to  the  Board  of  Commissioners,  and  those  pereons  on  arriv- 
ing in  the  East  Indies  are  to  be  subject  to  the  Regulations  of 


th©  Local  Governments.  Furtlier,  the  Government  in  India  may 
declare  the  certificate  and  license  of  such  persons  to  be  void,  if 
they  shall  appear  by  their  conduct  to  have  forfeited  their  claims 
to  protection. 

But  as  the  reader  might  prefer  to  have  the  full  text  of  those 
clauses,  a  transcript  of  them  is  given  below  for  ready  reference:— 

*  XXXIll.  And  whereas  it  is  the  duty  of  the  Company  to 
promote  the  interest  and  happiness  of  the  native  inhabitants  ol 
the  British  Dominions  in  India,  and  such  measures  ought  to  be 
adopted  as  may  tend  to  the  introduction  among  tbem^  of  mefal 
knowledge  and  of  religioiLs  and  moral  improvement  and  in  furtKer- 
anoe  of  the  above  objects  sufficient  facilities  ought  to  be  affoirded 
by  law  to  persons  desirous  of  going  to  and  remaining  in  India 
for  the  purpose  of  accomplishing  these  benevolent  designs  bo  as 
the  authority  of  Local  Governments  respecting  the  interoonrse 
of  Europeans  with  the  interior  of  the  country  be  preserved,  and 
the  principles  of  the  British  Government,  on  which  the  natives 
of  India  liave  hitherto  relied  for  the  free  exercise  of  their  religion 
inviolably  maintained.  And  whereas  it  is  expedient  to  make 
provision  for  granting  permission  to  persons  desirous  of  going  to 
and  remaining  in  India  for  ilie  above  purposes,  and  also  to  persons 
desirous  of  going  to  and  remaining  there  for  other  lawful  piu^ 
poses :  Be  it  therefore  enacted  that  when  and  as  often  as  any 
application's  shall  be  made  to  the  said  Court  of  Directors  for  or 
on  behalf  of  any  person  or  jyersons  desirous  of  proceeding  to  the 
East  Indies  for  permission  so  to  do,  the  said  Court  shall,  unless 
they  shall  think  fit  to  comply  therewith,  transmit  every  fiach 
application,  within  one  month  from  the  receipt  thereof  to  the 
said  Board  of  Commissi onei-s  for  the  affairs  of  India  and  in  case 
the  said  Commissioners  shall  not  see  any  sufficient  objection 
thereto,  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful  for  the  said  CommissionerB 
to  direct  that  the  said  person  or  persons  shall  at  his,  or  their, 
own  special  charge,  be  permitted  to  proceed  to  any  of  the  said 
principal  Settlements  of  the  said  Company :  and  that  such  person 
or  persons  shall  be  furnished  by  the  said  Court  of  Directors  with 
a  certificate  or  certificates  according  to  such  form  as  tbe  said  Com- 
missioners shall  prescribe,  signifying  that  such  person  or  persons 
hath  or  have  so  proceeded  with  the  cognizance  and  under  the 
sanction  of  the  said  Court  of  Directors,  and  that  all  such  oeitt 
ficates  shall  entitle  the  persons  obtaining  the  same,  so  long  as 
they  shall  pi'operly  conduct  themselves,  to  the  countenance  and 
protection  of  the  several  Governments  of  the  said  Company  in 
the  East  Indies  and  parts  aforesaid,  in  their  respective  punnrtfl 


subject  to  such  provisions  and  Festrictions  as  are  now  in  force 
or  may  hereafter  be  judged  necessary  with  regard  to  persons  resid- 
ing in  India. 

XXXIV.  Provided  always  that  nothing  herein  contained 
shall  eictend  or  be  construed  to  extend  ix)  restrict  or  prohibit 
the  said  Court  of  Directors  from  offering  representations  to  the 
said  Board  of  Commissioners  respecting  persons  so  applying  for 
permission  to  proceed  to  the  East  Indies  as  the  said  Court  of 
Directors  may  at  any  time  think  fit. 

XXXV.  Provided  also,  and  be  it  further  enacted  that  all 
persons  that  shall  proceed  to  the  Cast  Indies  shall  upon  arrival 
at  any  place  within  the  limits  of  the  said  United  Company's 
Government,  be  subject  to  all  such  Rules  and  Regulations  as  now 
are  or  hereafter  may  be,  in  force  within  those  limits. 

XXXVI.  Provided  also  and  be  it  further  enacted  that  if 
any  person  having  obtainsd  a  certificate  or  license  from  the  said 
Court  of  Directors,  authorizing  such  person  to  proceed  to  the 
East  Indies  shall  at  any  time  so  conduct  himself  as  in  the  judg- 
ment of  the  Governor-General,  or  Governor  of  the  Presidency  within 
which  such  person  shall  be  found,  to  have  forfeited  his  claim  to 
the  countenance  and  protection  of  the  Government  of  such  Pre- 
sidency, it  shall  and  may  be  lawful  for  such  Governor-General  or 
Ciovernor,  by  order,  to  declare  that  the  certificate  or  liosnse  so 
obtained  by  such  person  shall  be  void  from  a  day  to  be  named 
in  such  order  and  from  and  after  such,  day  so  to  be  named  in 
such  order,  such  person  shall  be  deemed  and  taken  to  be  a  person 
residing  and  being  in  the  East  Indies  without  license  or  authority 
for  that  purpose,  and  may  be  sent  forthwith  to  the  United  King- 
dom, any  matter  or  thing  whatsoever  to  the  contrary  notwith- 
standing :  Provided  nevertheless,  that  no  person  whose  certificate 
or  license  shall  have  been  so  vacated  by  order  of  any  of  the  Govern- 
ments of  the  said  Company  as  aforesaid  shall  be  subject  or  liable 
to  any  prosecution  for  residing  or  being  found  in  the  East  Indies 
without  license  or  authority  for  that  purpose  and  two  months 
after  notice  of  such  order  shall  have  been  given  to  such  person 
by  delivery  to  such  person  of  the  copy  thereof  or  by  leaving  the 
same  at  the  last  place  of  abode  of  such  person  or  by  publication 
of  such  order  in  the  Gazette  of  the  Presidency  where  such  order 
shall  be  made.'' 

Every  effort  has  been  made  to  try  and  secure  a  copy  of  any 

license  granted  under  the  earlier  Act  or  under  this  new  Act,  but 

without  success.     The  nearest  approach  &>  a  missionary's  license 

which  the  writer  has  been  able  to  procure,  and  that  through  the 


kiud  assistance  of  a  friend,  is  the  following  license^  which  was 
granted  to  Mr.  Jamee  Silk  Buckingham  to  come  out  as  a  *'free 
mariner'  and  which  has  been  obtained  from  tba  Parliainentary 
Papers.  In  his  paper  the  (^ilcutta  Journal  of  8th  February  1823 
Mr.  Buckingham  wrote  something  which  gave  offence  to  the 
Government.  His  license  was  accordingly  revoked  and  he  was 
banished  from  India.  The  license  of  which  a  copy  is  now  given 
has  therefore  a  historic  interest  and  should  be  read  with  great 
care  and  attention. 

Parliamentary  Papers.     Vol.  VIII.,  1834. 
Report  from   Select  Committee  on  Calcutta     Journal     (Ap- 
pendix I.). 

Copy  of  the  license  under  which  James  Silk  Buckingham  was 
residing  at  Calcutta  in  the  year  1818. 

This  indenture,  made  the  19th  day  of  October  1818,  between 
the  United  Company  of  Merchants  of  England 
Recital    of    the      trading  to  the  East  Indies  of  the  ons  part,  and 
l)arty's^ai)plicatioiQ      James   S.  Buckingham   of  the  other,  part,   Wit- 
India^as    a  ^frce      ii€8seth,  that,  at  the  request  of  James  S.  Bud[- 
mariner.  ingham,    the  said  United   Company   have  given 

and  granted,  and  by  these  presents  do  give  and 
grant,  full  and  free  license,  power  and  authority  unto  the  said 
James  S.  Buckingham,  during  the  pleasure  of  the  said 
Company  ajid  until  the  license  shall  bd  revoked  by  die 
said  Company,  or  their  Court  of  Directors,  or  the  Gov«> 
nor-General,  or  Governor  or  other  Chief  officers  of  the 
said  Company  at  any  of  their  presidencies,  settlements  or  fac- 
tories, having  lawful  authority  for  that  purpose,  to  proceed  to 
the  East  Indies  and  parts  within  the  limits  of  the  said  Oompany'l 
Charter,  as  a  free  mariner,  there  to  continue  and  provide  for 
himself  in  the  seafaring  way,  subject  to  all  such  provisions  and 
restrictions  as  are  now  or  hereafter  may  be  in  force  with  regard 
to  persons  residing  in  India,  and  also  subject  to  the  oovenanta 
..        ,  and   agreements  of  the  said  James  S.    Bucking- 

ham hereinafter  mentioned.  Provided  always, 
and  these  presents  are  upon  this  express  condition,  that 
in  case  of  breach  or  non-observance  of  any  of  the  provi- 
sions, restrictions,  covenants,  or  agreements  subject  to  which 
thiis  license  is  granted,  on  the  part  of  the  said  James 
S.  Buckingham  to  be  observed  and  performed,  then  and 
from     thenceforth     the    license     hereby     granted     shall  be     and 


le  abflolutely  null  and  void  and  of  no  force  or  effect  what- 
:  and  the  said  James  S.  Buckingham  shall  be  deemed  and 
to  be  a  person  residing  and  being  in  the  East  Indies  without 
Lcense  or  authority  for  that  purpose.  And  the  said  James  S. 
ngham  for  himself,  his  hairs,  executors  and  administrators, 
hereby  covenant,  promise  and  agree  with  and  to  the  said 
d  Company,  in  manner  and  form  following,  that  is  to  say: 
^irst,  That  he  the  said  James  S.  Buckingham,  from  the  time 

of  his  arrival  at  either  of  the  presidencies  of 
the^reCTla-  ^^^  ®*^^  United  Company  in  tha  East  Indies, 
I  the'^oaa  shall  and  will  behave  and  conduct  himself,  from 
m^t  there,  time  to  time  and  in  all  respects,  conformably  to 
to  trade  n-  *^  such  rules  and  regulations  as  now  are  or  here- 
3  law.      ^         after  may  be  in  force  at  such  presidancy,  or  at 

any     other     presidency     in     the     East     Indies 

he     the     said     James     S.      Buckingham     may     happen 

3,     and    which     shall     be    applicable     to    him    or    his  con- 

and    which    he    ought    to    ob&y,     observe     and    conform 

iecondly,      that     he      the      said      James     S.      Buckingham 

QO^  nor  will,  by  himself,  or  in  partnership  with  any  other 

I  or  persons,  or  by  the  agency  of  any  other  person  or  persons, 

SB  principal,  factor  or  agent,  directly  or  indirectly  engage, 

on  or  be  concerned  in  any  trade,  bank,   dealings  or  trans- 

s  whatsoever,   contrary  to  law.     Thirdly,   and  that  in  case 

ake  sat*  *^^  ^^^  James  S.  Buckingham  shall  be  guilty 
to  natives  ^^  ^^y  violence,  oppression  or  wrong  to  any  per- 
igners,  and  son  or  persons  not  being  an  European  born  sub- 
fltates^  for  ject  or-  European  born  subjects  of  His  Majesty, 
<m,  wrong  j^^  heirs  or  successors,  or  shall  commit  any 
offence  against  any  King,  Prince,  Government, 
or  nation  within  the  limits  of  this  said  Company's  charter, 

II  be  charged  with  any  such  violence,  oppression,  wrong  or 
)  then  and  in  such  case  the  said  James  S.  Buckingham  ^all 
ill  submit  himself  therein,  in  all  things,  to  the  decision  of 
id  United  Company  or  their  Court  of  Directors,  or  of  the 
tK>r-€reneral,  or  Governor  in  Council,  or  Chief  Officers  of  any 

presidencies,  settlements  or  factories  of  the  said  Company, 
f  or  any  of  them  shall  see  fit  to  interfere  therein,  and  that 
>  said  James  S.  Buckingham,  his  executors  or  administra- 
hall  and  will  pay  and  make  good  all  such  sum  and  sums 
oey,  and  do  and  perform  all  such  acts,  matters  and  things 
lever.  as  a  reparation  of  the  injury,  which  he  shall  have 
mod,  or  the  offence  he  shall  have  given,  as  he  shall  be  re- 

by  any  such  decision  to  pay,  make  good,   do  or  perform. 


iiud  in  failure  thereof,  it  shall  be  lawful  to  and  for  the  said  Com- 
pany, or  their  Court  of  Directors,  or  any  of  their  agents,  to  pay, 
or  cause  the  same  to  be  paid,  made  good,  done  and  performed, 
and  thereupon  the  said  James  S.  Buckingham,  his  executors  or 
administrators  shall  and  will  reimburse  to  the  said  Company,  their 
suooessors  or  assigns,  all  such  sum  or  sums  of  money  as  shall  be 
BO  paid  and  all  costs,  charges  and  expenses  which  may  be  incurred 
thereby . 

Fourthly,  and  that  before  he,  the  said  James  S.  Buckingham, 
.  shall    return    to   Europe,    or  remove  from,   quit 

withlt'da  ?f  'f*^\tbe  East  Indies,  he,  the  Baid  Jame.  8. 
to  satisfy  all  debte  Buckmgham,  shall  and  will  pay  and  satisfy  and 
to  the  Company,  perform  all  such  debts,  sum  of  money,  duties  and 
nativesand foreign-  engagements,  as  he  shall  owe  or  be  liable  to  per- 
uvro.  ^^  ^^^'  ^^^^  t^  t^^  said  Company  or  any  person  or  per- 
sons not  being  an  European  born  subject,  or  Eujo 
peau  born  subjects  of  His  Majesty,  his  heirs  or  successors,  or  for 
any  injury  or  offence  he  may  have  done  or  committed,  as  herein- 
before mentioned,  and  that  in  case  of  any  breach  of  this  covenant, 
he  the  said  James  S.  Buckingham  shall  and  will  pay  unto  the 
said  Company  and  their  successors  for  the  damages  in  respect  of 
the  breach  thereof,  such  sum  of  money  as  he  shall  have  owed,  and 
which  he  shall  have  omitted  to  pay,  as  hereinbefore  mentioned, 
or  such  sum  of  money  as  shall  be  equal  to  the  damage  actually 
sustained  by  any  person  or  persons,  by  breach  or  non-performanoe 
of  any  duty  or  engagement  which,  under  the  covenant  herein- 
before contained,  he  ought  to  liave  satisfied  or  performed,  before 
such  return  or  removal,  to  the  end  that  the  said  Company  if  they 
shall  see  fit,  may  pay  over  such  damages  to  the  creditor  or  creditors, 
or  injured  party  or  parties,  for  his,  he  or  their  own  benefit,  or 
may  apply  them  for  any  other  purpose,  or  keep  them  for  the  n» 
of  the  said  Company,  their  successors  or  assigns.  In  witness 
whereof,  to  one  part  of  these  indentures  the  said  United  Oom- 
pany  have  caused  their  common  seal  to  be  affixed,  and  to  the 
other  part  thereof  the  said  James  S.  Buckingham  has  set  his  hand 
and  seal,  the  day  and  year  al)ove  written. 

(Sd.)         James  S.  Buckingham. 
Sealed  and  delivered  at  Calcutta,  in  Bengal,  in  tho  presence  of 

(Sd.)         H.  W.  PoE, 
Atforneif  to  the  Hoiufurahle  Com  puny, 
A  copy  of  the  Passport  given  to  Mr.    Chamberlain  in   1810 
when  he  went  to  Agra  is  extracted   from  Mr.    Marshman  s  book 


and  giv>6ii  below  for  the  curious  reader  who  may  be  interested  iit 
Bucli  documents: — 
-,  To  the  Commanding  Officers  of  Stations,  Chief  or  Subordinate^ 

I    etc.,   whom  it  may  concern. 

i  This  is  to  certify  that,  the  bearer  hereof,   Mr.  John  Cham- 

i     berlain,  has  the  permission  of  the  Right  Hon'bl©  the  Govemoiv 

'\     General  in  CouncU  to  reside  at  Agra  during  the  pleasure  of  Gov- 

enunent,  subject  to  all  orders  and  regulations,  which  may  be  com^ 

municated  to  him  from  time  to  tim3l)y  the  Commanding  Officer 

I     and  by  the  Judge  and  Magistrate  of  Agra.     Mr.  Chamberlain  is 

required   immediately  on   his  arrival   at   Agra   to  report  himself 

to  the  Magistrate  of  that  station  and  produce  this  passport.     If 

[     he  should  neglect  to  report  himself  and  shall  be  unable  to  assign 

.    .a  satisfactory  reason  for  this  omission,   he  will  be  considered  to 

I     have  forfeited  the  benefit  of   the  passport  and  will  be  liable  to 

!;     be  sent  immediately  to  the  Presidency  by  the  Magistrate.     Mr. 

^     Chamberlain  is  also  required  to  give  due  notice  to  the  Magistrate 

.  whenever,  he  may  intend  to  quit  his  jurisdiction,   and  to  specify 

■■"    the  place  to  which  he  may  propose  to  proceed. 

:  -  Given  by  order  of  the  Right  Hon'ble  the  Governor-General 

;:    in  Council  of  Fort  William,  in  Bengal  this  16th  day  of  November 

f    1810. 

[  (Sd.)     H.    Tucker, 

!  Secretary  to  the  Government, 

i  Pnhlic  Department. 

;V  The  above  form   was  changed   at  the  close  of  the   following 

3  year  when  a  much  stricter  one  was  ordered  to  be  used  under  Pro. 
I  G.  G.  Jud.  Dept.  24th  December  1811  in  the  case  of  Europeans 
I  who  were  not  Civilians  or  Military  Officers,  permitted  to  reside 
[.  in  the  interior  of  the  country.  A  sample  of  the  form  is  given 
in  the  Abstract  of  General  Orders  and  Regulations  published  at 
Calcutta  in  1812. 


The  Title  Deeds  and  Tbust  Deeds 
OP  THE  Chapel  property. 

The  first  document  in  the  series  bears  date  24th  June  1789 
and  is  Bill  of  Sale  from  John  Wilton,  Sheriff  of  Calcutta,  to 
Bacharam  Chatterjee  conveying  to  him  by  Court  Sale  for  doca 
rupees  3,955  two  biggahs  and  16^  cottahs  of  land  on  part  of 
which  the  Chapel  was  subasquently  built. 

The  next  are  lease  dated  18th  September  1789,  and  release 
dated  19th  September  1789,  between  Bacharam  Chatterjee  and 
Henry  Swinhoe  for  the  above  piece  of  land. 

Next  comes  the  pottah  from  the  Collector  of  Calcutta  bear- 
ing date,  the  22nd  October  1789  to  Henry  Swinhoe  for  2  biggalu 
16  cottahs  and  8  chittacks  of  land  at  an  annual  rental  of  sicca 
rupees  8-7-12. 

The  contract  of  sale  between  James  Bolt  and  Henry  Swinhoe 
for  sale  to  the  latter  of  2  biggahs  4  cottahs  and  8  chittacks  of  land 
in  Lall  Bazar  bears  date  26th  February  1806. 

The  lease  and  release  between  Henry  Swinhoe  and  Jane  his 
wife  and  the  Serampore  missionaries  and  others  detailed,  bear 
date  14th  and  15th  March  1806  respectively.  They  were  for  a 
piece  of  land  for  erecting  a  Chapel  and  convi&ying  to  them  that 
land  for  the  erection  of  a  Chapel  for  all  denominations  of  Chrift- 
tians  in  consideration  of  sicca  rupees  7,250  duly  paid  to  them. 

The  first  Trust  Deed  bears  date  the  19th  April  1806,  and  is 
attested  by  J.  Edmund  and  Joshua  Rowe.  By  it  the  ten  Trustees 
named  below  were  appointed  and  j)rovision  was  made  to  appoint 
new  Trustees  in  case  of  vacancy  through  death  or  otherwise.  Tho 
ten  Trustees  were  William  Carey,  Joshua  Marshman,  William 
Ward,  William  Moore,  Michael  Derozio,  Peter  Lindeman,  William 
Bamfield,   George      Samuel      Hutt.^man,    James   Bolt  and   James 


Moffat,  wlio  declare  that  the  sum  of  ^icca  rupees  7,250,  which  waa- 
paid  to  Henry  Swinhoe  for  the  purchase  of  the  piece  of  land 
iescribed  in  the  Indenture  of  Relase  was  raised  by  voluntary  sub- 
scription to  effect  the  said  purchase  for  the  purpose  of  erecting: 
ji  Chapel,  to  be  called  The  New  Calcutta  Chapel  for  Divine  wor- 
ihip  of  all  denominations  of  Christians  and  that  their  names  were 
>nly  used  as  Trustees  for  that  purpose. 

The  Attorney's  bill  for  drawing  up  the  lease  and  release  of 
15tli  March  1806  bears  date  16th  April  1806  and  is  for  Be.  180. 

On  the  30th  May  1806,  the  sale  of  the  land  was  confirmed 
by  an  indenture  of  1a>ne  in  the  Supreme  Court. 

On  the  15th  February  1813  the  Serampore  missionaries  ad- 
dressed a  letter  to  the  Trustees  regarding  the  debt  due  to  them 
on  the  Chapel,  pointing  out  that  with  unpaid  interest  it  amounted 
at  the  beginning  of  that  year  to  sicca  rupees  20,300  and  asked  for 
payment  or  adequate  security.  This  communidati^oin  was  con- 
sidejned  by  the  Trustees  on  the  17th  idem  and  as  they  had  no 
funds  with  which  to  meet  the  debt  they  resolved  to  mortgage  the 
Chapel  and  grounds  to  the  Serampore  missionaries  to  whom  the 
money  was  due  for  the  sums  advanced  from  their  own  funds  so 
that  the  erection  of  the  Chapel  might  be  pushed  on  with.  A  copy 
of  the  letter  of  15th  February  1813  with  its  endorsements  is  given 
below  for  ready  perusal : — 


The  Trustees  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel 
Gt^ntlemen, — 

We  bag  to  call  your  attention  to  certain  circumstances  relative 
to  the  debt  on  the  Chapel. 

It  is  well-known  to  you  that  when  the  subscriptions  for  erect^ 
ing  the  Chapel  were  found  inadequate  to  the  erection  of  it  we 
advanced  money  from  time  to  Jiime  to  carry  on  the  works;  that 
when  another  friend,  who  had  furnished  money  likewise  found  it 
necessary  to  recall  the  same,  we  advanced  the  Bs.  2,000  to  pay 
him,  and  in  May  1810,  when  the  builder  Mr.  Holt,  brought  his 
bills  we  balanced  his  account  and  paid  it  off.  In  a  word,  the 
debt  due  to  us  on  the  Chapel  in  November  1811  we  found  to  be 


nearly  19,000  rupees,  and  in  the  beginning  of  this  year,  on  examin- 
ing the  debt  due  to  us,  we  found  that,  with  the  unpaid  interest, 
it  amounted  to  20,300  rupees.  When  we  reflect  that  for  this  large 
sum  we  have  not  even  a  note-of-hand  of  any  of  the  TrusteeB.  as 
a  voucher  for  its  being  due  to  us,  and  consider  that  the  money  is 
not  our  own,  we  feel  it  our  duty  to  lay  these  circumstances  before 
you  and  to  request  either  the  payment  of  the  same,  or  such  security 
for  th^  same  as  shall  appear  to  you  adequate  and  reasonable. 

We  remain, 
Youns  truly, 
(Sd.)     W.   Carey. 
,,         J.    Marshman. 

„         W.  Ward. 

»Se  RAM  PORE,   loth  Fehruarif  18  Li. 

Endorsement  on  the  above. 
At  a  meeting  of  the  Trustees  held  on  the  17th  February  1813 
the  above  latter  was  read,  and,  it  appearing  to  them  that  there 
were  no  funds  to  meet  this  debt,  it  was  resolved  that  a  mortgage 
of  the  Chapel  and  grounds  should  be  given  to  Messrs.  Carey, 
Marshman  and  Ward,  to  whom  the  above  sum  is  due 

(Sd.)     J.  RoLT. 

J.  Moffat. 

George  Samuel  Hutteman. 
Memo  : 

Mortgage  executed  on  the  15th  June  1813,  by  Greorge  Samuel 
Hutteman,  Jamss  Rolt,  and  James  Moffat  before  9  o'clock  in  the 
morning  on  Saturday  in  Calcutta  and  the  other  three,  WiUiam 
Carey,  Joshua  Marshman  and  William  Ward  at  Serampore  on 
the  same  day  in  the  evening  in  the  presenoa  of  me 

(Sd.)  J.  Carey. 
As  shown  in  the  endorsement  on  the  above  letter  a  deed  of 
mortgage  was  drawn  up  by  Mr.  R.  M.  Thomae,  attorney,  and 
witnessed  by  Jonathan  Carey  his  articled  clerk,  bearing  dat«  15th 
Jun^  1813  mortgaging  tlie  Chapel  and  grounds  for  the  repayment 
of  sicca  rupees  20,400  and  interest  at  10  per  cent,  per  annum  to 
the  Baptist  Missionary  Body  at  Serampore,  and  conveying  it  to 
Rev.  John  Lawson  as  Trustee  for  the  Missionary  Body  at  Seram- 


Mr.  Marshman  in  his  bcok  writ-es  thus  about  this  matter:— 
'*  In  after  years  when  all  the  proceedings  of  the 
Serampor<d  missionaries  were  ransacked  to  discover  cause  of  crimina- 
tion, and  every  act  was  ascribed  to  the  most  objectionable  motives, 
this  transaction  was  selected  as  an  object  of  particular  censure. 
But  it  admits  of  the  most  satisfactory  explanation;  by  a  clause 
in  the  original  Deed  the  Chapel  was  to  be  opan  to  the  use  of  all, 
but  it  was  subsequently  erected  by  the  exertions  of  men  of  only 
one  d3nomination  and  to  them  it  was  mortgaged  by  the  Body  of 
Trustees.  The  missionaries  were  not  disposed  to  take  advantage 
of  this  circumstance  and  appropriate  it  to  their  own  exclusive 
use,  and  invited  Mr.  Forsyth,  the  only  missionary  in  Bengal  uncon- 
nected with  their  own  body  to  select  his  own  hours  for  preaching 
to  his  little  flock  and  he  continued  thus  to  labor  till  he  voluntarily 
relinquished  the  service.  But  although  the  hypothecation  of 
the  building  in  1809  (should  be  1813)  to  the  Serampore  missionaries 
was  pronounced  by  their  detractoi-s  to  be  utterly  undefensible, 
yet,  on  the  dissolution  of  that  mission  thirty  years  after,  it  was 
taken  over  on  the  same  footing  by  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society 
and  their  missionaries  continue  to  occupy  its  pulpit  on  the  strength 
of  that  calumniated  mortgage.' 

Mr.  Forsyth's  congregation  dwindled  away  three  or  four  yea  re 
before  his  death  in  1816. 

The  Bill  of  the  Attorney  for  drawing  up  this  mortgage  bears 
date  19th  July  1813,  and  is  for  twenty  gold  mohurs. 

The    Serampore    missionaries    having    decided    to   retain    the 

Chapel    in    the    Baptist     denomination,     they    issued     a   circular 

in  1816  to  all  the  original  subscribers  to  tha  Building  Fund,  who 

'^    had  given  their  contributions  on  the  understanding  that  it  was 

4  for  all    denominations,    informing    them    of  their    determination 
J    and  expressing  their  willingness  to  return  their  donations  to  any 

5  subscribers,  who  wished  them  back.     Only  one  individual  claimed 
^     a  refund  and  the  request  was  complied  with,  but  the  name  of  the 

individual  has.  not  been  traced.     There  is  a  tradition  that  it  was 
a  lady. 

For  seven  years  after  the  completion  of  the  Chapel  there 
was  no  other  niisBionary  body  to  avail  itself  of  the  comprehensive 
clause  of  the  original  Deed,  but  in  1816  the  London  Mieaionary 
Society  established  a  Mission     in     Calcutta.     Their    missionaries 


fouud  on  their  arrival  that  the  Chapel  had  long  been  used  by  a 

large  Church  and  congregation  whoee  stated  servioeB  occupied  the 

hours  devoted  by  common  usage  to  public  worship  on  the  Sabbath^ 

so  they  considered  it  more  advisable  to  erect  a  Chapel  of  theif 

own  rather  than  interfere  with  the  devotions  of  another  long  estab* 

lished  body.     Thus  it  was  that  Union  Chapel  came  to  be  erected 

and  opened  in  June  1821. 

At   this  stage  it   is  as  well   to   insert  the  following   remarks 

made  by  Mr.  Marshman  in  his  book : — 

•  The  Bow  Bazar  Chapel,   therefore,   remained  in  the  occupa- 
tion of  the  Baptist  Church,   with  little  prospect  of  interruption, 
a  circumstance    which  became  a  prolific  source  of  detraction  "with 
the  opponents  of  the  Serampore  missionaries.     Afi  there  will  be 
no  occasion  to  recur  to  this  subject  again  in  the  oounste  of  theae 
memoirs,  it  may  be  dismissed  at  this  point  with,  a  brief  allusioa 
to  the  subsequent  history   of  the   edifice.     Three  or   four     jean 
before  this  period  it  was  encumbered  with  a  debt  of  about  j£2,000 
being  the  aggregate  of  sums  which  Dr.   Carey  and  his  aaeociftttt 
had  successively  advanced  to  the  builder.     The  monthly  subscrip- 
tion  raised   by  the  congregation  was  equal  only  to  the  expenm 
of  Divine  Service  and  the  interest  of  the  debt.     An  attempt  w«» 
therefore  made  to  cr^jate  another  fund,  which  should   accumulate 
at  compound   interest  in  one  of  the  great  houses  of   businefis  in 
Calcutta,  till  it  amounted  to  the  principal  of  the  debt.     At  the 
beginning  of  tha  year    1816,  this  sinking   fund  reached  the  sum 
of  £730,  and  if  its  growth  had  not  been  checked,  the  encumbrance 
would  have  been  extinguished   in  a  few  years.     But  the  two  deacons 
of  the  Church,   who  were  appointed  to  that  office  at  this  time, 
were  hostile  to  the  Serampore  missionaries  and  to  all  tbeir  move- 
ments, and  discountenanced  both  the  fund  for  meeting  the  interast 
and  that  for  liquidating  the  principal.     Their  argument  was  plau- 
sible, and  not  unreasonable  that  ''in  proportion  as  the  means  in- 
creased for  the  liquidation  of  the  debt,  tBe  interest  of  the  Church 
and   congregation  now  meeting  there  would   be  diminished,    and 
they  would  at  length  stand  on  the  same  level  with,  other  denomina- 
tions."    The    missionaries   were   thus,  censured   on   the   one   hand 
for  having  adopted  a  course  which  virtually  converted  that  edifice, 
which'  was  intended  for  the  worship  of  all  sects,  into  a  denomina- 
tional chapel,  and  condemned,  on  the  other  hand,  for  their  efforts 
to  terminate  the  anomaly  and  restore  the  chapel  to  its  original 
position.     Thus  thwarted  in  their  attempt  to  create  a  liquidation 
fund,  they  consulted  the  members  of  the  Church,  and  obtained 


tiieiF  consezLt  to  the  appropriation  ci  the  sum  which  had  accumu- 
lated to  its  object,  as  far  as  it  would  go.  The  chapel  thus  remained 
with  a  debt  of  about  £1,300,  which  was  guaranteed  by  the  mort- 
gage. On  the  extinction  of  the  Serampore  Mission  in  1837,  the 
pulpit  was  transferred  to  the  missionaries  of  the  Baptist  Missionary 
So<»ety  and  it  continues  to  be  occupied  by  them  on  the  tenure 
of  the  mortgage,  which  had  once  been  so  strongly  condemned." 

Prom  Dr.  Cox's  History  of  the  Mission  it  would  seem 
that  the  statement  made  above  is  not  strictly  correct  as 
wiU  be  seen  from  the  following  resolution,  which  was  arrived  at 
when  the  question  of  re-union  was  definitely  settled  upon  in  1837. 

''It  was  agreed  that  whatevsr  books  and  translations  at 
-  Serampore  are  public  property  should  be  transferred  to 
'    the  Society,  and  that  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel,  having  been  originally 

intended  for  the  use  of  all  denominations  of  Christians  and 
!    erocfced  by  the  aid  of  the  Calcutta  public  should  be  appropriated 

to  some  object  congenial  with  its  original  design.'' 

I  In  March  1819  the  youngier  members  of  the  Church  wished 

-^  to  form  a  fund*  for  liquidating  the  debt  and  made  certain  pro- 
^  poaals  to  their  pastors  at  Ser.ampore,  who  wrote  back  a  very  en- 
oonraging  reply,  but  nothing  can  be  traced  as  to  what  was  really 
f  done  or  how  much  wais  raised.  Still,  as  the  papers  are  interesting 
g  in  themselves  copies  are  given  below  for  the  perusal  of  the  reader. 
%  They  are  taken  from  the  Circular  Letter  of  the  day. 
g  Fund  for  liquidating  the  Chapel  debt,  formed  by  the  younger 

t[  members  of  the  Church  at  Calcutta. 
^'  Address  to  Messrs.  Carey  and  Marshman. 

Calcutta,  March  29th  1819, 
" .  Dear  Pastors, — 

On  perusing  your  kind  plan  of  a  Bank  for  savings  into  which 
we  rejoice  to  find  you  are  willing  to  admit  the  members  of  your 
T^  congregation,  as  well  as  those  educated  under  your  care,  the  cal- 
culations there  exhibited  struck  some  of  us  as  affording  a  happy 
opportunity  of  forming  a  fund  which  will  at  a  very  trifling  expense 
to  each  of  us,  lay  the  foundation  for  liquidating  the  debt  on  the 
Lall  Bazar  Chapel. 

We  therefore,  the  youths  of  the  congregation  assembling  in 
that  place,  have  determined  to  begin  a  fund  for  that  purpose  by 
subscribing  towards  it  one  rupee  monthly,  which  if  left  to  accnmu- 
*  Thi8  funri  was  different  from  the  fund  already  mentfonolt 



late  in  the  Bank,  with  only  forty  subscribers,  of  one  rupee  monthly 
will,  in  the  course  of  16  or  17  years  amount  to  a  sum  fully  equal 
to  the  principal  of  the  debt. 

We  hope,  therefore,  that  you  will  kindly  deign  to  accept  of 
our  servioee  in  this  way,  which  we  are  induced  to  offer  as  a  toke& 
of  our  gratitude  for  the  benefit  we  have  derived  from  your  minih 
try  and  our  esteem  for  the  noble  manner  in  which  you  came 
forward  from  the  beginning,  and  not  only  took  on  yourselves  the 
trouble  of  erecting  the  Chapel,  but  advanced  the  money  out  of 
the  product  of  your  own  labours  to  complete  the  building  when 
all  other  means  failed. 

We  are  etc., 

(Sd.)    J.  Reily. 
,,       R,  Gordon. 
Answer  of  the  Pastors. 

To, — Mr.  Robert  Gordon,  Mr.  James  Reily,  and  the  rest  of 
the  younger   members   of   the  congregation   meeting    in    the  LaH 
Bazar  Chapel. 
Dear  Young  Friends, — 

We  have  received  your  affectionate  letter  intimating  your 
determination  to  attempt  forming  a  fund  among  yourselves  which 
may  accumulate  in  the  Bank  for  Savings  till  sufficient  to  pay  off 
the  principal  of  the  debt  remaining  on  the  Chapel  in  the  Lall 
Bazar,  as  a  testimony  of  your  este&m  for  your  aged  pastors. 

Our  feelings  on  receiving  this  token  of  your  affection  for  us 
and  your  regard  for  the  honour  of  religion,  we  cannot  euily 
express.  While  we  are  constantly  receiving  undoubted  proofs  <rf 
the  affection  borne  to  us  and  the  cause  by  our  elder  friends  in 
the  congregation,  who  have  been  with  us  from  the  beginning,  we 
cannot  but  rejoice  that  so  excellent  a  spirit  is  found  in  its  younger 
members,  not  so  much  for  the  prospect  it  affords  of  the  Chapd 
being  ultimately  freed  from  embarrassments  (which  your  ptan 
will  certainly  secure  if  you  persevere  therein)  as  from  the  hope 
thus  afforded  by  our  younger  friends,  who  will  have  to  support 
the  honor  of  religion  when  time  with  us  shall  be  no  more,  that 
rhey  possess  a  spirit  which  will  enable  them  to  do  this  hereafter 
in  a  manner  becoming  the  Gospel  of  CHrist. 

Your  generous  offer  we  will  gladly  communicate  to  the 
other  Trustees  of  the  Chapel,  who,  we  are  certain,  will  duly  appre^ 
ciate  the  temper  of  mind  which  has  urged  you  to  this  praiseworthy 
step,  an  act  which  will  not  only  fill  them  with  lively  satisfactioii, 
but  will  give  pleasure  to  every  good  man,  who  shall  hear  of  it. 
while   it  must   afford   the  highest  gratification   to  the   more  aged 


members  of  oxir  congregation.  But  the  delight  it  will  create  in 
the  mind  of  our  dear  brother  aud  fellow-pastor  (Mr.  Ward)  now 
on  his  way  to  his  native  land  in  the  hope  of  obtaining  renewed 
health  and  strength  to  labor  again  amongst  you  (of  whose  tender 
affection  for  you  you  cannot  be  ignorant),  we  can  imagine,  but 
not  easily  describe. 

While  we  contemplate  this  act  of  yours  as  honorable  to 
religion  and  as  pleasing  to  every  generous  mind,  we  feel  a  wish 
to  do  all  we  can  to  render  this  work  easy  and  pleasant  both  to 
ycu  and  tc  our  esteemed  elder  brethren  and  friends,  who  are 
generously  endeavouring  to  meet  the  interest  of  the  debt.  You, 
Sben,  w&  would  respectfully  entreat  strictly  to  confine  yourselves 
to  your  proposal  of  each  individual's  subscribing  to  this  intended 
fund,  only  one  rupee  monthly,  which  if  there  be  forty  of  you 
thus  subscribing  will  certainly  pay  off  the  debt  in  eighteen  years, 
and,  if  ths  number  exceeds  forty,  will  do  fo  still  sooner.  Should 
any  one  among  you  insist  on  doing  more  let  him  not  increase  his 
monthly  subscription,  but  do  it  by  way  of  occasional  donation 
to  this  fiind. 

To  our  esteemed  elder  brethren  and  friends  who  are  endeav- 
ouring to  m:et  the  intsrsst  cf  tlvs  dsbt,  we  brg  leave  to   jay  that 
at  the  expira-tion  of  this  year  we  will  reduce  that  interest  to  seven 
per  cent.,   to  remain   at  that   rate  as  long   as  it  exists,   and   we 
would  advise,  that  svery  rupee  collected  by  them  above  that  sum 
he  added  to  your  fund  for  liquidating  the  debt.     To  this  we  beg 
leave  to  add  another  idea.     It  gives  us  unspeakable   pleasure  to 
observe  their  increasing  desire  to  spread  the  Gospel  around  them- 
aelves,  the  end  indeed  to  which  they  have  been   called  by  grace, 
( the  object  for  which  they  ought  to  live,  and  on  which  w.\  though 
we    have    forborne    to  mention    it  even   to   them    have    for    years 
^  expended  over  ona  hundred   rupees  monthly  in   Calcutta     itself. 
g|  To  enable  them   to  gratify  this  desire,    therefore,    while   meeting 
£  the  interest  of  tbe  debt,  we  will  henceforth   devote  the  whole  of 
%  it  (which  we  have  ever  expended  in  spreading  the  Gospel  in  India) 
y-  to  the   fjf^f^ific  object  of  n'pre.ading     the     Gospel     (t round   flinn     in 
m  €dUtutta  arid  Hti  neighhonrhood,  by  supporting  brethren  raised  up 
S  in  the  country  to  preach  to  the  heathen,   and  the  distribution  of 
i'    Scripture  pamphlets. 

r  In  entreating  Our  Heavenly  Father  to  enrich  you  abuiulantly 

:     with  His  grace,  and  to  make  you  faithful  in  every  g(^o:l  work, 

"Vfe  remain.  Dear  young  Friends,   Your  affectionate  Pastors. 

(Sd.)     W.  Carky. 
,,       J.  Marshman. 
-Serampore.  20th  March   IS  19. 

180        the  stolty  of  the  lall-bazar  baptist  chubch. 

Address  to  the  Congregation. 

On  perusing  a  plan  for  the  Bank  for  Savings  established  at 
Serampore,  th&  calculations  there  exhibited  struck  us  as  c^enng 
a  happy  opportunity  of  forming  a  fund,  which,  at  a  very  trifling 
expense  to  the  subscribers  would  lay  the  foundation  for  liquidating 
the  principal  of  the  debt  on  the  Chapal.  We,  therefore  deter- 
mined to  begin  a  fund  for  that  purpose  by  subecribing  each  a 
rupee  monthly,  which  small  sum,  if  we  have  forty  contributoriB) 
and  the  contributions  be  left  to  accumulate  in  the  above  Bank, 
will  in  the  course  of  eighteen  years,  entirely  free  the  chapel  from 
its  present  encumbranc3.  This  our  determination  we  commani- 
cated  to  our  respected  pastors  at  Serampore  with  a  request  that 
they  would  kindly  accept  our  services  in  this  way.  The  fe^ngi 
with  which  they  have  accepted  them  may  be  gathered  from  their 
afiPectionate  let^r,  a  copy  of  which  we  beg  to  enclose. 

We  now  take  the  liberty  of  submitting  this  plan  to  your  owk 
sideration  and  of  soliciting  your  cooperation  should  it  appear 
worthy  of  your  countenance  and  support.  A  book  for  namtf 
accompanies  this  address.  As  soon  as  a  sufficient  niunber  of  con- 
tributors are  obtained  a  meeting  of  tham  will  be  requeoted  to 
adjust  any  further  particulars  which  may  be  thought  necessary. 

Under  the  assured  hope  that  you  will  cordially  unite  in 
accomplishing  so  important  an  object  when  it  can  be  effected  h? 
so  trifling  a  contribution  as  one  rupea  monthly, 

We  remain,   for  the  rest  of  our  young  friends. 

Yours  very  respectfully, 
(Sd.)     Robert  Gordon. 
, .        James   Reily. 
Calcutta,   2u(I  April  1819. 

Rules  for  the  Fund. 
At  a  meeting  of  the  subscribers  to  the  Youths'  Fund  for 
liquidating  the  debt  on  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel,  held  pursuant  1» 
previous  notice  at  the  Vestry  Room  of  the  Chapel  on  Monday 
evening  the  29th  of  April  1819,  it  was  resolved  by  a  great  majofritf 
©f  the  subscribers: — 

1 .  That  this  fund  be  raised  solely  for  tha  sake  of  liqiddatiDl 
the  debt  on  the  Chapel,  due  to  Messrs.  Carey,  Marshman  tnd 

2.  That  the  money  as  it  may  be  collected,  be  depodfaed  iB 
trust  for  that  purpose  in  the  Bank  for  Savings  established  at 
Serampore,   to   accumulate  till  sufficient  to  liquidate  the  debt. 

3.  That  Messrs.  A.  Gordon,  J.  White,  J.  Reily  and  B. 
Gordon  be  appointed  collectors  to  this  Fund. 


4.  That  on  receiving  annually  from  the  Bank  for  Savings 
lh  account  of  the  state  of  th<9  fund  the  collectors  cause  the  same 
o  be  printed  for  general  information  with  a  list  of  the  contri- 
lutoTs  thereto. 

Nothing  further  has  been  traced  about  this  scheme  as  to 
v'liether  it  provied  abortive  or  was  actually  carried  into  effect, 
bnd,  if  the  latter,  how  much  was  paid  in.  The  effort  in  itself  was 
>raiseworthy  and  deserving  of  every  success. 

There  appear  to  be  no  further  documents  until  we  come  to 
L839,  after  the  death  of  Dr.  Marshman  and  the  re-union  of  the 
Berampore  Mission  with  the  parent  Society,  when  the  next  step 
taken  wae  to  appoint  a  committee  to  conduct  the  business  con- 
nected with  the  transfer  of  the  Bow  Bazar  Chap 3! .  The  com- 
mittee eompidsed  Meeers.  Gray,  Hassell,  J.  Eobinson,  L.  Mendes 
and  E.  F.  Barker,  and  a  copy  of  the  letter  to  Mr.  J.  C.  Marsh- 
man  signed  by  Mr.  Gray  is  given  below  from  the  Church  Minute 
Book,  but  Mr.  Marshman's  reply  is  not  on  record. 


J.  C.  Marshman,  Esq., 

Dear  Sir, — 

I  have  been     requested  by  a  committee     of  the  Lall  Bazar 

Church  to  address  you  on  the  subject  of  transferring  the  Chapel 

to  the  Church.     Mr.   Thomas,    Mr.  Bayne,    Mr.    Kowe   and   Mr. 

Biss  have  been  named  s&  Trustees  on  tho  behalf  of  the  Church 

from  among  the  Circular  Bead  brethren,  Mr.  Barker  and  myself 

'  from  among  otirselves,  and  two  in  England,  to  be  named  by  the 

Circular  E^ad  brathren.     May  I  request  that  you  will  kindly  let 

f  T»  know  what  is  next  to  be  done.     I  am  authorized  to  employ  a 

'.lawyer  to  make  the  transfer  in   a   regular   and   correct  manner. 

And  I  should  feel  much  obliged  if  you  would  kindly  favor  me  with 

^  jour  advic3  in  this  matter. 

(Sd.)     E.  Gray.  Deacon. 

Rev.  J.  Thomas, 
Dear  Sir, — 

I  have  consulted   the   Church  on  the  subject  of  your  letter 

■  of  the  14th  instant,  and  they  have  expressed  their  wish  that  you 

and  Mr.   Bayne,   Mr.  Josiah  Eowe  and  Mr.   Biss  should  bscome 

Trustees  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  on  behalf  of  the   Church,   in 


connection  with  Mr.  Barker  and  myself  from  among  our  members 
and  t\v(i  in  England  who  you  may  name.  Will  you  kindly  ascar- 
tain  for  us  whether  thase  gentlemen  named  in  connection  with 
your  Church  will  accept  the  Trust,  and  favor  us  with  the  nanies 
of  your  friends  in  England  and  write  immediately  their  views 
on  the  subject. 

(Sd.)     E.  Gray. 

The  next  document  in  the  series  is  dated  23rd  August  1839 
being  the  assignment  of  mortgage  in  Trust  by  Mr.   J.  C.  Marsh- 
man  to  the  Trustees  appointed  and  named  therein  of  the  Chapel 
and  land  in  consideration  of  tha  payment  made  to  him  of  sicca 
rupees  10  by  the  Trustees,    whereby  he  transferred   to   them  his 
right,  title  and  interest  in  the  debt  of  Rs.  20,400  to  permit  and 
suffer  the  said  Chapel  to  be  used  and  occupied  for  the  service  of 
AlmigWy   God   according  to  the  forms  of  the  Particular   Baptist- 
Denomination  of   Dissenters  practising   the     immersion   of   adults 
upon   ])rofcssion   of   faith.     The    Trustees   named     were    (1)  Rev. 
James  Thnmas  ;    (2)  Rev.  Robert  Bayne,   Ministers  of  the  Gospel; 
(3)  Josfali    Rowo  of  Entally,    Housebuilder ;    (4)   Isaiah  Birt  Biss» 
Geiitlsinan  ;    (5)   Ernest  Gray,  Watchmaker;    (6)   Edward   Francis 
Barker,     ]\liniature  ])ainter,     all  of  Calcutta.     The     Deed  is  wit- 
nessed  by  R.    Molloy  and  his  articled  clerk  Shib  Chunder  Daas. 
This  evidently  was  thi^  outcome  of  the  letter     which     had  been 
addressed  by  the  Church  to  Mr.  J.  C.  Marshman  in  March  1839. 

In  September  I860,  the  land  on  which  the  Chapel  stands  wM 
redeemed  by  the  payment  of  Rs.  115-12-6  as  per  redemption  oe^ 
tificate,  dated  the  15th  of  that  month. 

Years  rolled  by  before  the  next  Deed  was  executed.  In  1876 
it  was  realized  that  only  one  of  the  six  Trustees  of  1839  was  still 
surviving  and  that  was  the  Rev.  Robert  Bayna,  who  had  left 
the  country  shortly  after  signing  the  Deed  of  that  year,  and  who 
had  moreover  left  the  Baptist  denomination.  He  was  communi- 
cated with  and  sent  out  a  pow^r-of-attorney,  dated  15th  January 
1877  authorizing  the  Rev.  C.  B.  Lewis  to  act  for  him. 

A  new  Trust  Deed  was  then  drawn  out  and  bears  date  the 
23rd  ]\ray  1877,  appointing  fresh  Trustees  among  whom  the  present 


iter  was  on6.     The  Attorney's  bill  for  drawing  up  the  said  Deed 
MS  date  30th  June  1877  and  is  for  lU.  216-8^. 

Circumstances  having  arisen  in  1882  for  the  Church  to  re- 
irm  it»  claim  to  the  Chapel  and  land,  letters  were  addressed 
the  Superintendent  of  the  Baptist  Mission  Press  and  to  the 
dian  Secretary  of  the  Mission  on  18th  March  of  that  year, 
aking  a  distinct  claim  to  the  property.  On  the  20th 
em  a  letter  was  addressed  to  the  Society  in  London  forwarding 
pies  of  the  aforesaid  letters,  and  this  claim  has  never  been 
lallenged  by  the  Society.  In  fact  no  reply  was  ever  sent  by  any 
l  the  three  persons  addressed.  A  copy  of  the  letter  of  the  18th 
[arch  1882  to  the  Indian  Secretary  of  the  Mission  is  given 
Blow: — 

Calcutta,  18th  March  1882. 

The  Rev.  G.  Kerry, 

Baptist  Missionary  Society, 

Lall  Bazar  Chapel. 
Hy  dear  Sir, 

There  seems  to  have  been  an  impression  about  that  the  Lall 
^asar  Chapel  and  premises  belonged  in  some  way  to  the  Baptist 
Cssionary  Society,  or  that  they  had  some  lien  or  claim  on  it. 

The  point  was  discussed  at  a  special  Church  meeting  held 
n  Wednesday  evening,  the  15th  instant,  and  it  was  thought  well 
liat  the  misapprehension,  if  it  exists,  should  be  removed — though 
ie  origin  of  it  could  not  be  traced* — and  I  am  requested  to  send 
ou  the  enclosed  copy  of  an  abstract  that  has  been  made  of  the 
itle  and  Trust  Deeds  of  the  Church,  which  were  kindly  accepted 
y  Mr.  Lewis,  the  Superintendent  of  the  Press,  from  L.  Mendes, 
Qaoon  on  behalf  of  the  Church,  to  keep  in  safe  custody  for  us 
Kid  which  are  still  in  the  safe  custody  (for  the  Church)  of  the 
Uperintendent  Baptist  Mission  Press. 

You  will  see  from  the  abstract,  which  is  taken  from  the  Deeds 
bemselves : — 

Ist.  That  the  land  and  Chapel  were  acquired  with  the  help 
[^the  Baptist  Missionary  Body  at  Serampore. 

♦  On  the  22acl  November  1876  Mr.  P.  P.  LindemaQ  stated  to  the  Ohorch 
U  the  Bev.  0.  B.  Lewis  had  informed  him  that  he  believed  that  the  Title  Deeds 
the  Chapel  Building  were  naU  and  void. 


2nd.  That  all  the  interest  of  the  said  Body  in  the  Chapd 
and  premises  was  subsequently  transferred  to  and  vested  in  Mr. 
J.  0.   Marshman. 

3rd.  That  Mr.  J.  G.  Maishman  (Deed  of  23rd  August  1839) 
made  over  absolutely  and  irrevocably  (subject  to  c^±ain  contin- 
gencies, which  have  never  arisen)  all  his  right,  title  and  intaresl 
to  certain  Trustees  for  and  on  behalf  of  the  Church — quite  in- 
dependently of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society — ^though  the  coin- 
cidence happens  that  some  of  the  said  Trustees  are  men  who  are 
interested  in  the  work  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society. 

The  Church  is  very  largely  obliged  to  and  grateful  for 
much  kindly  help  and  sympathy  from  the  Society  you  repreBent 
— ^and  they  have  only  taken  this  course  of  looking  into  the  Titie 
and  Trust  Deeds  for  the  purpose  of  defining  their  position  and 
preparing  the  way  for  the  conveyance  to  them  of  the  house  tliej 
have  recently  been  able  to  secure  for  their  pastor^ — ^it  being  nece*' 
sary  to  appoint  Trustees  to  hold  the  same  for  the  Churdi,  aiul 
it  seeming  desirable  that  the  terms  of  the  Trust  Deed  of  tiie 
Chapel  house  should  conform  as  much  as  possible  to  those  d  tlie 
Chapel  and  premises. 

I  am,  my  dear  Sir,  with  kind  regavds, 
Your  faithfully, 
(Sd.)    A.  Newall  Tuck, 

Honorary  Secretary, 
Lall  Bazar  Baptist  Churdi. 

New  Trustees  were  appointed  on  13  th  June  1901,  six  readent 
in  England  and  six  in  Calcutta  of  whom  the  present  writer  isonft. 
Of  the  latter,  one  passed  away  not  long  after  the  document  wii 
signed  and  the  other  five  survive  to  the  present  day.  Such  being 
the  case  there  will  not  be  any  need  to  appoint  fresh  Trustees  bx 
some  time  to  come. 

All  the  documents  relating  to  the  Chapel  and  Parsonage  tf* 
now  in  the  custody  of  the  Indian  Secretary  to  the  Baptist  Hii* 
sionary  Society  at  No.  48,  Ripon  Street,  Calcutta.  The  propertf 
being  situated  in  the  heart  of  the  town  and  of  considerable  extend 
(over  2^  biggahs)  is  a  valuable  site,  and  as  it  is  tastefully  laid  oofc 
by  the  Pastor  and  is  carefully  looked  after  by  him  it  generally 
attracts  the  attention  of  passers  by.  The  value  of  the  propettj 
rises  year  by  year  and  if  it  had  to  be  sold  at  the  present  time 
should  fetch  about  two  lacs  of  rupees  at  the  lowest  figure. 



Thi:  dabk  days  between  Octobeb  1819  and  June  1825. 

This  period  was  practically  one  of  stagnation  and  the  in- 
srxnation  regarding  it  is  meagre.  The  baptisms  were  few.  Thus 
a  1820  only  one  person  was  baptized;  in  1821,  eleven;  in  1822, 
leven;  in  1823,  four;  in  1824,  three;  and  in  1825,  up  to  June, 
:oiiT,  making  34  in  all  in  5^  years,  or,  half  the  number  that  were 
baptized  in  1812  or  1813. 

The  causes  are  not  on  record,  but  when  the  co-pastors  Lawson 
ind  Eustace  Carey  resigned  their  connection  with  the  Church,  only 
bwo  of  the  senior  pastors  were  in  the  country,  viz.,  Drs.  Carey 
uid  Marshman,  Mr.  Ward  having  left  for  England  on  15th 
December  1818  to  recruit  his  health  and  to  raise  funds  for  the 
Bebexne  connected  with  the  Serampore  College.  Probably  he  never 
anticipated  that  the  two  oo-pastors  would  resign  within  a  year 
of  bis  departure  from  this  country,  and  yet  the  differences  be- 
tween tfie  junior  and  the  senior  brethren  of  the  mission  had  already 
arisen  and  there  was  no  saying  at'  that  time  whereunto  they 
might  lead.  Thes3  were  painful  economic  differences,  but  neither 
party,  while  maintaining  their  respective  views  on  the  subjects 
at  issue,  abated  their  zeal  or  diminished  their  labor  in  the  special 
and  great  work  to  w;hich  they  were  devoted.  The  breach  with 
the  junior  brethren  was  healed  long  before  that  with  the  parent 
Society,  but  it  is  not  necessary  to  enter  into  the  details  of  either 

The  two  senior  pastors  obviously  could  not  do  all  that  they 
Hiemselves  felt  they  ought  to  do,  owing  to  the  weight  of  years 
and  additional  pressure  of  work  consequent  on  their  colleague's 
absence  from  the  country.  They  were  therefore  dependent  more 
or  less  on  the  deacons  who  were  resident  in  Calcutta,  and  the  two 
new  deacons  who  were  appointed  in  1816  were  not  much  in 
sympathy      witb     them.     Then,      at     the     beginning     of      1821 


Dr.  Carey  himself  became  ill.  On  the  20th  October  1821 
Mr.  Ward  returned  from  England  after  an  absence  of  nearly 
three  years  and  brought  with  him  a  colleague  in  the  person  rf 
the  Rev.  John  Mack.  There  is  nothing  on  record  to  show  that 
Mr.  ]Mack  had  much  to  do  with  the  work  at  Lall  Bazar  between 
October  1821  and  June  1825.  Early  in  1822,  Mr.  John  Marehman 
went  to  England  and  did  not  return  till  1824,  so  the  secular  work 
that  he  used  to  do  devolved  on  the  senior  missionaries.  In  the 
midst  of  all  these  labors  Mr.  Ward  was  carried  off  by  cholera  oo 
the  7th  March  1823  at  the  age  of  53  only.  Added,  to  all,  Dr. 
Carey  became  seriously  ill  on  the  8th  October  1823. 

But  thera  was  one  cheering  event  at  any  rate  and  that  was 
the  baptism  on  25th  March  1821  of  Mr.  Charles  Chodron  who, 
it  is  stated,  was  a  British  seaman.  Had  this  been  the 
only  baptism  it  alone  would  have  amply  repaid  the  senior 
pastors  all  their  anxieties  during  this  dark  period.  Another 
cheering  event  was  the  Ordination  to  the  Ministry  of  Mr.  J.  C. 
Fink  on  10th  January  1821  for  the  work  in  Chittagong.  Subse- 
quejitly,  be  did  a  great  and  an  interesting  work  among  the  Hughs. 

The  following  remarks  which  are  on  record  in  the  Minute 
Book  of  the  Church  under  date  June  1825  show  how  dark  this 
period  was  and  also  how  necessary  it  was  that  the  Church  should 
have  a  resident  pastor  of  its  own,  as  it  would  seem  to  have  got 
out  of  hand  entirely: — 

•'  The  Church  had  been  for  sometime  in  a  very  low  state  and 
the  congregation  had  much  diminished.  Social  prayer  meetings 
had  also  been  long  discontinued.  Many  of  the  members  attendSi 
public  worship  only  on  the  Sabbath  morning,  and  otheits  never 
attended  at  all.  Some  who  still  bore  the  name  of  members  had 
been  for  years  in  a  backsliding  state,  numbers  gave  evident  symp- 
toms of  indifference  to  Divine  things,  while  a  few,  and  but  a  fei^, 
appeared  to  be  in  a  spiritual  state  of  mind. 

"  We  do  not  conceive  it  necessary  very  minutely  to  detail  the 
causes  of  these  evils,  but  it  seems  an  act  of  justice  to  state  that 
we  cannot  coincide  in  opinion  with  those  who  consider  tliem  all 
chargeable  upon  our  former  highly  esteemed  pastors,  Drs.  Carey 
and   Marshman.     Those  who   have   separated   from  us,  may  have 

THE    I>AKK   DAYS    BETWEEN    OCTOBER    I8l9    AND    JUNE    1^25.       187 

It  it  neceesary  for  their  own  justification,  to  say  much  to  the 
ipraise  of  those  good  men,  who  for  so  many  years  have  labored 
Long*  us  in  the  Lord,  but  we  cannot  join  in  dispraising  the  char- 
ters of  men  whose  praise  is  in  all  the  Churches  and  to  whom 
I  feel  ourselves  under  the  highest  obligations  for  their  disinter- 
ied,  faithful  and  long-continued  efforts  for  our  spiritual  welfare, 
e  do  not  deny  that  some  of  the  pastoral  duties,  especially  those 
tlie  minute  class,  have  been  for  some  time  neglected.  This  was 
neidered  a  great  cause  of  regret,  but  we  do  not  feel  it  right  to 
nsure  men  for  omitting  what  it  was  not  in  their  powsr  to  per- 
rm.  Our  former  aged  and  highly-respected  pastors  have  labored 
•  the  utmost  of  their  powers,  and  their  inability  through  the 
i&rmities  of  age  and  other  causes,  to  perform  all  the  duties  of 
le  pastoral  of&oe  was  as  much  deplored  by  themselves  as  by  us. 
^t  tae  crdination  cf  our  present  pastor  (Rev.  W.  Robinson),  Dr. 
iarey  publicly  acknowledged,  both  on  behalf  of  himself  and  his 
olleague,  that  they  had  often  felt  very  unhappy  at  the  unavoid- 
ble  omission  of  some  of  their  pastoral  duties,  and  that  they  had 
3ng  wished  and  prayed  that  God  would  provide  the  Church  with 
I  pastor,  who  should  be  able  to  give  his  whole  time  to  the  duties 
'f  his  office.  It  was,  therefore,  quite  as  much  their  wish  as  ours 
hatanotheriDastorshould  be  ordained  over  us.  We  did  not  choose 
tr  new  pastor  out  of  any  disrespect  to  our  old  ones,  but  because 
re  wished  to  relieve  them  from  the  labor  of  coming  down  to  Cal- 
mtta  every  Sabbath  to  preach  and  we  also  felt  sensible  of  the 
leed  of  a  pastor  to  reside  among  us,  who  would  be  able  to  attend 
oninutely  to  the  concerns  of  the  Church.  The  other  dissenting 
Churches  in  this  city  have  long  had  resident  pastors  to  watch 
over  their  interests  and  we  have  seen  cause  to  suspect  that  the 
^ant  of  a  resident  pastor  among  us  has  been  one  reason  why  some 
tave  left  us  and  why  others  have  not  joined  us.  They  preferred 
ko  hold  communion  with  a  Church  whose  pastor  was  on  the  spot. 
Whilst,  therefore,  we  would  cherish  the  highest  respect  for  our 
former  pastors,  we  cannot  doubt*  that  the  want  of  a  resident  pastor 
Is  one  cause,  among  others,  of  our  present  low  condition.  Other 
Reasons  doubtless  are,  the  loss  of  some  of  our  best  members  by 
fcath,  the  removal  of  others  to  distant  parts  of  the  country,  the 
s^thdrawment  of  others,  and,  not  to  specify  further  particulars, 
-he  genera]  decline  of  vital  godliness.  We  indeed  see  abundant 
^use  to  be  humble  before  Him  who  searches  the  reins  and  the 
learts,  for  He  had  not  found  our  ways  perfect  before  Him.  May 
le  enable  us  to  be  watchful  and  strengthen  the  things  which 
emain,  that  are  ready  to  die,  and  may  we  remember  how  we  have 
eceived  ai^d  heard  and  hold  fast  and  repent. 


''In  this  state  of  things  our  present  pastor,   Mr.    Bobinson 
arrived  in  this  city  from  Sumatra.     He  had  been  twelve  years  in 
the  Easterns  Islands  engaged  in  preaching  the  Gospel  in  Malay, 
and  in  translating  some  parts  of  the  Scriptures  into  that  language, 
but  his  health  being  impaired  he  was  under  the  necessity  of  relin- 
quishing the  translation,  and  of  leaving  those  islands.     He  caine 
round  to  Bengal,  hoping  that  though  incapable  of  the  close  studies 
requisite  for  translating,  he  might  still  be  useful  as  a  preacher. 
As   he   had   often   preached   to  us  when   he  was   in   the  country 
before,  his  arrival  was  a  pleasing  circumstsLUce,  and  it  soon  became 
the  general  wish  that  he  should  became  our  pastor.     Our  foimer 
pastors  did  not     only     acquiesce  in  this     arrangement,   but  were 
among  the  first  to  propose  it.     A  letter  was,   therefore,   written 
to  Mr.  Kobinson,  signed  by  about  sixty  names,  requesting  him  to 
take  the  pastoral  charge  over  us.     He  cheerfully  acceded  to  our 
request,    but   not     imconditionally,    for  being  a  missionary,  and 
having  come  round  to  Bengal  without  the  knowledge  of  the  Baptwt 
Missionary   Society,    he  accepted  our  call   on  condition  that  the 
Society  approved  the  measure,  reserving  to  himself  the  liberty  of 
dissolving  his  connection   with  us  should   the  Society  require  it 
of  him.'' 

There  is  no  copy  of  the  letter  to  Mr.  Bobinson,  which  is 
referred  to  above  on  record  in  the  Minute  Book  of  the  Church, 
but  from  his  pastorate  the  mod  em  hutory  of  the  Church  may  he 
said  to  begin  as  the  Minute  Books  and  Church  Rolls  from  that 
day  are  all  extant. 

In  the  "  New  Annual  Bengal  Directory  and  Calcutta  Kaleo- 
dar,  for  the  year  of  our  Lord  1824  " — among  the  list  of  Literary 
and  Benevolent  Societies  appears  the  Loll  («*c)  Bazar  Churdi  Mis- 
sionary Society.  The  committee  is  given  as  the  pastors  and 
deacons  of  the  Loll  (^^c).  Bazar  Church  and  Mr.  Dyson,  Mr.  Irvine, 
Mr.  Williamson,  Mr.  B.  W.  Marshman  and  Mr.  C.  C.  Aratooo. 
Secretary,  Kev.  J.  Mack;  Treasurer,  Mr.  Fowles;  and,  Collector, 
Mr.  J.  R.  Douglas. 


The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.   William  Robinson. 

(From  16tli  June  1825  to  10th  November  1838.) 

Before  proceeding  to  detail  the  events  of  the  pastorate  it  is( 
oeBsary  to  introduce  the  pastor,  hence  a  biographical  sketch  of 
I  life  is  given  below,  but  sufficient  details    have  not  been  traced 

Portrait  of  the  Rev.  W.  Robinson. 
{By  kind  permission  of  Mrs.    Walter  Bui*hnell.) 

)  give  a   biographical   sketch  of  the  lady,   who  shared  his  labors 
I  the  Church. 

The  Rev.  William  Robinson  was  bom  at  Olney  in  Buckingham- 
lire  in  England  on  the   18th  of  January  1784,   which  was    the 



year  in  which  the  monthly  missionary  prayer  meeting  was  started 
by  Mr.  Sutcliff  at  Olney.  His  parents  were  pious  people.  His 
father,  grand-father  and  great-grand  fathsr  were  regular  attend- 
ants at  the  Baptist  Meeting  House  in  Olney  and  are  all  buried 
in  one  grave  in  the  cemetery  connected  with  the  Baptiflt 
-congregation    there.     His    father    married    on    4th    March  1783 

PoBTRAiT  or  Mrs.  VV.  Robinson  (previously  Mrs.  Ltsh)  attired  is  a 

(By  hind  ff^nnissinn  of  Mrs.    Walter  Bushnell.) 

and  he  and  his  wife  lived  happily  together  for  53  years, 
when  his  father  died  on  2nd  July  1836,  aged  75  and 
his  mother  on  27th  March  1844,  at  the  age  of  84.  Mi 
William  Kobinson  was  apparently  the  first  child  of  the  marriage. 
In  the  summer  of  1801  he  became  converted  and  on  11th  Feb- 
ruary 1802  he  and  Miss  Elizabeth  Walker,   whom  he  afterwards 


rried,  were  proposed  for  communion  with  the  Baptist  Church. 
L  the  14th  March  1802  they — along  with  others — were  baptized 
Mr.  Sutcliff  in  the  river  Ouse,  after  a  sermon  preached  by 
3.  Chamberlain,  who  was  then  on  the  eve  of  coming  out  to 
dia  as  a  missionary. 

At  the  beginning  of  1803,  Mr.  Eobinson  wrote  to  Mr.  Sutcli»T 
Eorming  him  of  his  desire  to  join  the  mission.  On  22nd  March 
.04,  the  Church  sanctioned  Eis  preaching  in  the  neighbouring 
llages,  which  he  afterwards  frequently  did.  In  June  1804  he 
as  received  by  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society  as  a  probationer 
nd  placed  under  Mr.  Sutcliff  for  instruction.  After  having  l^een 
ifch  Mr.  Sutcliff  thirteen  months  he  was  sent  to  the  Bristol 
Lcademy  in  July  1805.  In  February  1806,  intimation  was  re- 
aved  by  the  Society  of  a  favorable  opportunity  for  sending  out 
wo  missionaries  and,  accordingly,  they  resolved  to  send  out  Mr. 
ohn  Chater  and  Mr.  Robinson  by  that  opportunity.  The 
aignation  service  was  held  at  Oxford  on  12th  March  1806.  On 
be  15th  idam,  he  married  Miss  Elizabeth  Walker  at  Olney 
nd  left  his  home  on  the  26th  idem.  On  12th  April  1806  they 
•^int  on  board  and  on  the  17th  idem  reached  Gravesend  where 
twy  had  to  present  themselves  at  the  Alien  Ofl&ce. 

On  the  23rd  August  following  the  missionaries  arrived  at 
'alcutta.  Neither  Mr.  Chamberlain  in  1802  nor  Messrs.  Mardon, 
'ias,  Moore,  and  Rowe  in  1804,  all  of  whom  had  come  out  via 
anerica,  were  subjected  to  any  interference  on  the  part  of  the 
lithorities,  but  in  1805  the  missionaries  began  to  be  treated  l)y 
le  country  Magistrates  in  a  different  manner.  Once  they  were 
iterrupted  when  distributing  tracts  and  sent  home,  and  once 
ben  they  were  not  distributing  tracts  nor  preaching,  they  were 
terrogated  and  commanded  to  return  to  Serampore.  But  in  1806 
e  Government  again  made  strenuous  efforts  against  the  mis- 
maries  owing  to  the  Vellore  Mutiny,  one  cause  of  which  Major 
>tt-Waring  actually  s-tated  to  be  the  arrival  of  Methodist 
ssionaries     on     the     coast     during     the     previous     year.     Th^^ 


preaching     at     the     mat    shed     in  Lall    Bazar-     had     caused    a 
great    oommotion,    one    result    of    which    was    that     a    Natm 
youth     professed     his     attachment     to     Christianity     and,    lead- 
ing  his   relatives,    took  up  his   residence   at   Serampore   with  the 
missionaries.     He  was  kidnapped  by  his  relatives  from  Serampoic 
on  21st  August,  but  Mr.  W.  Caiey,  junior,  succeeded  eventually 
in  rescuing  him.     It  was  just  after  these  events  that  these  two 
missionaries  arrived.     The  23rd  was  a  Saturday  and  when  Gaptaia 
Wickes   and   the   two   missionaries  presented    themselves     at  the 
police   office,    on    Monday    the      25th,     they      were     detained    a 
long  time  and  at  last  denied  permission  to  proceed  to  SerampoM. 
Some    explanations  followed     and    on  the  28th    Mr.     Robineon's 
baggage  reached  Serampore  safely,   and  he  followed  on  the  SMk 
idem.     On  the  11th  September  they  again  had  to  appear  at  the 
Police   office,   in   Calcutta,      when  an   order     from  the   Governor 
General  in  Council  was  read  to  them  ordering  them  to  taJce  in 
early  opportunity  to  return  to  England.     They  then  returned  te 
Serampore   that   evening   and   the  Governor  of   that      Settkineot 
engaged   to   protect   them   and   refiised   to   give  them   up  to  thtf 
English  except  under  a  declaration  of  war  to  take  them  by  fovea 
Correspondence  between  the  Governor-G^eneral  and  the  Govenior 
of  Serampore,  terminated  in  what  seemed  to  the  missionaneB  ft 
satisfactory   settlement,   but   the   Government,    still    appearing  to 
be  dissatisfied  with  the  continuance  of  the  missionaries  in  any  por- 
tion  of  their  own  territories,  it  was  resolved  to  remove  them  o«t 
of  the  country  as  soon  as  possible.     Mr.  Chater  left  for  Bunnfth 
but  Mr.  Robinson  remained  at  Serampore.     On  the  22nd  Maidk 
1807,  he  proceeded  to  Cutwa  to  spend  a  time  with  Mr.  Chambe^ 
lain,  but  returned  on  the  23rd  April  to  Serampore.     On  the  17th 
June  1807,  he  prayed  dn  Bengalee  for  the  first  time  and  on  the  13th 
December  attempted  his  first  Bengalee  sermon. 

On  the  12th  of  January  1808,  Mr.  Robinson  again  left  Sen»- 
pore  for  Cutwa,  where  he  intended  to  remain  for  a  time  and  aasbt 
Mr.  Chamberlain,  but  on  the  7th  April  he  returned  to  Serampon; 
and.  as  there   was  no  hope  of   the  Government  permitting  him 


to  rexaain  in  Bengal,  removal  to  Orkaa  having  been  denied,  he 
dlBcted  to  proceed  to  Bhutan  for  whidi  territory  he  started  on 
Um  19th  idem  in  company  with  Mr.  William  Carey,  jxmior,  whom. 
he  hoped  to  have  as  his  colleague  in  that  Mission.  On  the  14th 
May,  Mr.  Bobinson  proceeded  alone  from  Dinajpore  to  Barbaree 
ar- village  about  20  miles  from  Bhotehaut,  where  they  received 
tidingB,  which  rendered  it  advisable  not  to  attempt  to  enter 
Bhutan.  On  the  next  day  having  received  further  nevra  confirm- 
ing  his  previous  information  he  felt  it  his  duty  to  return 
bo  Bengal  so  came  back  to  Serampore.  In  September,  he 
had  such  a  violent  attack  of  fever  that  his  life  was  despair^  of. 
After  complete  restoration  to  health,  he  set  out  again  for  Bhutan 
cm  the  24tE  January  1809.  He  started  alone,  but  at  Sadhamahl 
he  was  joined  by  Mr.  William  Carey,  junior,  and  two  native 
preachers.  On  the  25th  March,  they  arrived  at  Barbaree  and 
9fi  the  27th  at  a  village  about  two  miles  from  Bhotehaut  where 
bhey  met  Dr.  Buchanan,  who  warned  them  about  the  state  of 
tffairs  prevailing  in  those  parts.  However,  at  the  invitation  of 
she  GTovemor,  they  went  to  Bhotehaut,  which  they  reached  on 
bbe  30th  March.  They  were  well  received  by  the  Governor  and 
ftfter  spending  some  few  days  there  they  returned  to  Barbaree. 
Bere  Mr.  Robinson  procured  a  piece  of  ground  and  began  to 
tyaild  a  small  house.  Shortly  afterwards  the  preachers  got  ill  so 
lir.  Carey  returned  with  them  to  Dinajpore  while  Mr.  Bobinaon 
remained  alone  and  devoted  all  his  energies  to  getting  his  house 
Inished*.  One  day  in  May  he  walked  t&n  miles  to  procure  some 
mats  that  were  required,  which  brought  on  a  violent  fever  after 
iwo  days.  He  had  to  send  to  call  Mr.  William  Carey,  junior,  to 
U8  assistance  and  he  cam&  promptly,  after  which  his  health  was 
[Murtially  restored.  In  June  he  left  for  Serampore  intending  to 
^  back  forthwith  with  his  family,  but  owing  to  his  own  ill  health 
md  that  of  his  wife  he  could  not  start  till  Uth  November.  He 
bad  not  gone  far  when  he  got  ill,  as  also  his  boy  Samuel,  who 
died  on  1st  Decembar.  He  broke  his  journey  at  Dinajpore  and 
remained    there  till   his  health   was   sufficiently   re-established  to 

13  ^ 

194         THE    STORY   OF    THE    LALL-BAZAB    BAPTIST    GHTJBGH. 

leave.  Tliistliird  time  be  started  on  21st  February  1810  to  proceed 
to  Barbaree  and  Mrs.  Robinson  and  children  joined  him  on  24th 
March.  He  again  got  very  ill  witli  the  Bhutan  fever,  and^  while 
he  recovered,  his  wife  became  ill ;  however,  she  recovered  suffi- 
ciently for  him  to  sst  out  on  23rd  July  to  return  to  Dinajpore. 
They  arrived  at  Dinajpore  on  the  25th,  but  Mrs.  Robinson  died 
on  the  29th  idem  and  her  remains  were  interred  in  Mr.  Fernan- 
dez's garden  by  the  tomb  of  his  two  children.  Here  Mr.  Robinson 
had  another  attack  of  fever  amd  from  there  went  down  to  Serampore. 

On  the  29th  October  1810^  he  again  started  out  for  Bhutan 
and  on  this  occasion  was  accompanied  by  Mr.  Cornish  a  member 
of  the  Lall  Bazar  Church.  On  this  journey  Mr.  Robinson  sufferd 
much  from  a  frequent  recurrence  of  fever,  which  compelled  him 
to  remain  at  Dinajpore  for  a  while.  On  the  17th  January 
1811,  he  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cornish  with  infant  set  out  for  Bar- 
baree where  they  arrived  on  the  19th  idem.  On  the  night  of 
the  22nd  a  band  of  robbers  broke  into  their  hous3.  They  were 
about  50  or  60  in  number  and  armed  with  spears.  Mr.  Robinson 
and  Mr.  Cornish  fought  bravely,  but  when  they  perceived  the 
odds  against  them  were  so  great,  they  had  to  make  good  theiv 
escape  as  best  they  could.  At  dawn  the  next  day  they  returned 
to  their  home  to  behold  a  shocking  sight.  Two  servants  lay  dead 
and  a  third  died  while  they  were  there.  Everything  was  wrecked 
so  tbsy  proceeded  without  delay  to  Dinajpore.  It  was  not  till 
1816  when  Mr.  Robinson  was  in  Java  that  these  persons  met  with 
condign  punishment.  He  went  again  to  Barbaree  and  on  to 
Bhotehaut,  but  after  parleying  on  the  part  of  the  Governor,  Wa 
presents  were  all  returned  which  was  a  bad  sign,  and  on  the  18th 
May  the  reply  he  received  from  the  Deb  Raja  clearly  showed  an 
unwillingness  to  permit  an  European  to  reside  in  hie  territoria. 
In  November  1811  he  returned  to  Serampore  still  suffering  from 
a  quartan  ague.     The  Bhutan  Mission  had  thus  to  be  given  up. 

Accordingly  in  January  1812,  Dr.  Marshman  waited  on  Lord 
Minto  and  sought  his  permission  for  Mr.  Robinson  to  go  as  * 
missionary  to   Java,   which  had   recently  be^n   conquered  by  the 


Qglish  and  was  out  of  the  territories  of  the  East  India  Company. 
yrd  Minto  aeeented  to  an  application  being  submitted  to  him 
id  on  the  27th  replied  that  he  had  no  objection  to  Mr.  Bobin- 
n's  procesding  thither. 

On  the  13th  of  January  1812,  Mr.  Robinson  mairied  Miss 
Margaret  Gordon,  daughter  of  Mr.  Adam  Gordon  one  of  the 
iacons  of  the  Church,  but  soon  after  she  was  taken  ill  and  for 
ne  weeks  was  not  quite  out  of  danger.  The  anxiety  connected 
Ith  her  sickness  brought  on  a  return  of  the  ague  from  which  he 
id  so  long  suffered.  On  Che  26th  April,  Mrs.  Robinson  was 
i^tized  and  admitted  into  the  Church. 

On  the  9th  of  June  they  embarked  in  a  vessel  that  all  con- 
iered  unseaworthy,  and  on  the  day  the  pilot  left  they  en- 
>untered  a  heavy  gale,  which  lasted  several  days,  the  result  b&ing 
kat  the  ship  was  so  much  damaged  that  they  had  to  put  back 

Calcutta.  No  other  passage  could,  however,  be  procured  till 
iarcb,  1813.  On  the  5th  March  1813,  a  letter,  was  addressed  to 
srampcre  including   Mr.    Robinson's  name   in   the    "black  list" 

not  having  left  for  England,  but  he  embarked  on  6th  March 

rfore  this  letter  reached  Serampore.     This  vessel  carried  troops 

id  every  objection  was  raised,  too  late    however,  to  his  going  in 

The  vessel  touched  at  Malacca  on  its.  way  to  Java,  which  it 

ached  on  1st  May  1813.     In  September  1813,  an  order  was  sent 

Java  from  the  Government  of  India,   requiring  Mr.  Robinson 

bs  sent  back  to  England  and  on  the  18th  idem,  he  was  called 
K)n  to  explain  by  whose  authority  he  had  arrived  in  Java.  He 
plied  that  he  had  got  permission  in  January  1812  from  Lord 
into  to  reside  in  Java,  which  he  thought  was  sufficient  authority, 
d  he  heard  nothing  further  about  the  matter.  A  copy  of  the 
ter  of  5th  March  is  given  in  the  sketch  on  Mr.  Lawson 
i  a  copy  of  the  later  correspondence  referred  to  above  is  given 
ow: — 

It  appearing  from  an  enquiry  instituted  in  Calcutta  that  you 
re  not  obtained  the  sanction  of  the  Court  of  Directors  £o  your 


residence  in  India,  I  am  directed  to  requiro  from  you  an  explana- 
tion by  what  authority  you  have  arrived  in  this  island. 

I  ain,  etc.; 
(Sd.)    C.   Asset, 
Secretary  to  Government. 
Batavia,  18th  Septemher  1813 

To  this  Mr.   Robinson   replied: — 

"I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter 
requiring  me  to  explain  by  what  authority  I  have  arrived  in  tliift 

In  the  month  of  January  1812,  I  presented  a  petition  to 
the  Right  Honorable  the  Governor-General  in  Council,  requestiiig 
permission  to  reside  in  the  island  of  Java.  To  this  petition  Hii 
Lordship  replied  in  substance,  as  follows.  That  His  Lordship  did 
not  interfere  in  the  affairs  of  Java,  but  had  no  objection  to  my 
coming  hither,  as  he  felt  assured  that  I  should  conduct  myself 
in  strict  conformity  to  the  rules  of  the  established  Grovemment. 

This,  Sir,  I  considered  a  sufficient  authority  for  my  earning 
hither,  and  such  I  hope  it  will  Be  consider^  by  Govemmenl. 

Mr.  Robinson  continued  to  labor  in  Java  till  the  19th  August 
1816,  when  the  Dutch  flag  was  again  hoisted  at  Batavia  and  hu 
labor  there  ceased,  so  on  1st  September  1816  he  opened  a  school 
in  conjunction  with  Mr;5.  Robinson,  but  as  the  result  of  some 
baptisms  that  had  taken  place  he  had  to  leave  in  1821  and  went 
to  Sumatra. 

Having  been  invited  to  Bencoolen  he  arrived  there  on  3rd 
July  1821.  He  was  thus  released  from  those  restrictions  to  which 
he  had  Seen  subjected  in  Java  and  it  was  here  that  his  wife  died 
on  25th  May  1822.  On  9th  June  r823  he  married  Mra.  Knaggy 
a  Dutch  lady.  In  September  1824  he  was  completely  laid  aside 
for  nearly  eight  weeks,  by  a  severe  attack  of  fever.  At  the  clcBe 
of  1824,  Benccolen  was  caded  to  the  Dutch  in  exchange  for  Chin- 
surah  in  Bengal  so  the  labors  of  the  missionary  were  brought  to 
an  early  close. 

On  the  10th  January  1825,  he  left  Bencoolen  and  arrived 
at  Calcutta  on  the  25th  March  of  that  year  and  had  resided 
only  a  few  months  at  Serampore  when  he  was  invited  to  the  sole 


pHtoral  charge  of  the  Lill  Bazar  Church,  which  bd  readily  accept- 
Bd.  Mrs.  Bobinspn  died  on  the  27th  June  1826  and  on  11th  April 
1827,  Mr.  Bobineon  married  Mrs.  Itlah,  who  died  on  the  16th 
May  1838.  He  reeigned  the  pastorate  on  11th  November  1838, 
and,  as  he  had  been  taken  over  by  the  Missionary  Society  on  the 
Re-union  and  posted  by  them  to  Dacca,  he  from  that  time  deter- 
mined on  proceeding  there.  While  still  pastor  of  the  Church 
lie  threw  in  his  lot  with  the  Serampore  Missionaries  in  January 
1832  and  soon  afterwards  became  a  Director  of  the  College. 

After  he  went  to  Dacca  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days 
tibero.  He  married  again  on  ith  July  1839  a  Miss  Sturgeon.  In 
1845  the  Baptist  Chapel  at  Dacca,  was  opened  as  the  result  of 
ft  blessing  on  his  labors.  He  closed  his  useful  life  on  the  2nd 
September  1853  at  the  age  of  69  years,   10  months. 

A  Tablet  to  his  memory  was  placed  on  the  wall  of  the  Lall 
Bazar  Chapel  under  a  resolution,  which  was  passed  by  the  Church 
m  27th  October  1853  the  inscription  on  it  is  as  b&low: — 

In  memory  of 

Rev.  William  Hobinson 

For  forty-seven  years 

a  Missionary 

in  Bengal  and  the  Eastern  Islands, 

Fourteen  of  which  he  was 

Pastor  of  the  Church 

worshipping  in  this  place. 

Born  at  Olney,  Bucks,   18th  January  1784. 

Died  at  Dacca,  2nd  September  1853. 

He  endured  as  seeing  Him  who 

is  invisible. 

In  regard  to  the  pastorate  it  will  be  as  well  to  let  the  reader 
now  what  part  Drs.  Carey  and  Marshman  took  in  bringing  about 
lesettlsment  of  the  Rev.  William  Robinson.  Here  is  a  copy  of  a 
itter  which  Dr.  Carey  wrota  to  Mr.  Dyer,  the  Secretary  of  the 


Missionary  Society  in  London,  on  the  subject,  on  the  27th  July 
1825  as  taken  from  the  Missionary  Herald  of  February  1826:— 

"Brother  Robinson  was  obliged  to  leave  Sumatra  <mi  account 
of  an  apoplectic  disposition.  He  came  to  Bengal  in  the  hope 
that  he  might  recover  his  former  acquaintance  with  the  language 
and  b3  of  use  to  the  Mission  in  this  country.  Brother  M.  and 
I  had  long  been  desirous  of  obtaining  a  brother,  who  coxdd  take 
charge  of  the  Church  in  Calcutta,  and  on  his  arrival  I  mentioned 
to  Brother  M.  my  wish  that  Brother  R.  might  be  the  man  if 
his  health  would  bear  the  climate.  He  approved  the  proposal. 
We  mentioned  it  to  Brother  R.,  who  was  not  aware  of  it,  and  the 
Church  at  the  same  time  expressed  their  wish  to  the  same  effect. 
The  result  was  that  the  Church  gave  an  invitation  and  he  accepted 
it.  We  relinquished  the  pastoral  charge  and  he  was  duly  placed 
over  them  on  the  16th  of  June  last.  I  trust  this  will  be  fol- 
lowed by  a  revival  of  the  work  of  God  among  them.  I  saw  him 
to-day  and  his  hope  appeared  considerably  raised." 

The  Church  Minute  regarding  the  ordination  service  records 
the  event  thus  : — 

Things  being  thus  arranged  (Thursday)  the  sixteen  of  June 
1825,  was  fixed  for  the  ordination.  On  that  day  our  present 
pastor  was  solemnly  set  apart  in  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  to  the 
pastoral  charge  over  us.  The  Rev.  J.  Lawson,  pastor  of  the  Bap- 
tist Church  meeting  at  the  Circular  Road  Chapel  begun  the  eav 
vice  by  reading  the  Scriptures  and  prayer.  Dr.  Carey  then  stated 
the  business  of  the  day,  made  some  remarks  on  the  nature  of  a 
Gospel  Cliurch,  and  in  his  own  name  and  that  of  his  colleague 
Dr.  Marshman,  resigned  the  pastoral  office.  The  Church  ttwttj 
by  show  of  hands,  declared  their  invitation  of  Mr.  Robinson,  who 
signified  his  acceptance  of  tlie  invitation  and  proceeded  to  deli"ver 
his  confession  of  faith.  The  ordination  prayer  was  offered  by 
the  Rev.  James  Hill,  pastor  of  the  Independent  Church  meeting 
in  the  Union  Chapel,  Dr.  Marshman  gave  the  charge,  and  Dr. 
Carey  preached  to  the  Church  in  Bengalee.  Rev.  S.  Trawin  con- 
cluded in  prayer  in  the  same  language.  The  Hymns  were  given 
out  partly  by  the  Rev.  J.  Statham  and  partly  by  the  Rev.  J. 

The  first  thing  that  was  taken  in  hand  was  the  preparataon 
of  a  list  of  members.  From  the  remarks  which  follow  which  are 
copied  from  the  Minute  Book,  and  from  a  letter  written  by  Mr. 
Robinson  on  23rd  January  1828  to  the  Society,  which  beare  on  this 


tubject  the  reader  will  have  some  idea  of  the  difficulty  the  present 

nrriter  lias   had   in  piecing   together  the  information,    which  has 

been   given  in  the  preceding  chapters.     The  Church  record   runs 

bhus : — "  The  former  Church  Book  (which  is  not  extant),  not  con- 
baining  a  correct  list  of  the  names  of  members,  nor  a  regular 
statement  of  occurrences,  it  has  been  thought  proper  to  commence 
a  new  one,  which  shall  contain  at  one  end  a  concise  narrative  of 
events  as  they  occur,  and  at  the  other,  as  corract  a  list  of  the 
names  of  members  as  can  be  obtained.  The  month  of  June  (1825) 
je  selected  as  the  period  of  commencement  because  it  was  in  this 
month,  that  our  present  pastor  was  ordained  over  us.'' 

Mr.  Robinson's  letter  of  23rd  January  1828,  throws  an  in- 
teresting light  on  the  preparation  of  this  list  of  members.  He 
Bays: — 

"  When  I  took  charge  of  the  Church  it  was  not  possible  to 
ascertain  the  precise  number  of  members  as  there  had  been  no 
regular  entry  of  their  names.  I  made  out  then  a  list  of  names 
in  the  best  manner  I  could  (as  the  present  writer  has  done),  but 
when  I  came  to  read  it  over  to  the  Church  and  to  enquire  for 
the  persons  it  appeared  that  some  were  dead  and  that  others  had 
disappeared,  no  one  could  tell  where  they  were,  or  whether  they 
were  dead  or  alive.  It  was  therefore  agreed  that  they  should  be 
entered  as  "  missing."  Of  this  class  wer3  John  D'Sylva  (the 
Church  Roll  gives  his  name  as  Joseph)  and  his  wife.  Nothing 
had  been  heard  of  them  for  a  long  time,  but,  a  few  months  ago 
I  received  a  letter  from  Mr.  Fenwick  containing  an  interesting 
account  of  our  poor  brother's  death.  It  seems  that  he  and  his 
wife  had  long  returned  to  Sylhet,  which  I  believe  was  their  native 
place,  where  they  entered  into  the  service  of  an  English  gentle- 
man  with  whom  they  lived  till  poor  John  was  called  away.  Mr. 
Fenwick  knew  nothing  of  them  till  he  received  a  note  from  the 
gentleman  requesting  his  attendance  af  the  funeral  of  a  Native 
Christian.  Then  he  discovered  who  they  were  and  learned  from 
John's  wife  such  particuTars  as  fully  authorized  the  conclusion 
that  he  both  lived  and  died  like  a  Christian.  The  gentleman 
with  whom  they  lived  has  given  them  a  very  excellent  character. 
All  this  is  very  encouraging  and  shows  that  Native  Christians, 
though  often  weak  and  needing  the  superintendence  of  their  more 
established  brethren,  can  sometimes  stand  alone,  and  even  adorn 
the  Christian  character  in  these  circumstances.  It  says  much  for 
the  piety  of  this  poor  couple,  that  though  under  the  eye  of  no 
pastor,  absent  from  all  the  means  of  grace,  and  enjoying  the 


pany  of  no  Chrifitian  friends,  they  not  only  acted  as  becomfli 
Christians^  but  even  maintained  a  spiritual  frame  of  mind.  Poor 
John  was  personally  known  to  me  when  I  was  in  Bengal  before. 
He  bore  a  Portuguese  name,  because  he  had  previously  to  bis 
joining  us,  became  a  Roman  Catholic,  but  he  was  a  native  ef 
Bengal,  I  believe  born  in  the  District  of  Sylhet.  About  the  ye«v 
1815  our  Serampore  brethren  sent  several  Native  Brethren  to 
preach  the  Gospel  in  Sylhet,  John,  though  not  much  of  a  preadber 
accompanied  them,  as  it  was  natural  For  him  to  wish  to  visit 
his  native  place  under  such  circumstances.  They  met  with  con- 
siderable encouragement  and  several  natives  were  baptized,  but 
as  the  native  brethren  did  not  permanently  settle  down  there, 
the  converts  were,  of  course,  left  €6  themselves,  and  there  is  too 
much  reason  to  fear,  thsy  have  fallen  away.  One  of  them,  how- 
ever, has  been  discovered  by  Mr.  Fenwick,  who  writes  conceming 
him,  he  has  hitherto  lived  a  Ufa  of  blamelessness  and  good 
repute.  There  is,  thus,  encouragement  to  scatter  the  good  seed,. 
even  when  it  cannot  afterwards  be  attended  to  with  all  the  cai© 
which  could  be  wished,  for  that  which  is  thus  left  to  itself  is 
not  always  lest.  One  cannofc  but  regret,  however,  that  a  part 
of  the  country  where  success  was  obtained  with  eo  little  labor 
should  have  remained  so  long  uncultivated." 

In  this  way  others  who  had  actually  died  prior  to  16th  June 
1825  were  brought  forward  in  the  new  Church  Roll  as  alive  on 
that  date.  These  curious  miistakes  were  unavoidable  at  a  time 
when  the  means  of  communication  and  conveyance  were  so  res- 
tricted, and,  one  might  almost  say,  primitive. 

The  Roll  thus  prepared  showed  that  the  Church  consisted  of  Eng- 
lish and  Native  members  and  services  were  held  in  both  languages. 
Mr.  Robinson  states  that  in  the  Bengalee  material  assistance  wtt 
rendered  by  several  of  the  members  some  of  whom  preached  with 
great  acceptance.  Still,  he  had  to  personally  conduct  eix 
services  every  week,  namely  two  in  English  on  the  Sabbath  and 
one  in  Bengalee,  and  three  in  English  during  the  week  in  the 
Chapel  and  in  Cooly  Bazar,  where  some  of  the  members  resided. 

At  a  Church  meeting  which  was  held  just  a  week  after  Mr. 
Robinson  s  ordination  a  young  man  named  C.  C.  Rabeholm,  whtea 
name  had  been  proposed  as  a  member  the  month  before,  was 
accepted  for  baptism  and  on  the  26th  June — i.e.,  only  ten  days 


after  Mr.  Kobinson's  ordination — ^he  had  the  pleasure  of  baptizing 
him.  Mr.  Rabeholm  was  subsequently  employed  as  a  Mission 
worker  and  in  1829  was  nearly  murdered. 

In  July  Mr.  James  Irvine  was  unanimously  choisen  deacon. 
The  step  was  nepessary  as  there  was  only  one  deacon  holding  office 
v».,  Mr.  Adam  Gordon.  Mr.  Irvine  continued  in  office  till  July 
1844  when  he  resigned  on  account  of  old  age. 

The  Church  now  begun  to  set  its  house  in  order  and  took  up 
the  cases  of  several  members  who  had  "been  very  slack  in  their 
attendance  or  wholly  absent."  They  were  visited  and  expostulated 
with  but  apparently  without  effect,  lor,  as  the  result  of  the  report 
which  was  made  in  August,  eight  persons  were  excluded  and  in 
September  two  more  and  so  it  was  in  November  when  others  were 
oduded.  At  this  stage  there  was  a  turn  of  the  tide  and  fresh 
luones  began  to  be  proposed  for  baptism. 

Here  there  was  a  departure  from  the  usual  as  it  was  deter- 
amed  in  November  "that  two  new  deaconesses  should  be  chosen 
far  the  better  superintending  the  female  part  of  the  Church." 
Accc»dingly  in  December,  Mrs.  Lish  and  her  servant  (ayah) 
My,  "were  unanimously  chosen  as  deaconesses  for  the  better 
'BS)ection  of  the  female  part  of  the  Church."  No  clue  has  been 
^ifctained  as  to  who  the  previous  dsaconesses  were,  but  none  were 
•wr  elected  afterwards.  Mrs.  Lrlsh  subsequently  married  Mr. 
Bobinson  and  the  portraat  at  the  head  of  this  chapter  shows  her 
tther  deaconess's  attire.  Sally  died  on  1st  May  1828,  but  it  was 
ftwmgh  her  that  the  Rev.  A.  B.  Lish  (Mrs.  Lish's  son)  received 
W»  first  religious  impressions  and  became  converted. 

The  first  year  Mr.  Robinson's  congregation  was  only  about 
w  on  a  Sunday  morning  and  30  on  a  Sunday  evening,  which  was 
^  very  encouraging. 

I         In  the  midst  of  all  these  discouragements  his  wife  died  on 
j    *e  27th  June  1826,  but,  it  is  added,  that  she  died  happily. 

In  July  the   Church   recorded  "  the   Lord   is   reviving   us   a 


little"  and  when  Mr.  Robinson  wrotd  in  December  <rf  tills  year 
to  his  mother  in  England  about  his  wife's  death  he  said: 

"  I  am  not  without  some  encouragement  in  my  work,  but  I  hav? 
also  some  things  of  a  paidnful  nature  to  endure.  I  have  baptized  nine 
this  year,  but  we  have  lost  11,  eight  by  death  and  three  in  & 
manner  more  painful .  The  congregation  increases  very  graduaDy. 
We  have  now  about  a  hundred  on  a  Sabbath  morning.  This  wouU 
be  thought  f3w  at  Olney,  but,  few  as  it  is,  it  is  nearly  double  th 
number,  which  I  had  when  I  first  settled  in  Calcutta.  In  thl 
evening  we  have  seventy,  this  is  more  than  double  the  thirty 
which  I  had  when  I  began.  On  the  whole  we  may  say  the  con- 
gregation is  doubled;  but  still  there  are  few  conversions." 

In  January  1827,  Mr.  Adam  Gordon  resigned  his  post  M 
deacon  and  his  son  Mr.  Robert  Gordon  was  unanimously  appointiel 
to  the  office  in  his  stead  on  the  16th  idem. 

On  the  11th  April  of  this  year,  Mr.  Robinson  married  M». 
Lish  one  of  the  Deaconesses.  As  she  had  a  family  of  four  children 
he  found  it  necessary  to  increase  his  means  of  support  by  opeiung 
a  small  school  in  which  ha  was  able  to  impart  useful  and  leligiow 
instruction  to  many  of  the  children  of  the  congregation.  I* 
October  1830,  however,  Mrs.  Robinson  was  asked  to  take  np 
the  Female  Department  of  the  Benevolent  Institution  on  a  fixrf 
monthly  pay  vrhich  she  did,  so  closed  their  own  school  as  there  "* 
a  gi'eater  sphere  of  usefulness  for  her  in  that  institution. 
On  1 7th  April  it  is  recorded  *. 

"The  work  of  conversion  in  the  English  Church 
at  a  stand  still"  and  on  15th  May  "we  are  really 
a  very  low  state."  On  Christmas  Day  it  is  recorded:  Thi 
morning  we  held  a  general  prayer-meeting  to  humble  ou^. 
selves  before  God  and  pray  for  a  revival.  Two  prayers  wereoffewi 
in  each  language,  two  hymns  were  sung  in  each  language,  and  » 
short  address  given  in  each  language.  It  was  an  interesting : 
ing  and  gave  pleasure  to  many.  At  the  close  a  collection  wtf 
made  for  our  poor  members,  which  amounted  to  more  than  10^ 

Mr.  Robinson  used  to  write  very  fully  about  the  statd  of  ti* 
Church  in  his  letters  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Mission  in  Lend* 
and  three  of  them  which  bear  upon  the  work  done  in  1827  tW 
given  below.     The  last  of  the  series  may  be  considered  rather  loBgi 


mt  it  contains  details  which  are  not  procurable  elsewhere.     The 
ixrt  letter  is  dated  9th  April  1827,  and  in  it  he  said: 

"We  have  had  no  additions  to  our  Church  this  year,  and 
Mi  present  we  have  but  one  candidate  for  baptism.  There 
lUtt  been  some  fluctuation  in  the  congregation  partly  owing 
^  removals,  but  if  we  have  lost  some  we  have  gained 
others  eo  that  we  have  not  decreased.  Indeed  I  hope  we 
i«ye  reason  still  to  expect  a  gradual  increase.  Oh  for  a 
^leasing  on  the  Word;  this  is  fiie  great  desideratum:  but 
►f  this  I  am  constrained  to  speak  in  very  measured  terms.  There 
ft  cause  to  lament  over  the  want  of  vital  religion  alnongst  profes- 
ors,  as  well  as  on  account  of  the  paucity  of  conversions  among 
inners.  Lord  revive  us,  is  our  prayer.  Our  present  number  of 
l^nber^  is,  I  believe,  ninety-six ;  of  these  about  twenty  are  placed 
t  a  distance  in  the  country,  the  others,  to  the  number  of  seventy 
r  upwards,  I  have  the  pleasure  of  meeting  at  th3  Lord's  Table 
very  month." 

The  next  letter  is  dated  24th  October  1827,  and  in  it  he 

"I  can  spare  but  little  time  for  correspondence  without  omitting 
10  duties  of  my  station;  and  for  several  months  past  my  health 
AS  been  so  indifferent  that  I  have  often  been  as  unable  to  preach 
I  to  write.  I  have  nothing  novel  or  very  important  to  com- 
mnicate.  There  is  still  a  gradual  improvement  in  the  Lall  Bazar, 
preach  as  often  as  formerly  when  health  will  permit,  and  the 
rethren  Chodron  and  Gorachand  continue  their  labors  as  usual. 
7e  have  had  seven  added  to  us  by  baptism  this  year,  and  we 
q)ect  another  before  the  year  closes.  (This  baptism  took  place 
1  the  30th  December).  We  have  had  but  one  exclusion  and 
ive  lost  three  by  death ;  of  the  seven  baptized  five  belong  to  the 
fttive  congregation,  four  of  them  are  Portuguese  women,  the 
iher  is  a  Bengalee  man,  the  son  of  a  Native  Christian  in  Jessore. 
h&  young  man  (Bungsi  by  name)  has  never  been  an  idolater,  he 
te  but  three  years  old  when  his  father  was  baptized  and  he  has, 
f  course,  been  brought  up  in  the  Christian  religion.  There  is 
lother  Bengalee,  who  wishes  to  be  baptized  and  we  have  no  fault 
»  find  with  his  conduct,  but  as  we  are  not  satisfied  that  he  has 
It  the  power  of  Divine  things  in  his  heart  he  has  been  kept  back. 
l^  other  two  who  have  been  baptized  are  a  countryman  and  my 
vn  daughter.  (This  was  Mrs.  Farquhar  from  Singapore,  who 
is  baptized  on  17th  July  1827).  These  I  believe  are  the  only 
3ins  of  intelligienoe  which  I  have  to  communicate  relative  to  the 
iurcli,  unless  T  add  that  we  are  at  peace  among  ourselves;  that 


the  mombeiv  appear  much  attached  to  me  and  I  f  e^  attached  to  1 1^ 
them/'  It^^ 

The  third  letter  is  dated  23rd  January  1828  and  ia  itb|^ 


'Id  my  last  I  informed  you  that  seven  persons  had  ben 
bapti^d  this  year  (1827)  and  that  we  expected  another.  Ii 
this  we  were  not  disappointed,  the  person  alluded  to  was  baptiiBl 
on  the  laat  Sabbath  in  December.  Since  I  last  wrote  we  havi 
lost  thres  members  by  death.  One  of  them  came  to  her  enihj 
her  clothes  catching  fire.  She  was  alone  when  the  aoddenfc 
occurred,  and  being  a  paralytic,  she  was  unable  to  help  hendt. 
When  the  persons  with  whom  she  lived  entered  her  room  aha 
appeared  to  have  been  dead  some  hours.  Another,  a  ooimtiy* 
born  man,  who  was  in  the  Army,  died  at  Burdwan,  I  haive  aofc 
heard  any  particulars,  but  from  hie  general  character  there  k 
every  reason  to  hope  well  of  him.  Another,  one  of  our  olcM 
members  (she  having  been  baptized  full  twenty  years)  did  nol 
give  U6  much  pleasure  in  her  end.  She  had  for  many  yeans  been 
a  woman  of  some  repute  in  the  Church,  but  it  seems  that  tho 
enemy  was  permitted  to  gain  some  advantage  over  her  at  the  U^ 
and  to  bring  a  dark  cloud  over  the  closing  scene.  Another  oU 
woman,  the  first  member,  who  died  last  year,  made  a  very  hqypf 
exit.  As  often  as  I  visited  her  she  appeared  patient  under  her 
sufFerings,  resigned  to  the  will  of  Gk)d,  simply,  but  firmly,  trwi- 
ing  in  Jesus,  and  even  wishing  to  depart.  We  have  also  \at 
another  whose  end  was  attended  with  some  interesting  circuflir 
stances."  [This  was  D'Sylva  to  whom  reference  has  been  mi4l 

The  number  of  members  in  the  Lall  Bazar  Church,  including 
all  who  are  absent,  was  at  the  end  of  last  year  one  hundred  MW 
two,  of  whom  only  five  besides  myself  are  Europeans.  Our  maD- 
l>ers  are  all  poor,  there  is  not  one  among  us  who  qan  be  called 
a  person  of  property,  there  is  not  one  who  receives  a  genteel  salatyi 
or  who  makes  a  genteel  appearance.  Not  less  than  seventeen  cl 
our  members  are  wholly  supported  by  the  Church,  and  there  «• 
others  in  very  needy  circumstances.  Those  whom  the  Chiudi 
wholly  supports  are  the  blind,  the  lame,  and  those  who  throng 
age  and  infirmities  are  unable  to  support  themselves.  In  tSi 
country  there  are  no  parishes,  (things  are  difPereoit  now),  tboie 
therefore  who  arc  unable  to  work  and  have  neither  property  vol 
friends  to  support  them  must  subsist  on  private  charity,  or  peruh. 
Many  no  doubt  die  for  want,  but  Christianity  teaches  even  A* 
poor  to  relieve  those     who  are  poorer  than  themselves.     As  the 


^jority  of  our  members  undersfcand  the  native  languagd  better 
bm  the  English,  both  languages  are  always  used  at  the  Cord's- 
able.  A  prayer  is  offered  in  each  language,  an  address  is  given 
I  each  language  and  a  hymn  is  sung  in  each  language.  At  Church 
listings  also  both  languages  are  used,  and,  whenever  a  member 
1  ji^eoeived,  the  confession  of  his  or  her  faith,  which  is,  of  course, 
divared  in  one  language  is  translated  into  the  other.  Questions 
at  to  candidates,  and  the  replies  given  to  them,  must  also  be 

We  received  at  our  last  Church  meeting  two  Scotchman  whose 
mes  are  not  in  the  above  list.  One  of  them  was  restored  after 
elusion,  the  other  is  a  sailor,  who  had  been  baptized  at  Seram- 
re,  on  his  last  voyage  to  India.  As  he  is  now  settled  in  Cal- 
bto  he  wished  to  join  us,  and  we  gladly  received  him,  for  though 
>oor  man,  he  seems  to  possess  much  starling  piety,  and,  we  hope 
iful  gifts  also.  We  have  yet  one  candidate  for  baptism,  a  poor 
ibomedan  woman  (Beebee  Sona),  who  received  her  first  impres- 
os  from  hearing  her  daughter,  a  girl  of  fourteen,  read  the 
dptures.  She  read  in  Enlish  and  gave  the  sense  to  her  mother 
far  as  she  understood  it,  in  Hindustani.  On  Christmas  Day 
called  all  the  members  together  to  hold  a  general  prayer-meet- 
I  to  humble  ourselves  before  the  Lord  and  to  pray  for  a  revival . 
h  Bang  and  prayed  in  each  language  alternately,  and  an  address 
B  delivered  in  each  language.  It  was  an  interesting  season. 
I  the  European  part  of  thD  Church,  as  we  usually  term  them, 
re  happy  to  join  in  prayer  with  the  native  part,  and  the  native 
rt  with  the  European.  But  I  shall  perhaps  weary  you  with 
blols.  I  shall,  therefore,  only  add  that  the  same  number  of 
■^^ces  in  each  language  as  mentioned  in  former  letters  is  etill 

The  hot  season  of  1828  is  stated  to  hava  been  exceedingly 
pressive  and  Mr.  Robinson  suffered  so  severely  from  it  and  had 
ch  great  difficulty  in  getting  through  his  accustomed  services 
ai  he  was  obliged  to  give  up  two  of  his  week-day  services,  bub 
1  the  same  twelve  were  added  to  the  Church  during  1828- 

We  now  oome  to  an  interesbing  phase  of  the  work. 
nmected  with  the  Church  was  an  Auxiliary  Society,  denominated 
e  Lall  Bazar  Church  Baptist  Missionary  Society.  Its  funds 
tre  derived  principally  from  the  members  of  the  congrega- 
m  and  its  object  was  the  preaching  of  the  Gospel  in 
Icutta    and    its     vicinity    by    Native    agency.     The    preachers 


supported  by  it  preached  the  Gospel  statedly  in  privaU 
houses  and  in  Bungalow  Chapels,  and  often  on  the  roadside  il 
diflFerent  parts  of  tha  city,  and  they  gradually  extended  their 
labors  to  the  villages  south  of  Calcutta.  Several  of  the  inhaWfr 
ants  of  these  villages^  awakened  by  the  Word  of  God;  wdW 
from  twelve  to  fif tesn  miles  tx)  attend  the  Bengalee  service  at  fl» 
Chapel  on  the  Sabbath.  The  beginning  of  the  work  of  grace 
which  ensued  is  recorded  in  the  following  words  in  the  Statioft 
Committee  Book  of  Calcutta: — 

"  A  villager  in  another  part  of  the  Ifestrict  (24-Pergunnalisl 
obtained  a  portion  of  God's  Word  and  took  it  to  his  home.  Bjf 
reading  this  his  own  sinful  state,  and  the  abounding  mercy  of  tk 
Christians'  God  was  revaaled  to  him.  H©  therefore  came  up  to 
Calcutta  and  callsd  upon  Mr.  W.  Robinson,  who  was  the  pasta 
cf  the  Baptilst  Chapel,  Lall  Bazar,  Calcutta,  and  requssted  hitt 
to  visit  the  village  near  his  house.  Mr.  Robinson  did  so  and  henoe 
it  was  that  independent  of  the  Society,  a  work  had  bean  earned 
on  in  the  South  under  the  members  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Church  a 
few  years  previously  to  1838.  Upon  the  removal  of  Mr.  Bobift 
son  from  that  Church  to  Dacca,  thd  villages  in  which  our  w«l 
had  been  principally  carried  on  were  now  handed  over  to  off 
Society  that  they  might  be  placed  under  the  same  general  super 
intdndence  as  the  other  Christian  villages  in  the  South.  Abmhii 
those  villages  the  principal,  and  the  one  at  which  the  work  luM 
been  commenced,  was  called  Narsigdarchoke,  which  had  its  Cbapd, 
and  between  20  or  30  Church  members.  About  148  persons  fonnei 
the  nominal  Christian  community  of  these  few  villages,  but  refeft 
ence  is  made  in  the  report  about  them  to  numbers  of  others,  wbo 
seemed  to  be  inclined  to  embrace  the  Christian  faith." 

The  Minutes  of  1829  refer  for  the  most  part  to  the  natiw 
-candidates  of  the  South  villages  so  will  be  included  in  the  chapter 
on  that  subject,  but  there  was  one  interesting  baptism,  whiA 
was  that  of  Mr.  Alexa.nder  Burgh  Lish  on  the  26th  April  at  the 
age  of  15  years  when  six  others  were  baptized.  Later,  Mr.  Liah 
became  a  missionary  and  was  first  stationed  at  Cherraponjee,  but 
afterwards  he  removed  to  Agra,  where  he  was  for  several  yeati 
the  beloved  pastor  of  a  Church  and  where  he  died  on  the  Utk 
October  1852.     On  the  30th  August  and  27th  December  of  tWi 


i.r  thirtean  persons  were  baptized  on  each  occasion  and   44  in 

were  added  to  the  Church  during  the  year.  This  was  the 
•gest  number  ever  admitted  into  the  Church  in  any  one  year 
b^uent  to  1825,  the  nearest  approach  to  it  being  42  in  1874. 

There  are  no  special  events  to  note  for  1830,  but  on  8th  May 
^1  another  young  man  aged  15  years,  named  John  Adolphus 
Williams  was  baptized  and  received  as  a  member.  Though  he 
as  connected  with  the  Church  only  a  few  years  the  Church  be- 
une  heir  in  March  1863  to  a  legacy  he  left  which  has  brought 
i  to  its  funds  Rs.  30  a  month  for  varying  periods  during  these 
)  years. 

In  January  1832,  Mr.  Robinson  joined  the  Serampore  Mission 
icause  he  believed  the  Serampore  missionaries  had  been  much 
jnred,  and  he  felt  that  it  did  not  appear  consistent  with  His 
ty  though  he  felt  certain  cf  suffering  very  much,  to  be  silent  in 
9  day  of  their  calamity.  He  had  long  been  associated  with  the 
lior  missionaries  in  the  field  of  labor.  His  first  year  (1806),  ae  a 
ssionary  were  spent  with  them  and  notwithstanding  a  few  un- 
lasaut  circumstances,  which  occasionally  interrupted  the  bar- 
my of  the  Mission  family,  yet  he  was  strongly  attached  to  each 
3  of  th^m  personally.  Shortly  after,  he  joined  the  Committee 
i  became  a  Director  of  the  Serampore  College;  but  aft?r  Dr. 
irehman  6  death  when  all  the  Serampore  stations  were  handed 
jr  to  the  Society  he  again  joined  the  Parent  Society. 

On  the  22nd  Septamber  1832,  Mr.  Charles  Chodron,  died  and 
8  buried  in  the  Scotch  Cemetery. 

In  1832  there  were  29  admissions  and  among  them  was  Mr. 
Mendes,  who  was  baptized  on  the  26th  December  of  that  year. 
f<Mre  many  years  elapsed  Mr.  Mendes  became  a  prominent  mem- 
r  of  the  Church  and  remained  so  for  nearly  30  years. 

On  tihe  15th  August  1831  the  Church  recorded: — 

"  We  have,  alas,  no  candidates  for  baptism .  Things  ai^  in  a  very 
r  ^ate  and  we  have  much  cause  for  mourning  and  humiliation,  '  and 
the  3 let  March  1833,  "the  members  present  on  this     occasion 


taking  into  consideration  the  low  state  of  the  Church,  resolved 
that  each  one  should  once  a  week,  devote  some  portion  of  time 
to  extraordinary  prayer  for  the  prosperity  of  ths  cSiurch  and  that 
this  should  be  continued  for  three  months  when  we  are  to  hsTD 
another  meeting  to  consider  the  state  of  the  Church." 

On  23rd  June  1833  it  was  resolved  to  set  apart  a  portion  of 
time  every  week  to  pray  for  tlie  prosperity  of  the  Church,  duriDg 
the  ensuing  3  months. 

On  the  26th  December  1833,  Mr.  A.  B.  Lish  wu 
ordain sd  as  a  missionary  at  the  Chapel.  Rev.  J.  Le3chman  (from 
Serampore),  commenced  the  service ;  the  Rev.  J.  Mack  offered  up 
the  ordination  prayer  and  the  Rev.  W.  Robinson  delivered  the 
charge.  Several  Khassias,  who  came  down  from  Cherrapoonjee 
specially  for  this  occasion  were  presant  and  the  service  was  deeply 

Mr.  John  Robinson,  a  son  of  the  pastor,  was  baptized  on 
the  29th  December  1833.  In  the  course  of  years  he  succeeded 
to  the  pastorate. 

Dr.  Carey  died  at  Serampore  on  the  9th  of  June  1834,  and 
it  is  a  very  remarkable  fact  that  no  reference  whatever  is  made 
to  his  death  in  the  Minute  Book,  nor  to  Dr.  Marshman's  death 
on  5th  December  1837. 

In  April  1835  it  became  necessary  to  do  ecnne  repairs  to 
the  roof  of  the  Chapel,  but  so  little  money  was  subscribed  thai 
the  roof  had  to  be  propprd  up  for  want  of  funds  in  February  1836. 
On  14th  June  1835  the  low  state  of  the  Church  was  talked  over. 
Things  had  come  to  such  a  pass  by  11th  December  1836  that  ft 
was  resolved  to  send  a  short  admonitory  letter  to  those  membarowho 
were  remiss  in  attending  public  worship,  which  was  duly  carried 
out,  the  letter  being  signed  by  the  pastor  and  deacons.  Unfor- 
tunately there  is* no  copy  of  this  letter  on  record  in  the  Church 
Books  or  soma  interesting  details  might  have  been  disclosed. 

However,    the   repairs  got   done  in   course  of  time  and  the 
Chapel  was  re<>pened  on  the  9th  July  1837  when  Mr.  Gray  waa 


BUiked  for  the  labour  and  attention  he  had  given.  Theee  were 
B  first  repairs  to  the  Chapel  since  it  had  been  opened  on  let 
nuaxy  1809. 

From  the  Biography  of  Mr.  Bobinson  by  his  son,  John,  we 
%m  that  it  was  about  this  time  that  some  professors  had  gained 
Imission  into  the  Church,  who  endeavoured  to  create  mischief 
id  dissension  and  that  they  succeeded  to  a  lamentable  degree, 
he  minds  of  some  of  the  older  members  were  also  infected  by  the 
naon  they  sought  to  spread,  and  great  trouble  ensued.  The 
aaest  calumnies  were  propagated  and  gained  too  ready  credence 
nd  Hr.  Bobinson's  situation  was  rendered  extremely  painful.  A 
ooscioosness  of  integrity  sustained  him  while  passing  through 
base  trials. 

l^om  the  Church  Minute  Book  it  would  seem  that  there  were 
ome  who  wished  to  bring  in  a  Mr.  Symes  from  Dxim  Dum  as 
lastor,  for  it  is  recorded  on  14th  August  1836: 

"it  was  determined  that  the  pastor  should  make  frequent 
flcchanges  with  Mr.  Symes  of  Dum  Dum  and  that  the  latter  should 
lave  his  expenses  paid  each  time  he  came  down." 

But  on  the  20th  November  the  pastor  informed  the  Church 
ihat  he  would  remain  with  them.  This  statement  was  made 
because  there  was  a  rumour  abroad  at  that  time  that  Mr.  Bobinson 
Roald  go  to  Serampore  and  Mr.  Symes  from  Dum  Dum  would 
become  pastor. 

In  the  midst  of  all  these  troubles  his  wife  (previously  Mrs. 
Liflh)  died  of  cholera  on  the  16th  May  1838,  and  his  calumniators 
■cfcually  attributed  this  dispensation  to  the  just  judgment  of  God. 
From  some  who  had  been  his  friends,  and  with  whom  he  had  held 
nreet  counsel,  he  received  no  kindness,  and  others  in  whom  he 
aonfided,  and  who  professed  the  deepest  sympathy,  only  retired 
from  his  company  to  join  his  enemies  and  do  him  further  injury. 
Id.  fact  his  enemies  seemed  determined  to  compel  him  to  resign 
the  pastoral  office,  and,  fearing  that  all  his  prospects  of  useful- 
IUB8  in  connection  with  the  people  for  whose  spiritual  interests 

210         THE    STORY    OF    THE    L ALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHURCH. 

he  had  labored  diligently  for  thirteen  years  were  at  an  end,  he 

resigned  the  pastorship  on  the  11th  of  November  1838  and  from 

that  time  determined  on  proceeding  to  Dacca.     Not  long     after 

this  the  characters  of  those    who  had  taken  the  most  active  part 

in  creating  these  troubles  became  apparent.     Some  were  excluded, 

others  withdrew  their  connection  with  the  Church,  while  the  rat 

expressed   their  deapest   contrition    and  urgently    pressed   him  to 


In  the  Biography  it  is  recorded : 

In  the  matter  of  Church  government  he  was  a  strict  dis- 
ciplinarian. He  insisted  upon  every  member  being  present  at 
the  public  services  as  far  as  circumstances  permitted,  nor  would 
he  allow  any  to  be  absent  from  the  special  meetings  of  the  Church 
without  assigning  a  sufficient  reason.  He  judged  that  absence 
on  such  occasions  betrayed  a  want  of  interest  inconsistent  with 
Church  membership. 

The  admissions  during  his  pastorate  were: — 1825,  2;  1826, 
12;  1827,  8;  1828,  12;  1829,  44;  1830,  21;  1831,  16;  1832,  29; 
1833,  39;  1834,  16;  1835,  22;  1836,  17;  1837,  34;  and  1838, 
13 ;  making  a  grand  total  of  285  individuals  in  the  course  of  13J 

Such  was  the  man  and  such  his  ministry.  He  camd  at 
a  critical  period  of  the  Church's  history  and  helped  to  reconstruct 
it.  Had  he  not  been  a  strict  disciplinarian  and  a  strong  man, 
firm  and  resolute,  it  is  probable  he  would  not  have  been  able  to 
hold  on  for  13^  years  as  he  did. 

On  the  12th  February  1843  part  of  a  letter  which  Mr.  Boto- 
son  wrote  to  the  then  pastor  w^  read  to  the  Church  and  on  the 
21st  December  1845  when  he  was  in  Calcutta  he  presided  at  the 
Church  Meeting  as  the  Church  was  without  a  pastor.  On  the 
20th  January  1846  it  was  resolved  to  write  him  a  letter  solidiiiig 
him  to  take  up  the  pastorate  again,  but  there  is  no  oopy  of  thil 
letter  on  record  nor  of  any  reply  from  him.  This  fact  is  no* 
mentioned  in  his  son's  biography  of  Eim. 

The  following  poem  about  Mr.  Robinson  will,  the  writer  thinbi 


ead  with  interest.     It     will  be  seen     that  it  wae  written  in 

shortly  after  Mr.  Eobinson's  death. 
rom  "Poems"  by  John  Dunbar,  B.C.S.,  OalcuUa,  186S.] 
The  Missionary.* 

There  dwelt  in  Dacca,  some  time  past, 

A  man  of  true  and  genuine  worth, 

Who  grieved  not  that  his  lot  was  cast 

Among  the  lowly  sons  of  earth: 

TTifl  constant  aim  was  this — to  bring 

Belief  to  those,  who  had  no  guide, 

And  show  their  thirsty  souls  the  spring, 

Whence  all  their  wants  might  h&  supplied. 

I  see  him  now — his  burly  form 

Looms  large,  just  round  the  comer  wall; 

Like  some  dark  cloud,  ere  yet  the  storm 

Begins,   in  drenching  showers,   to  fall — 

Grave  is  his  walk — and  grave  his  face, 

As  now  he  nears  the  chapel  gate; 

And  now  he  takes  his  wonted  place, 

While   round  his   anxious  hearers   wait. 

In  fervent  words,  but  clear  and  plain, 
He  poiirs  the  Gk>spel  tidings  forth; 
And  seeks  his  hearers'  hearts  to  gain, 
With  stories  of  that  wondrous  birth. 
Which  safety  brought  to  fallen  man ; 
Or  tells  of  judgment  after  death. 
And  as  he  speaks  the  sinner's  ban. 
His  trembling  hearers  hold  their  breath. 

Or  underneath  the  spreading  boughs, 
Of  some  tall  tree,  he  takes  his  stand. 
Where,  unconfined,  the  space  allows, 
Boom,  full  and  free,  on  either  hand: 

*  The  late  Rev.  W.  Robinson. 

212         THE   8T0BY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAB    BAPTIST    OHTJBOH. 

And  wonderiDg  naiivce  bear  him  speak 
Of  sin,  and  guilt,  and  pardoning  grace, 
And  of  the  Saviour,   pure  and  meek. 
Who  came  to  save  our  cdnful  race. 

Thus  have  I  heard  him  oft,  but  now, 
I  ne'er  shall  hear  his  voice  again; 
Nor  more  behold  that  thoughtful  brow 
Betray  the  workings  of  the  brain: 
The  fight  is  fought — ^the  race  is  run; 
And  he  has  gained  the  heavenly  crown; 
He  tastes,  in  full,  the  joys  begun. 
Before  he  laid  his  burthen  down. 

For  forty  years,  this  man  of  God, 
Still  toiling  in  his  Master's  cause, 
The  path  of  duty  firmly  trod. 
Indifferent  all,  to  man's  applause. 
His  hope  was  fix'd  beyond   the  skies. 
True  faith,  the  staff  on  which  he  lean^. ; 
He  soared  above  mere  earthly  ties; 
Content  to  live — ^to  die  content. 

His  deeds  and  words  shall  never  die! 
The  seed  he  sowed  halh  laken  root, 
And  it  shall  bear  its  blossoms  high, 
And  yield  in  time,  its  goodly  fruit. 
His  memory  lives  in  many  a  heart, 
His  name  calls  forth  full  many  a  sigh : 
Though  here  he  filled  a  lowly  part. 
He  reaps  a  rich  rewar3  on  high. 

All  honour  to  the  faithful  band 
Of  men  who  spread  God's  truth  abroad ! 
Whose  Mission  'tis,  in  every  land. 
From  weary. hearts  to  lift  the  load, 


To  turn  them  back  from  idole  vain 
And  gods  that  are  no  gods  at  all. 
To  sever  Sin's  debasing  cbain^ 
And  free  them  from  its  deadly  thrall ! 

East,    West,    North,    South,  throughout  the  worlds 
These  soldiers  of  the  Cross  are  sent: 
The  flag  they  serve,  has  been  unfurled 
On  every  Isle  and  Continent; 
Nor  doubtful  can  the  contest  be, 
When  God  Himself  leads  on  the  host. 
Triumphant  shouts  of  victory. 
Shall  yet  be  heard  on  every  coast. 


The  work  in  the  Villages. 

The  beginning  of  this  work  of  grace  has  already  been  tdn 
to  in  the  preceding  chapter.  The  narrative  will  now 
continued  from  that  point  and  will  be  giv^  more 
detail  than  the  reader  may  perhaps  lika,  but  it  is  dcof 
no  connected  account  of  the  several  events  appears  to  be  on  W 
and  the  present  writer  has  had  access  to  books  which  otheiB  haive 
the-  privilege  of  seeing.  Much  of  the  information  pieced  toge 
is  from  the  Minute  Book  of  the  Church,  the  Biography  of 
Bobioaoxiy  and  the  Government  Gazette  of  the  time. 

The  following  entries  detailing  the  events    of    1829  are 
the  Minute  Book : — 

10th  February, — (Tuesday).  Several  natives*  were  menti 
as  candidates  for  baptism. 

14th  April, — (Tuesday).     The  following  persons  were  n 

mously  received  (and  then  follow  the  names  of  seven  nat 
Three  other  natives  from  the  villages  to  the  south  of  Calcutta 

Of  the  seven  referred  to  above,  five  were  baptized  on 
26th  April  1829,  in  the  Chapel,  viz. :  (1)  Earn  Prisad  from  i 
manick,  (2)  Santi  Bam  from  Narsigdarchoke,  (3)  Probhoo 
from  Andarmanick,  (4)  Neem  Chand  (name  of  village  not  g 
(5)  Deokee  Ram  from  Narsigdarchoke,  at  the  same  time  thai 
Alexander  Burgh  Lish  was  baptized.  The  sixth  man — Bam  I 
Koomeer  from  Chakjuggerdol — was  baptized  on  3  let  May, 
the  next  three;  but  the  seventh  man,  Beeno  Sirdar,  seems 
to  have  been  baptized. 

On  one  occasion  in  1829,  Mr.  Bobinson  remarked: 
"  We  had  present  in  the  vestry  not  less  than  twenty-fiiw  p 
all  of  whom  had  given  up  their     caste  that  they  might  W 

Shortly  after  this,  when  five  of  these  were  baptized^  be  y 
thus  in  a  letter  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Society : 

♦  This  is  the  word  used  in  the  Minute  Book. 

THE    WORK    IN    THE    VILLAGES.  215 

"It  would  have  gratified  you  to  see  thirty-two  en- 
lirers  at  the  Chapel,  those  who  were  baptiized  included, 
ich  was  the  scene  witnessed  on  the  26th  of  April 
829).  But  these  are  not  all  who  have  given  up  caste, 
here  are  many,  we  know  not  how  many,  more.  We  have  enquirere 
I  many  villages,  the  most  nemote  of  which  is  little  less  than 
renty  miles  from  Calcutta.  But  this  is  not  all :  our  Circular 
oad  brethren  are  busy  in  the  same  way:  they  have  numerous 
iqnirers,  and,  I  hope  will  soon  have  many  converts.  Now  this 
really  something  new,  and  I  hope  we  are  on  the  eve  of  better 
^ys.  Nothing  like  this  has  been  witnessed  in  this  country  before. 
hope  it  will  go  on.'' 

The  Minute  Book  procesds : — 

19th  May. — (Tuesday).  Two  natives  (names  given)  were 
Meived  and  on  the  following  Sabbath  another  (name  given)  was 
)ceived.     At  the  former  meeting  three  persons  were  proposed. 

16th  June. — Two  natives  (names  given)  were  received. 

14th  July. — Nine  persons  proposed  as  candidates  for  baptism. 

18th  August. — Five  persons  were  proposed. 

Of  those  referred  to  by  Mr.  Robinson  on  26th  April,  he  next 

"  Some  of  them  had  shortly  to  pass  through  severe  per- 
xnitions.  In  a  village  called  Sulkea  (not  the  place  of  that  name 
jpofiite  Calcutta,  but  a  village  near  Baruipore,  south-east  of 
alcutta)  about  a  dozen  had  met  on  a  Sabbath  morning  for  wor- 
lip  and  had  afterwards  sat  at  dinner  together,  when  a  band  of 
ea  broke  in  suddenly  upon  them  and  beat  them  very  cruelly. 
our  persons  were  seriously  wounded  and  several  hurt ;  one  poor 
an  had  his  hut  burnt  and  his  liflle  all  destroyed.  Measures  are 
iken  to  obtain  legal  redress,  just  for  the  sake  of  future  security, 
it  though  I  have  waited  on  the  Judge  myself  I  doubt  whether 
ley  will  succeed.  As  these  poor  men  have  many  enemies,  bs- 
lUse  they  wish  to  be  Christians,  and  as  falsehood,  perjury  and 
dbery  are  universal,  there  is  but  little  room  to  hope  that  they 
ill  obtain  justice.' 

In  September  of  the  same  year  a  far  worse  assault  was  made 

waiting    in    the    murder    of   the    Native    Preacher,    Ramkishur, 

ho  had  been  baptized  on  21st  February   1813.     The  details  are 

ken  from  the  Government  Gazette  of  8th  October  1829  and,   as 

may  be  of  interest  to  some,  the  heading  of  the  paper  is  given 

I  the  next  page. 


























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■       r'2 



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/9              ss: 







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1  if 




'    u 

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/z       .       , 



Not  satisfied  with  having  mur- 
dered the  Native  Preacher,  they 
attacked  Mr.  Rabeholm  himself  on 
the  11th  October  1829.  Mr.  Rabe- 
holm was  also  a  member  of  the 
Church,  aiid  is  described  as  a  per- 
son of  great  energy  and  zeal.  He 
had  given  up  his  appointment  in  an 
attorney  8  office  to  take  up  Mission 

The  details  were  communicated 
to  England  by  the  Rev.  George 
Pearoe  and  appeared  in  the  Mtssioth 
ary  Herald  for  May  1830 

"In  a  letter  from  Mr.  George 
Pearce,  inserted  in  our  number 
for  February  J  allusion  was  made 
to  the  maliguant  opposiition  made 
by  eome  of  the  native  landholders 
to  the  preaching  of  the  Gospel  in 
the  villages  under  thair  authority. 
Our  readers  will  perceive  from  the 
following  account^  taken  from  ihe 
Calcutta  Government  Gazette  <rf 
(Thursday)  8th  October  1829,  that 
one  of  the  n  active  mission  arid 
has  actually  fallen  a  victim  to  their 
enmity.  We  trust  that  the  pef- 
petrators  and  instigators  of  the 
atrocious  deed  will  be  discovered 
and  that  effectual  measures  will 
be  taken  to  prevent  the  recurrence 
of  such  acts  of  civil  outrage. 

"A  few  years  ago,  some  inhabit- 
ants of  the  villager  to  the  south  of 
Calcutta,  in  occasionally  passing 
the  schoolrooms  of  the  Independent 
mission  ariee  at  Kidderpore  listened 
to  the  Gospel  which  was  preached 
in  them.  They  became  converts  to 
Christianity,  and  through  thein 
the  missionaries  were  enabled  to 
carry  the  Gospel  into  the  villages 
themselves .  Inquiry  and  informar 
tion  spT^Sbd  through  the  surround- 
\  ing     d\8^T\cV,,  ^ltA  V^   te^^^KMb  in- 

THE    WORK    IN    THE    VILLAGES  217 

timades  were  formed  with  converts  of  other  missionary  bodies,  who 
then  took  a  part  in  the  still  increasing  work. 

"  The  Serampore  missionaries  were  induced  a  few  months  since 
to  send  a  missionary  to  reside  in  Baruipore,  and  labour  in  that 
part  of  the  district  referred  to,  nearest  to  that  town  which  was 
Bfcill  unoccupied  by  any  others.  In  Sulkea,  a  large  village  about 
six  miles  distant  from  Baruipore,  nearly  thirty  persons  had  pro- 
Jessed  a.  regard  for  the  Gospel  and  thrown  off  the  bondage  of  caste, 
it  fherefore  became  the  central  point  of  the  missionary's  labours 
jtfid  here  it  was  proposed  to  erect  a  convenient  hut  to  serve  the 
•double  purposd  of  a  Chapel  and  a  schoolroom.  A  native  Christian 
named  Ramkishur  was  sent  to  reside  in  Sulkea,  to  assist  the 
missionary  to  conduct  religious  worship  during  his  absence. 

"He  was  a  man  of  upwards  of  50  years  of  age,  and  a  Christian 
of  long  standing.  He  was  not  remarkable  for  any  superior  ability, 
'bat  possessed  a  meek  and  gentle  disposition,  seemed  always  pleased 
to  have  an  opportunity  of  speaking  of  ths  Gospel,  and,  in  familiar 

*  conversation  especially,  he  was  able  to  turn  his  long  acquaintance 
I  ^th.  the  Scriptures  to  good  account.  He  soon  gained  the  affections 
i  "ti  the  new  converts  and  was  amongst  them  as  a  father.  He  held 
s  meetings  for  Divine  worship  with  them  constantly,  at  which  many 

*  of  the  other  villagers  likewise  attended  and  the  spirit  of  honest 
%  €nqiiii^  appeared  to  be  rapidly  extending.  But,  what  gained  him 
r  the  affections  of  some,  excited  towards  him  the  bitterest  enmity 
1^  of  others,  and  he  has  fallen  a  victim  to  their  rage.  He  spent 
:.; 'Sonday,  the  13th  of  September  (1829),  at  Sulkea,  and  conduebed 
'-  Diyine  worship  twice  in  the  presence  of  many  of  the  villagers,  who 
j^  remained  for  hours  in  conversation  respecting  what  they  had 
^  keard.  On  the  Monday  following  he  went  to  Garda,  a  small 
f-  'village,  but  a  short  distance  off,  where  on©  of  the  new  converts 
1    resided  apart  from  the  rest.     At  the  house  of  this  man  he  spent 

the  day  and,  some  of  the  other  converts  having  called  they  had 
woixftiip  together  just  before  sunsst.  After  this  they  two  were 
left  alone,  and  they  retired  to  rest  in  the  same  hut  at  the  usual 
hour.  A  little  after  midnight  they  wished  to  smoka,  and  Chand, 
file  master  of  the  house,  taking  his  hooka,  went  to  his  brother's 
(not  a  convert)  on  the  other  side  of  the  road,  and,  having  obtainad 
a  light  sat  smoking  for  some  tims.  He  then  went  to  give  the 
hooka  to  Ramkishur,  but  instantly  ran  back  calling  to  his 
brotlier,  '  there  are  so  and  so  (naming  a  number,  of  persons)  with 
many  more  come  to  my  house,  and  they  are  murdering  the  padri 
j^ahib's  Dewan.'     He  went  away  again  and  his  brother  rose  and 

Eing  out,  saw  upon  the  road  several  of  the  persons  whom  Chand 
d   mentioned,   for  it  was  clear  moonlight,   and,   on  his  calling 


to  them,  they  chased  him  with  clubs  with  which  they  were  all 
armed.  Hd  called  up  another  man  who  lived  on  the  premifleB, 
and,  returning  with  him  to  the  road,  they  saw  two  canoes  full 
of  men  making  off,  and  also  a  number  of  other  persons  going 
towards  Sulkea  on  foot.     Through  fear  they  immediately  concealed 

themsslves  in  their  own  house  till  daylight. 

In  the  meantime  Chand  had  gone  round  to  the  back  of  his 
own  premises  and  there  heard  the  leaders  of  the  party  calling 
out  "  Where  is  Chand  ?  Murder  him !  Murder  him !  "  And  there  he 
witnessed  the  murder  of  the  poor  old  man,  who  a  few  faint 
cries  for  help,  fell  under  their  blows  in  the  little  yard  of  thfr 
hous3  where  he  had  slept.  Chand  swam  through  a  tank,  and 
made  off  through  the  rice-fields  without  being  observed  and  ran 
to  Bankipore  (Baruipore),  several  miles,  to  the  Darogah's 
Thanna  where  he  gave  notica  of  the  murder.  As  he  had  not  exactly 
ascertained  the  actual  perpetrators  of  the  murder,  he  was  sent 
back  for  the  purpose.  He  readied  Garda  again  about  sunrise  on 
Tuesday,  and  then  went  with  his  brother  to  the  fatal  spot.  They 
found  the  body  perfectly  lifeless  and  cold :  on  the  forehead  was 
a  great  gash,  evidently  made  by  the  stroke  of  a  club,  and  the 
neck  had  been  pierced  by  a  spear;  and  death  no  doubt  had  fol- 
lowed instantly:  there  was  much  blood  upon  the  ground." 

"  It  is  gratifying  to  know  that  during  the  whole  of  his  stay  in 
the  village  the  conduct  of  the  deceased  had  been  in  every  respect 
blameless.  It  has  been  already  stated  that  his  temper  was  mild 
and  gentle  and  he  had  certainly  done  nothing  to  prejudice  the 
interests  of  anyone. 

"  The  last  time  he  parted  from  the  missionary  under  whose 
direction  he  was  placed,  he  seemed  much  depressed,  and  observed, 
1  am  going,  Sir,  as  a  sheep  among  wolves,  and  so  it  has  appeared. 
We  believe  that  decided  measures  have  Been  taken  to  bring 
the  chief  offenders  to  justice,  how  far  they  may  be  successful  we 
cannot  tell." 

The  greater  part  of  the  foregoing  was  communicated  to  the 
Government  Gazette,  by  a  correspondent,  but  the  last  two  paragraphs 
are  from  the  pen  of  the  Editor,  as  the  paper  itself  has  been  referred' 

The  afflictive  event  described  in  the  foregoing  extract  is  aise 
referred  to  by  Mr.  George  Pearce  under  date  of  12th  October 
(1829)   thus:— 

THE    WORK    IN    THE   VILLAGES.  219 

*'  During  the  last  three  months  the  Calcutta  brethren 
liave  had  the  joy  of  receiving  into  oommundon  eight  natives,  six 
of  whom  were  from  the  peasantry  of  the  villages  to  the  east  and 
south-east  of  Calcutta  of  the  remarkable  movement  among  which 
in  favour  of  the  Gospel,  you  have  already  heard.  Some  of  these 
poor  people  come  from  a  distance  of  thirty  miles  to  hear  the 
Gospsl  on  the  Lord's  Bay.  Since  these  fields  appear  so  promising, 
I  hope  soon  to  direct  my  feet  thitherward,  in  company  with  my 
brethren,  and,  may  the  Lord  of  the  harvest  bless  His  word 

"  But  Christian  mi33ionarie5  cannot  long  experience  success, 
without  having  to  contend  with  opposition,  excited  by  the  powers 
of  darkness.  The  Jameedars  (sic),  or  landholders,  seem  generally 
to  have  conceived  the  utmost  hatred  against  the  Grospel,  through 
fear,  in  all  probability  of  injury  to  thsir  worldly  interests,  hence 
for  some  time  past  the  Christians  in  their  estates  have  in  various 
ways  been  made  to  feel  their  displeasure,  but  recently,  not  being; 
satisfied  with  depriving  them  of  land,  destroying  their  com,  and 
beating  them  they  have  proceeded  so  far  as  deliberately  to  murder 
one  of  the  Christians  and,  to  render  the  act  the  more  effectual  in 
preventing  the  evil  dreaded,  they  selected  as  their  victim  one  of 
the  native  preachers.  The  person  whose  life  has  been  taken  away 
was  named  Ramkishur  who  had  been  a  professor  of  the  Gospel 
about  twenty-four  years.  (This  would  seem  to  be  incorrect.)  He 
was  in  connection  with  Serampore.  Strange  as  it  may  appear, 
little  notice  has  been  taken  of  this  dreadful  affair,  but,  where  the 
fault  lies  I  cannot  say,  yet,  in  consequence  of  it,  on  Sunday  last 
(i.e.,  the  11th  October)  in  the  same  village  a  young  man,  Mr. 
Babeholm,  also  in  the  employ  of  Serampore,  was  attacked  by 
about  a  hundred  men  armed  with  clubs.  After  being  thrown 
down  and  bruised  a  good  deal,  he,  by  some  means  or  other, 
effected  his  escape.  Wiere  these  things  will  end  the  Lord  alone 
knows.  I  hope  missionaries  will  have  wisdom  and  discretion  to 
conduct  themselves  in  a  becoming  manner  in  the  midst  of  these 

Mr.  Rabeholm  was  the  first  person  to  be  baptized  after  the 
Rev.  W.  Robinson  took  over  the  Pastorate  of  the  Lall  Bazar 
Church  on  the  16th  June  1825,  his  baptism  having  taken  place  on 
the  26th  idem. 

Mr.  Marshman  in  his  book  says: — 

"  The  case  was  fully  investigated  in  the  court  and  the  guilt  of 
two  of  the  ringleaders  brought  home  to  them,  but  they  escaped 

220         THE  STORY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHURCH. 

oondign  punishmeiit  in  consequence  of  a  difference  of  opinion 
between  the  judge  and  the  Mahomedan  law  officer  as  to  the  extent 
of  their  complicity,  but  the  searching  and  protracted  investigation 
struck  awe  into  th©  minds  of  the  violent  and  gave  heart  to  those 
who  were  well  disposed  in  that  little  community." 

But  even  these  events  did  not  hinder  the  work  aa  the  follow- 
ing extracts  from  the  Minute  Book  will  show: — 

17th  November. — (Tuesday).  A  Church  Meeting  was  held  at 
which  eighteen  persons  were  mentioned  as  wishing  to  be  baptized, 
all,  with  two  exceptions,  being  natives. 

15th  December. — (Tuesday).  At  a  Church  Meeting  this  alter 
noon  the  following  persons  were  received,  and  then  follow  the 
names  of  nine  natives. 

Another  Church  Meeting  was  held  on  Sabbath  morning, 
20th  December,  when  Soojea,  the  wife  of  Bam  Hurree,  was  admitted 
for  baptism ;  and  we  find  that  on  27th  December  the  above  woman 
Soojee  and  nine  other  natives  were  baptized,  so  altogether  in  1829 
forty-four  persons  were  admitted  into  the  Church,  which  is  the 
highest  figure  for  any  year  subsequent  to  1825. 
In  1830  the  details  are  as  interesting : — 

16th  February. — (Tuesday).  At  our  Chujrch  Meeting  thia 
afternoon  nine  persons  ware  received  for  baptism. 

16th  March. — (Tuesday).  At  our  Church  Meeting  this  after- 
noon several  persons  in  the  villages  were  proposed  and  it  waa 
agreed  that  a  Church  Meeting  should  be  held  at  Jeardagote  in 
April  to  receive  those  of  them  who  might  appear  fit  subjects  for 
baptism  and  that  they  should  be  baptized  at  the  same  place. 

ISth  April. — (Tuesday).  A  Church  Meeting  was  held  and 
on  the  following  day  the  Pastor  and  several  members  went  to 
Jeardagote  where  a  Church  Meeting  was  held  and  four  poor 
women  admitted  for  baptism.  They  were  baptized  the  same  day 
in  a  tank  near  the  Chapel.  One  of  these  poor  women  is  blind 
and  quite  infirm.  She  is  said  to  ba  near  a  hundred  years  of  age. 
She  gave  a  very  satisfactory  account  of  her  faith  in  Christ. 

The  following  appeared  in  the  Annual  Eeport  which  was  pre- 
sented in  London  on  17th  June  1830: — 

Mr.  (W.)  Bobinson  specifies  the  female  servant  who  some  years 
ago  built  a  small  bungalow  Chapel  at  her  own  expense  and  a 
brother  of  the  name  of  Kishur  among  those  who  had  passed  away. 
The  latter  was  employed  in  connection  with  the  Serampore  mis- 

THE   WORK    IN   THE   VILL.AOES.  221 

donaries  ae  a  Native  Preacher  in  the  village  of  Sulkea  and  in 
September  last  (1829)  became  a  martyr  to  the  catifie  of  God, 
[laving  been  brutally  murdered  by  a  band  of  rufl&anB,  who  forced 
%n  entrance  into  the  cottage  where  he  was  reposing  for  the  night. 
[See  the  Missionary  Herald  for  May  1830  for  details). 

By  the  help  of  Chodron  (who  had  been  a  British  seaman) 
uid  Gk>rachand,  native  preachers,  who  are  employed  under  the 
direction  of  Mr.  Eobineon,  considerable  attention  is  paid  to  the 
spiritual  necessities  of  several  villages  near  Calcutta.  At  two  of 
bhese,  called  Narsigdarchoke  and  Jeadargote,  congregations  regu- 
larly assemble  twice  on  the  Sabbath,  in  the  former  a  pla<»  of 
worship  has  been  erected  in  the  midst  of  a  large  marshy  tract  on 
a  small  island  formed  with  much  labour  for  the  purpose,  and  in  the 
latter  a  similar  building  is  in  progress. 

At  other  places  in  the  neighbourhood  the  prospects  are  very 
dncooraging,  and  Mr.  Robinson  earnestly  solicits  that  aid  from 
ECome,  which  woidd  enable  him  to  embrace  them. 

To  continue  the  extracts  from  the  Minute  Book: — 

17th  August. — (Tuesday).  It  appeared  at  this  meeting  that 
several  of  our  members  in  the  villages  are  in  a  very  low  state ;  it 
was  agreed  that  Brother  Chodron  should  visit  them  and  make  the 
necessary  enquiries  about  them. 

14th  December. — (Tuesday).  At  the  Church  Meeting  held  on 
ihis  day  we  were  called  to  the  painful  duty  of  excluding  some  of 
3ur  native  brethren  for  idolatry.  They  had  long  been  very  much 
iiasatisfied,  because  money  was  not  given  them  according  to  their 
noshes  and  at  last  determined  to  renounce  their  profession  of 
[Thristianity  and  accordingly  made  an  idol  and  joined  in  keeping 
iihe  festivals  of  that  idol.  One  of  them  lost  a  child  soon  afber- 
nrards  and  another  of  them  died  in  a  few  days  without  any  good 
svidence  of  repentance.  (This  latter  was  Ram  Prisad  Koomeer, 
prho  died  of  cholera.) 

The  following  extract  from  Br.  Cox's  History  of  the  Mission 
is  of  considerable  interest : — 

"  Within  two  months  after  his  settlement  here  in  1829,  Mr. 
Rabeholm  was  deeply  afflicted  by  an  event  which  was  the  first  of 
khe  kind  that  had  occurred  in  the  missionary  enterprise,  the  mur- 
der of  a  native — Ramkishur — on  account  of  the  Gospel.  It  took 
place  at  Garda,  a  village  about  20  miles  south  of  Calcutta,  where 
i  groat  desire  after  the  truth  has  been  lately  manifested.  This 
ironsed  the  hatred  of  those  who  rejected  it,   a  party  of  whom 


entered   the   house  where  he  slept   about  midnight^    armed  with 
xslubs  and  bamboos  and  perpetrated  this  foul  crime. 

In  November  eight  were  baptized  by  Mr.  Mack,  and  a  Church 
organized.  In  December  three  others  joined.  Throughout  the 
District  much  readiness  was  evinced  to  hear  the  Gospel,  and  the 
Rajah,  who,  with  his  family,  were  present  at  the  first  meetings, 
furnished  every  facility  for  promoting  education  and  offered  no 
obstruction  to  the  propagation  of  the  Gospel. 

Mr.  Rabeholm  furnished  some  interesting  accounts  of  his 
itinerant  efforts  in  1830,  at  Magra  haut  (or  market),  Houra,  and 
other  places.  At  the  former  where  he  and  Chodron  talked 
of  proceeding  to  other  villages,  they  were  constrained  to  remain 
for  a  time  by  the  exclamations  of  the  people :  "  are  we  so  unforfcu- 
nata  as  to  be  excluded  from  a  knowledge  of  the  way  of  salvation." 
On  another  occasion,  at  Nutumee,  after  preaching  and  distribu- 
tion of  a  multitude  of  tracts,  two  young  brahmans  began  to  beat 
their  foreheads  before  the  whole  assembly  saying,  "O  miserable 
people  that  we  are,  that  we  never  heard  of  such  things  bafore.*' 
As  they  passed  along  through  the  villages  they  found  several 
people  in  different  places  standing  in  the  canal,  up  to  ih^  ned 
in  water,  awaiting  their  arrival,  in  order  to  receive  tracts. 

The  Church,  however,  did  not  appear  to  be  in  a  flourishing 
state.  In  the  beginning  of  the  year  there  were  eleven  memboa, 
but  onj3  died  of  oonsumptiooi  and  three  were  excluded.  Three 
others,  however,  were  received.  Nidee  Ram,  an  old  member  of 
the  Church  of  Jessore,  was  appointed  an  assistant  to  Mr.  Rabe- 
holm, but  in  1831  he  died  most  happily  in  Serampore." 

The  following  extract  is  from  Mr.  Marshman's  book: — 

At  the  new  station  formed  at  Baruipore  to  the  south  of  Cal- 
cutta under  the  superintendence  of  Mr.  Rabehobn,  an  East  Indian 
of  great  energy  and  zeal,  the  native  converts  had  been  subject  as 
elsewhere  to  great  annoyance  from  their  heathen  landlords  and 
it  was  resolved  to  take  land  in  the  neighbourhood  where  they  might 
carry  on  their  agricultural  labours  without  molestation.     The  law 
prohibiting  the  purchase  or  occupation  of  land  by  Europeans  was 
still  in  force,  but  Government  had  for  some  time  encouraged  the 
application  of  English  capital  in  clearing  of  the  Soonderbuns,  by 
making  grants  of  jungle  land  on  permanent  lease.     The  missionarifls 
availed  themselves  of  this  privilege  and  obtained  a  large  tract  of 
land   in  tHe  forest  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Baruipore.     The  enter- 
prise was  placed  under  the  control  of  Mr.    Babeholm,    and  400 
workmen  were  immediately  engaged  in  felling  trees  and  clearing 
the  land  and  digging  ponds,  and  there  was  every  prospect  that  ifc 
would  speedily  become  the  seat  of  a  Christian  population. 

THE    WORK    IN    THE    VILLAGES.  223 

15th  March  1831  (Tuesday). — Thr&e  natives  were  proposed 
for  baptism. 

19th    ^i/jril    (Tuesday). — Another-  Church    Meeting   was  held' 
-when  three  natives  (names  given)  were  admitted  for  baptism 

Of  cour^,  it  goes  out  without  saying  that  there  were 
lapses  necessitating  the  exclusion  of  some  of  the  new  converts. 

17th  January  1832, — One  native  (name  given)  was  received 
for  baptism. 

17th  April, — Another  Church  Meeting  was  held  when  one 
native  (name  given)  was  admitted  for  baptism.  Another  Church 
Meeting  was  held  on  the  following  Sabbath  niormng  when  Tara- 
chand  from  Bolorampore  was  admitted.  Three  persons  were  bap- 
tized on  the  29th  April. 

18th  Septemher. — ^A  Church  Me^ating  was  held  wh.en  two 
natives  were  admitted  for  baptism. 

But  on  the  22nd  September  the  "  excellent "  Mr.  Charles 
Chodron  died  and  was  buried  in  the  Scotch  Cemetery.  He  was 
only  36  years  of  age  at  the  tim/s  of  his  death.  The  entry  in  the 
Church  Register  against  his  name  runs  thus:  "  An  English  Seaman. 
Immediately  after  his  baptism  he  went  forth  into  different  parts 
of  Bengal  preaching  the  Gospel.  Latterly  he  returned  and  settled 
among  us  as  a  Bengali  preacher  and  died  deeply  regretted  in 
September  1832." 

The  following  is  the  simple  inscription  on  his  grave  which 
may  still  be  seen. 

To  th3  Memory  of  Charles  Chodron, 

died  22nd  September  1832,  aged  36  years. 

"  Blessed  are  the  dead  that  die  in  the  Lord : 

Yea,  their  works  do  follow  them.*' 

At  a  Church  Meeting  held  on  Tuesday,  16th  October,  several 
persons  in  the  villages  were  proposed  for  baptdsm. 

At  a  Church  Meeting  held  on  Tuesday,  20th  November,  three 
psisons,  natives  of  the  villages,  were  proposed.  Twelve  persons 
nave  lately  been  baptized  at  Narsigdarchoke,  viz.,  five  on  the  18th 
November  and  seven  on  the  16th  December.  A  few  others  in 
these  parts  seem  inclined  to  follow  the  Lord  in  baptism. 

The  following  extracts  relating  to  this  period  are  taken  from 
Dr.  Cox's  History  of  the  Mission : — 


"  Chodron  fell  asleep  in  Jesus  in  September  (1832).  He  i 
descidbed  as  a  dear  brotlier  and  fellow-labourer,  whose  life  m 
'  conduct  bore  testimony  to  his  godly  sincerity.  In  labours  lie  wai 
pr&«minent  and  spoke  the  language  admirably.  "Hb  was  in  oo» 
nexion  with  the  Lol  (sic.)  Bazar  Church  in  Calcutta  which  hx 
lately  added  eleven  to  its  communion.  About  twenty  memben 
scattered  through  th©  different  villages,  were  constantly  vifflted 
by  Chodron. 

The  labours  of  Mr.  Robinson  at  Calcutta  in  the  Lol  (sic,)  Baar 
Chapel  and  in  the  villages  appear  to  have  been  greatly  blessed. 
In  1832  twenty-six  were  baptized,  sixteen  had  been  added  in  183) 
when  he  wrote  in  October  and  more  were  expected.  He  had  ixtj 
members  in  the  villages.  At  the  close  of  the  year  he  was  afflicted 
by  the  death  of  Gorachand,  his  long-tried  and  faithful  asdflttnt^ 
whose  last  words  were,  "  I  am  going  to  my  Father  and  my  Qod." 

The  record  proceeds  with  the  following  interesting  detaib:- 
On  Saturday,  16th  March  1833,  a  Cburch  Meeting  wasMdifc 

Narsigdarchoke,  when  a  man  and  his  wife  were  re-admitted  tti 

on©  person  was  proposed  for  baptism. 

At  a  Church  Meeting  held  at  Narsigdarchoke  on  Satnrdjf 
morning,  18th  May,  eight  persons  were  received  for  baptism'.  TW 
were  all  baptized  there  on  the  following  Sabbath  morning.  ISi 
congregation  at  Narsigdarchoke  on  this  day  was  unusually  lup* 
it  amounted  to  more  than  fifty  persons  besides  children. 

At  a  Church  Meeting  held  at  Narsigdarchoke  on  SatariiJ 
morning,  16th  June,  one  person  was  restored  after  exclusion.  A* 
this  Church  meeting  it  was  necessary  to  administer  some  reprooik 
A  bad  spirit  appeared  in  two  of  the  men  and  both  they  and  tieil 
wives  absented  themselves  from  the  Lord's  Table  and  pulfc 
worship  on  the  following  Sabbath.  It  was  a  gloomy  day  at  N•^ 
sigdarchoke,  though  favourable  reports  were  afterwards  received 
of  the  Idttle  congregations  in  the  other  villages. 

On  Monday,  19th  August,  the  wife  of  Pran  was  bapfiaed  A 
Bulrampore.  (Her  name  was  Pudu  and  her  baptism  is  refecni 
to  in  the  Biography  of  the  Rev.  W.  Robinson.) 

At  a  Church  Meeting  held  at  Narsigdarchoke  on  Satwdaj 
morning,  16th  November,  four  men  were  received  for  baptiam. 
Three  of  them  were  baptized  the  next  morning. 

At  a  Church  Meeting  held  at  Jeadargote  on  Wednesday  2(Hk 
November,  two  women  from  Ragoopona  were  received  for  baptifltt. 
At  this  meeting  four  men  who  had  been  excluded  for  miBcondiieb 

THE   WORK    IN   THE    VILLAGES.  225 

Qowlddged  tbeir  error  and  were  rcetored  to  oommunion.     The 
women  and  one  of  tlio  men  received  tlie  previous  Saturday 
Kareigdarchoke    were    afterwards  baptized.     In  the    afternoon 
had  the  Lord's  Supper:  seventeen  natives  communed. 

A  Church  M^eeting  was  held  at  Narsigdarchoke  on  Saturday 
ning,  14th  December,  when  three  women,  viz.,  Karpoor,  Oriya 
I  Debee  were  admitted.  They  were  baptized  on  the  following 

A  reference  to  some  of  the  above  events  will  be  found  in  the 
owing  account  of  a  visit  to  these  villages  by  Rev.  Mr.  Leechman 
ich  is  taken  in  extenso  from  the  Biography  of  Rev.  W.  Robin- 
.  The  interesting  details  given  must  be  the  writer's  apology 
inserting  such  a  long  piece  in  full. 

2nd  September  1833.  I  have  lately  returned  from  a  Mission- 
'  trip  to  the  villages  south  of  Calcutta,  where  our  good  brother 
binson's  labours  have  been  so  signally  blessed.  Brother  Robin- 
had  been  up  at  Serampore  at  our  usual  monthly  meeting  held 
Dr.  Carey's  study,  for  prayer  and  transaction  of  business'  in 
Bitence  to  the  Mission.  So  we  started  together  for  Calcutta: 
iPsached  for  him  at  the  Lall  Bazar  in  the  evening:  and  next 
ming  we  set  out  for  the  villages.  Our  first  conveyance,  a  native 
arree,"  a  vehicle  that  would  excite  considerable  attention  were 
x>  appear  in  the  crowded  streets  of  I/iverpool.  Gorachand,  th« 
i^  preacher,  was  with  us  and  also  an  old  lady,  a  native  of  the 
mtry,  who  has  lost  her  little  all  by  the  late  failures  (Palmer  and 
,  and  others),  but  who  has  long  been  an  eminent  Christian, 
I  who  spends  a  great  part  of  her  time  among  the  villages,  praachr 
to  the  poor  females  the  Gospel  of  Christ.  When  we  arrived 
the  Ghat,  we  entered  a  canoe,  in  the  bottom  of  which  we  sat 
a  Tu7'qe.  Our  canoemen  were  native  Christians,  and  members 
the  Church.  Sometimes  with  paddles,  sometimes  by  means 
long  poles  they  moved  us  along  with  considerable  speed.  The 
al  through  which  we  had  to  pass  was  peculiarly  offensive.  It 
-eputed  sacred.  And  the  number  of  the  dead  floating  in  its 
«in,  or  bumdng  on  its  banks,  and  the  utter  indifference  mani- 
ed  to  them  by  the  living,  affords  sickening  proof  of  the  horrors 
degradation  of  idolatry.  After  leaving  this  we  entered  a 
al,  and  reached  our  last  station,  Jeadargote,  about  noon. 
this  time,  we  had  entirely  left  the  land,  and  wens  surrounded 
every  hand  with  paddy-fields  covered  with  water,  the  houses 
he  poor  natives  wtere  all  budlt  on  artificial  ground,  made  of  the 


226        THE    STORY    UF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHUBOH. 

earth  obtained  by  digging  tanks ;  there  was  no  possibility  of  going 
from  one  place  to  another  except  by  canoe.     The  rice  fields  were 
drassed  in  the  loveliest  green.     Scattered  villages  were  seen  in  the 
extended   plain   beautifully  shaded  by   the   palm   and  other  trees. 
At    Joadargote,    Ram    Hurree,    the  native  Preacher,  and  sevad 
of  the  brethren  met  us.     Here  there  is  a  school  and  a  little  Chapd 
in    which  our    native  brother   preaches,    and   several   are  united 
together  as   a  Church  of  Christ.     After  talking  with  them,  vA 
leaving   with    them   the  elements    for   the  administration  of  the 
Lord's  Su])pcr.  on  the  Sabbath,  we  left  for  Bulrampore,  where  two 
or  threi3  Chnistian  families  reside  and  where  Bam  Huxree  preadm 
on  the  afternoon  of  the  Lord's  Day — preaching  at  home  mondag 
and  evening.     Here  we  conversed  with  a  candidate  who  was  wr 
ing  for  baptism,   and,   after  making  arrangements  to  baptize  1» 
on  Monday  as  we  returned,   we  started  for  Narsigdarchoke,  cuff 
principal  station,  where  we  arrived  in  safety  in  the  evening.  Atthk 
])lace  we  hav3  a  little  plot  of  ground,  bought  by  our  late  excellent 
brother  ChodixDn.     There  is  a  good  chapel,     a  small     number  rf 
houses  where  the  Native  Christians  reside,  and  room  to  build  iDon 
as  their  number  incnaases.     Shortly  after,  our  arrival  the  gong  wtt 
sounded  to  call  the  people  to  worship :  it  was  delightful  to  hfitf 
the  canoes  a])proaching  the  house  of  prayer :  some  brought  a  litfle 
milk,  otliers  presented  a  f:>w  cocoanuts,  as  an  expression  of  thi 
kindly  feelings     towards  the     Sahebs  and,   after     a  very  pleasant 
evening's  exercise,  we  retired  to  rest.     On  the  morrow  after  pray- 
ing with  the  brethren    and  expounding  a  portion  of  Scripture,  we 
started   in     our  canoe  to  visit  one    or  two  subordinate  statioM- 
WHiorever     we     went,      all     the     people     turned     out     to    hear 
under     the     shade     of    a     tree,     or     under     the     verandahs 
their      humble      dwellings      so      we      had      many      opportunitiei 
of  preaching  the   truth.     As  there  is   not  one  Bramhun  (m)  il 
that    part   of   the  country   we  met   with   nothing  like   oppoeiiion. 
While  Brother  K.  was  preaching  to  the  men,  the  old  lady  (naiW 
not  given),   who  accompanied  us,   was  addressing  the  fernales  in 
private.     And  everywhere  our  poor  bretfiren  and  sisters  expreased 
erreat  delight   at     our  visit.     On  our  iteturn  we  were  caught    in 
hoavv  rain  which  prevented  us  from  visiting  another  village    itt 
which  we  heard  there  were  three  persons  who  had  given  up  ca«te 
Our  brethren,  however,   assembled  at     home  as  they  did  in    the 
morning,  and  wo  closed  the  day,  as  we  had  begun  it,  with  prayer 
and  praise. 

Next  day  was  the  Sabbath.  Tlie  gong  was  sounded  twiceonthk 
occasion  to  invite  the  ^K»ople  to  the  house  of  God.  It  reminded 
me  of  the  "church-going  belV     in  the  land     that  is  afar  off,  and 

THE   WORK    IN   THE   VILLAGES.  227 

ned  a  train  of  emotions  in  which  it  was  difficult  to  say 
er  pleasure  or  sadness  was  the  predominant  element. 

congregation  of  thirty  assembled.  Brother  K.  preached 
I  Peter  2 :  28 :  and  as  hs  was  addressing  a  company  of  those 
ad  been  lately  wandering  in  all  the  errors  and  misiaries  of 
ry,  but  who  had  now  been  brought  into  the  fold  of  the 
and  the  Good  Shepherd,  his  subject  was  peculiarly  appro- 
,  After  the  sermon  the  Lord  s  Supper  was  administered  to 
L  communicants.  There  was  little  in  the  scene  that  could 
t  the  mere  casual  observer.  But,  what  Christian  could  look 
with  indifference?  The  Saviour  was  equally  present  in  our 
dwelling,  as  He  is  in  the  most  splendid  temple  consecrated  to 
>raise.  In  the  afternoon  we  went  to  Debespore,  another 
n  where  there  is  also  a  little  church,  and  after  preaching, 
dstering  the  Lord's  Supper  and  visiting  som&  of  our  poor 
leople,  we  turnsd  again  to  Narsigdarchoke  and  held  a 
r-n^eting  there  in  the  evening,  when  two  of  our  native 
■©n  engaged  (in  prayer)  very  much  to  our  satisfaction. 

H  Monday  morning  we  proceeded  to  Balarampore.  Many 
SBembled  to  witness  the  baptism,  who  behaved  with  the 
st  decorum  and  listened  with  attention  to  what  was  eaad. 
>afciv.3  preachers  took  part  in  the  devotional  part  of  the 
).  The  whole  was  truly  impressive.  Here  we  met  some 
brethren  who  were  not  able  to  meet  us  at  any  of  the  other 
(S.  So  that  I  saw  them  all,  with  only  one  exception.  In 
villages  there  are  forty  persons  in  communion  with  the 
1.  There  are  four  good  schools  well  attended.  And  many 
re  yet  heathens  (sic)  have  the  Gospal  freely  and  faithfully 
ed  to  them.  We  are  not  without  our  troubles  and  anxieties 
3e  little  churches.  But  we  have  much  to  encourage  us. 
have  died  in  the  faith  and  many  afford  pleasing  evidence 
Ley  are  born  of  God." 

is  sad  to  have  to  state  that  several  liad  to  be  excluded  in  . 
ad  1835,  but  on  the  19th  July  of  the  latter  year  at  a  church 
gf   held    at   Narsigdarchoke   five   persons   were    received  for 
1  who  were  baptized  the  next  day.     Then  we  read : — 

)  a  Church  meeting  at  Narsigdarchoke  on  Saturday, 
ovemher,  five  persons  were  received  for  baptism  and  fiVe  who 
en  excluded  were  restored.  The  candidates  for  baptism 
tpfcized  at  Narsigdarchoke  the  next  day. 


228         THE    STORY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHURCH. 

Tb3  miimtes  regarding  1836  and  1837  are  given  in  exUnso 
because  of  their  interest. 

loth  October  1836,  A  Church  Moating  was  held  at  Debeepore 
when  three  persons  were  received  for  baptism.  On  the  Bame 
evening  another  Church  Meeting  was  held  at  Narsigdarchoke  when 
ten  were  received  for  baptism,  two  re-admitted,  seven  excluded 
and   two   suspended . 

On  ihd  following  Lord's  Day — 10th  October — the  abovemen- 
tioned  ihirtcon  persons  were  baptized  at  Narsigdarchoke.  About 
eighty  adults  who  had  renounced  idolatry  were  present  and  in  the 
aftornoon  forty-two  of  those  converts  from  heathenism  partook  of 
the  Lord's  Supper  (the  namss  of  the  tlidrteen  are  recorded  in  the 
Cniurch  Roll.) 

1837.  A  Church  Meeting  held  at  Debeepore,  Saturday,  IStk 
tSepicinher,  when  scveiilceji  i>ersons  were  unanimously  received  into 
tlio  Church.  In  the  evening  of  the  same  day  another  Ghnrdi 
Mc3ting  was  hold  at  Narsigdarchoke  at  which  six  other  persons  wera 
lecoivod,  and  throe  rcvstorod  to  communions,  two  after  su^peDskm 
and  one  aftci*  exclusion.  Among  the  persons  received  were  four 
widows,  four  niari-ijd  couples,  a  man  and  his  mother — one  of  the 
widows-  and  a  lad  14  years  of  age.  All  these  persons,  twenty-thzea 
in  number,  were  baptized  at  Narsigdarchoke  the  next  day.  In  the 
aftniioon  tlic  Lord's  Supper  was  administered  to  nearly  sixty  of 
our  native  brethren  and  sisters.  About  ten  of  the  members  wew 
unable  to  attend.  The  congregation  amounted  to  more  than  ft 
hundred.     (The  names  of  the  23  are  recorded  in  the  Church  Boll.) 

The  23  persons  thus  baptized  on  the  17th  September  1837  ii 
the  largcRt  ninnher  ever  baptized  on  one  single,  occasion  in 
the  whole  nnnaU  of  the  Church  for  the  109  yearf>.  As  a  consequence 
of  these  large  accessions  the  chapel  at  Narsigdarchoke  had  to  be 
re-built,  and  the  following  is  the  minute  in  the  Churck  Book  about 

1837.  A  Church  M'setring  was  held  (in  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel) 
on  Lord's  Day,  8th  October,  when  it  was  determined  to  re-bu/Ild  the 
chapel  at  Narsigdarchoke.  Almost  enough  for  the  purpose  wtt 
subscribed  on  the  spot. 

Mr.  Robinson     left  the  ChurcH  at    the  end  of  1838  and  the 

following  are  the  entries  for  1839 : — 

At  a  Church  Meeting  held  on  Thursday,  ths  31st  Janvar^ 
18S9  it  was  unanimously  agreed  that  Mr.  Thomas  should  receive 

THE    WORK    IN   THE   VILLAGES.  229 

om  tli»d  Church,  fund  59  rupees  3  annaB,  the  amounb  of  an 
timate  for  the  purpose  of  building  a  chapel  for  the  Native 
hiistians  and  a  house  for  thd  Preacher  at  the  village  of  Bagee. 

At  a  Church  Meetu'ng  held  on  Lord's  Day  17th  Fthruary^ 
]S9y  a  letter  was  read  signed  by  Mr.  (W.)  Thomas  and  the  Native 
hristiana  of  the  villages  of  Nareigdarchoke,  Debeeporo,  Jeadar- 
)te,  Bagee  and  Lukhyantipord,  requesting  a  letter  of  dis- 
iasion  from  tba  Lall  Bazar  Church  in  order  that  they  might  form 
distinct  Church  among  themselves,  which  was  acceded  to  by  the 

The  following  extract  from  Mr.   Marshman's  book  may  be  a 

iting  close  to  this  chapter,  and  it  may  be  mentioned  that  there 

re  to  this  day  some  Native  Christians  in  the  Mutlah  Distract  who 

le  periodically  visited  by  a  missionary  from  Calcutta : — 

"  On  his  return  to  Serampore  Mr.  Mack  spent  some  time  at 
niindpore,  the  settlement  in  the  Soonderbuns,  where  he  found 
ore  than  100  families  engaged  in  clearing  and  cultivating  the 
nd,  with  a  large  sprinkling  of  Christians  among  them,  and  the 
hole  community  yielding  to  the  influence  of  Christian  institutions. 
luB  useful  project  fell  to  the  groand  on  the  dissolution  of  the 
lerampore)  Mission  and  tha  grant  was  disposed  of,  but  it  is  not 
ithout  interest  to  remark  that  in  the  neighbourhood  of  this 
rant  is  the  spot  recently  (1859)  selected  for  the  subsidiai-y  port  of 
alcutta  on  the  Mutla  River,  which  may  at  no  distant  period  be- 
ime  a  flourishing  emporium,  and  while  these  pages  are  passing 
iiough  the  Press,  Lord  Stanley  has  taken  the  most  effectual 
»uzBd  to  hasten  this  consummation  by  sanctioning  the  construction 
F  &  railway  to  connect  the  new  with  the  old  to'wn — a  distance  of 
borut  30  miles." 


The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Bayne. 

[Fro?n  16th  June  1839  to  22nd  August  ISp,] 

When  the  Rev.  W.  Robinson  resigned  the  Pastorate  in  Novwa- 
ber  1838,  a  temporary  arrangement  had  to  be  made,  so  theBer. 
James  Thomas,  one  of  the  missionaries,  took  over  charge  of  th 
Church  and,  with  the  assistance  of  others,  carried  on  until  amort 
permanent  arrangement  could  be  made.  (Jh  the  9th.  June  IW 
the  unanimous  choice  of  the  Church  fell  on  the  Rev.  Robert 
Bayne,  and  a  letter  was  accordingly  addressed  to  him  bearing  tW 
date,  inviting  him  to  take  Pastoral  charge  of  the  Church  ad 
hoping  he  would  accede  to  its  wishes. 

Mr.  Bayne  was  the  first  of  tbD  ten  missionaries  the  Rev.  W.  H. 
Pearce  appealed  for  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  MissioiiU} 
Society  in  1837  in  order  to  strengthen  the  staff  out  here.  Hawti 
set  apart  at  Liverpool  in  January  1838,  whence,  aft-er  a  knj 
detention,  he  at  length  sailed  for  Bengal.  Mr.  Greorge  Panotf 
was  the  next. 

On  their  arrival  and  during  their  stay  in  Calcutta,  Mr.  P» 
sons  and  Mr.  Bayne  gave  the  most  pleasing  account  of  the  state  of 
the  missionary  operations  which  they  found  to  bo  on.  a  mow 
extensive  scale  than  they  had  anticipated.     Mr.  Bayne  wrote: 

''Our  missionaries  are  found  in  everything,  translating  theBiM* 
in  whole  or  in  part  into  different  languages,  preaching  to  MussehBiW 
and  Hindus  in  all  parts,  educating  the  heathen  children  and  the 
children  of  Christian  parents :  cherishing  those  who  ar^  drivien  by 
persecution  from  their  home  and  training  up  promising  young  meo 
of  talent  for  the  Ministry,  as  well  as  preaching  the  Word  of  life 
to  thei  English." 

He  arrived  shortly  after  Mr.  Robinson's  i^eeignation  and  flieii 

Mr.  Penney  died    on  1st  February  1839.     The  Mission     staff  ta 

Calcutta  was     shorthanded.     Still,     Mr.  Bayne  readily  ooDsented 


become  the  Pastor  of  the  Church,  for  his  Istter  accepting  the 

arge  was  read  at  a  Church  Meeting  on  the  16th  June  (1839.) 

Unfortunately  there  were  troublers  in  Israel  in  his  timo     as 

ere  had  been  in  Mr.  Robinson's  time,  as  will  be  seen  from     the 

llowing  entry  in  the  Minute  Book : — 

"  At  a  Church  Meeting  held  on  Lord^s  Day,  the  27th  October 
839),  after  singing  and  prayer,  Mr.  Bayne  stated  that  whsn  he 
106  out  from  England  to  this  country  it  was  with  the  view  of 
•caching  to  the  Heathen,  and  that  ever  sinoa  he  arrived  he  had 
■erished  that  desire,  and  that  when  he  consented  to  become  the 
teior  of  thd  Church,  it  was  because  there  was  not  another  to  take 
6  oversight  of  it.  However,  as  he  now  understood  from  a  letter 
at  him  by  two  of  the  members  there  was  among  several  a  di^ 
tisfaction  wuth  his  ministry,  he  considered  this  as  giving  him 
fair  opportunity  of  gratifying  his  desire  to  labor  principally 
long  the  Heathen,  and  accordingly  resigned  his  charge  as  Pastor 
this  Church,  offering,  however,  to  stay  with  them  one  month 
iger  that  they  might  have  an  opportunity  of  providing  a 

The  next  entries  on  the  subject  run  thus : — 24th  November 
59 — Lord's  Day — At  a  Church  Meeting  held  this  day  it  was 
reed  that  there  were  only  very  f  sw  who  ever  wished  a  change  in 

>  Pastorate  and  that  of  these,  one  had  resolved  to  leava  and  the 
leons  fully  ooiincided  with  the  desire  of  the  Church  that  Mr. 
yne  should  resume  his  office  permanently.  A  letter  to  that 
jct  was  accordingly  eent  him  by  the  Deacons  for  the  whole 

1st  December  1839— Lord's  Day— At  the  Church  Meet- 
Mr.  Bayne  stated  that  on  considering  their  renewed  invitation 
1  consulting  with  his  brethren  and  viewing  the  real  position  in 
ich  the  Church  stood,  it  appeared  to  him  the  path  of  duty  to 
f  among  them  and  therefore  consented  to  resume  the  offio9  of 
jtor  accordingly. 

However  on  the  22nd  August  1840,  Mr.  Bayne  resigned  tHe 

storate  finally,  the  entry  regarding  which  runs  thus: — 

At  a  Church  Moating  held  on  Lord's  Day,  the  22nd  August 
to,  the  Rev.  R.  Bayne  stated  that  the  Pastoral  charge  of  the 
urch  he  now  resigns  and  that  he  never  considered  himself  the 
stor  for   which  reason  he  never  interested   himself  by  visiting 

>  members. 

No  reason  whatever  is  assigned  by  Mr.  Bayne  for  what  seem* 


a  sudden  step,  nor  is  any  reason  on  record  in  the  Minute  Book. 
But  probably  the  following  remarks  which  aro  recorded  in  Dr. 
Cox's  History  and  Dr.  Wenger's  unpublished  reminiscences  of 
his  Indian  life  give  the  real  leason  for  the  resignation. 

"  The  prolonged  and  dangernese  illness  of  Mrs.  Bayne  cwBr 
pellad  her  return  to  Europe  and  it  was  deemed  necessary  for  Mr. 
Bayne  to  accompany  her.     This  was  in   1840." 

"In  August  (1840)  it  became  evident  from  the  state  of  Mr». 
Bayne  s  health  that  she  must  return  Home  and  Mr.  Bayne  nattt^ 
ally — in  fact  necessarily — accompanied  her.*' 

It  has  been  difficult,  to  trace  out  information  about  Mr.  BayM 
subsequent  to  his  leturn  to  England,  but  he  left  the  Baptist 
Denomination  and  after  leaving  it  held  a  curacy  at  Stratford  ia 
Essex  from  1871  to  1875,  when  ha  became  Vicar  of  Kingsey  in 
Buckinghamshire  which  poeition  he  retained  until  his  deaUi  on 
3rd  January  1901,  at  the  advanced  age  of  89  years.  The  date 
of  his  leaving  the  Baptist  Denomination  has  not,  however.  b?ffli 

From  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that  Mr.  Bayne 's  pastorate 
lasted  from  16th  June  1839  to  22nd  August  1840,  or  a  period 
of  14  months  and  7  days.  But  even  this  brief  period  was  not 
barren,  for  in  1839  there  were  9  baptisms  and  in  1840  twenty. 
In  1840  two  young  ladies — Misses  Jessie  and  Hebe  Wells — were 
baptized  and  a  fellow  member  recorded  years  after  about  tb3 
former  that  she  and  her  mother,  "  were  indeed  children  of  God, 
beloved  by  all  the  members."  He  also  recorded  that  the  mother 
was  afflicted  with  blindness  for  many  years,  but  never  omitted 
coming  to  Church  both  in  the  week  evening  and  on  Sunday.  It 
was  the  custom  for  the  mother  to  have  a  rupee  tied  up  in  tbe 
corner  of  her  handkerchief,  "in  case  there  should  be  some  call 
for  it.''  She  was  so  much  attached  to  the  Church  that  she  set  aside 
Rs.  3,000  to  be  made  over  to  the  Church  after  her  demise,  but 
she  was  greatly  disappointed  in  this  for  a  friend  borrowed  that 
money  from  her  and  never  repaid  it  and  thus  the  Church  had  to 
suffer  a  loes  when  money  was  sorely  needed. 


On  15th  December  1839    it  is  recorded : — 

"  On  account  of  the  defective  knowledge  existing  amongst  many 
I  the  membezB  with  respect  to  Church  discipline,  and  the  duties 
hich  they  owe  to  each  other,  rules  were  drawn  out  and  adopted 
lis  day  and  appointed  to  be  printed  and  circulated  among  the 

It  is  unfortunate  that  no  copy  of  these  rules  is  on  record, 
bough  a  copy  ie  stated  to  be  annexed.  They  might  have  ihrown 
)me  light  on  the  state  of  things  in  the  Church  in  those  days. 

Dr.  Wenger  has  recorded  the  following  remark  in  his  unpub- 
sbed  Reminiscences: — 

When  Mr.  Bayne  left  I  had  not  only  sometimes  to  supply 
is  place  in  the  pulpit  of  thd  Lall  Bazar  Chapel,  but  also  to  under- 
bke  thf  supervision  of  the  Narsigdarchoke  station. 

The  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.   W.  W.  Evans. 
(From  23rd  Drcemher  I84O  to  10th  June  ISU) 

Before  detailing  the  events  of  the  Pastorate  it  is  best  that 
the  Pastor,  and  his  wife  should  be  introduced  to  the  reader.  "Who 
will  deny  that  a  Pastor's  wife  (if  of  the  right  sort)  is  as  us^  in 
the  work  of  tba  Church  as  the  Pastor  himself  ? 

WilMams   Watkin   Evans — for  that   was   hie   full  name— wi§ 
born  near  Oswestry  in  Shropshire  in  1802,   and  his  parents  gw« 
him  a  sound     Christian  education.     After  leaving     school,   vi 
passing  through  a  course  of  special  training  in  London,  he  took 
up  a  post  as  a  teacher  in  Liverpool  at  the  ag»3  of  seventeen.    At 
that  time  he  was  nominally  a  Churchman  and  attended  the  muu^ 
try  of  the  first,  evangelical  clergyman,   who  preached  statedly  in 
that  town  who  had  been  selected  by  Mrs.  (afterwards  Lady)  GUd- 
stone,   the  mother  of    the    Premier  of    that  name.     He    became 
thoughtful  under  the  responsibilities  of  his  work   and  the  early 
insti-uctions  of  his  mother,  and  these,  with  other  favouring  circuifr 
stances,  were  blessed  to  the  renewal  of  his  heart.     He  then  began 
to  shape  his  studies  wdth  a  view  to  the  Ministry  of  the  Establifllifi< 
Church,    when   his  mind   became  exercised   upon  the  qiiesti^m  ^ 
baptism.     He    was  thus   thrown    upon   a   course  of    investigatioo 
which  ended  in  his  baptism  as  a  believer  by  Rev.  Samuel  Samden» 
the  Pastor  of  the  Church  worshipping  in  Byron.  Street  Ghapfli' 
Scon   after  he   joined   the   Church  his  Pastor   and   other  frieiidi 
urged   him   to  proceed   for   ministerial   study   to   Bristol   Gollege» 
but  he  declined   the   proposal.     He   remained   a  teacher  till  hii 
thirty-fifth  year  and  attained  a  signal  amount  of  usefulness. 

During  this  period  Mr.   Evans'  interest  had  been  deepening 
in   the  missionary  enterprise  and   it  did  not  surprise  his  friend* 

THE    PASTORATE   OP  THE    RKV.    W.   W.    EVANS.  235 

txat,  when  tlie  Baptist  Missionary  Society  proposed  to  frovid©  an 
distant  in  tliei  Secretariat  lb  the  Rev.  Mr.  Dyer,  he  should 
tpply  for  that  position.  His  application  waa  successful 
Jid  He  was  appointed  to  the  office.  When,  two  years 
fterwards,  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Pearce  returned  from  India  and 
aade  an  appeal  for  ten  more  missionaries,  Mr.  and  Mrs  Evans 
Haae  hoth  moved  by  his  representations  and,  after  much  con- 
ideration,  offered  themselves,  and  were  accepted.  They  had 
efcfcled  at  Hackney  and  become  members  of  the  Church,  under  the 
lev.  Dr.  Cox  and  accordingly  an  Ordination  Service  was  held 
here,  which  included  Mr.  Evans,  Mr.  John  Parsons  and  Mr. 
borge  Small.  This  was  followed  by  a  farewell  service  at  Pem- 
•loke  Chapel,  Liverpool,  where  Mr.  and  Mre.  Evans  had  long  been 
Jkown  and  loved.  The  Missionary  party  embarked  on  the  20th 
nly  1840,  in  the  ship,  Jessie  Logan,  and  reached  Calcutta  on 
ic  20th  November  following. 

Mr.   Evans  was  sent  out  more  immediately   wdth   a  view   to 

is  undertaking  the  superintendence  of  the  Benevoknt  Institution 

I  8]^ccesBor  to  Mr.  Penney.     The  maintenance  of  this  Institution 

a  vigorous  condition  being  deemed  an  object  of  great  importance 

id  Mr.  Evans  having  had  experience  in  tuition,  he  was  requested 

act  as  its  superintendent.  Mr.  Evans  entered  upon  this 
ngenial  undertaking  with  great  energy,  while  Mrs.  Evans  took 
arge  of  the  Female  Department  of  that  Institution. 

Mrs.  Evans,  it  should  be  here  mentioned,  was  a  native  of 
verpool  and  a  member  of  a  well  known  family,  being  a  sister 
Rev.  Joseph  Bayn-ss,  of  Wellington. 

Mr.  Evans  had  not  been  a  month  in  Calcutta  when  the  Church 
icided  on  13th  December  1840,  to  invite  him  to  become  its 
istor  and  addressed  him  on  the  21st  idem  what  might  be  termed 
unique  letter.  He  replied,  on  the  23rd  idem,  accepting  the 
istorate  and  presided  at  the  first  Church  Meeting  on  7th  January 
41.  On  the  10th  June  1844,  ha  finally  resigned  the 
atorate  and  his  resignation  was  accepted.     He  remained    on  in 


dalcutta,  however,    as  a    Missionary   and   assisted   the  Chuith  in 
Ternacular  and  other  work. 

The  year  1844  is  reported  to  have  been  a  peculiarly  unhealtby 
one  in  Calcutta  and  many  natives  as  well  as  Europeans  were  Bwejit 
away.     The  missionary  staff,   however,   remained  unbroken  at  its 
close,  but.  in  the  autumn  of  1845  Mrs.  Evans  died.     As  Mr.  Evaia 
had  previously  been  much  reduced  by  fever  and  was  overwh^ed 
by  this  domestic  sorrow,  on  peremptory  medical  advice  he  Bought 
restoration  by  a  voyage  to  England.     He  left  in  December  1845, 
arrived  just  in  lime  to  address  tho  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Sodfity 
at  Exeter  Hall  in  1846,  and  then  retired  to  the  Channel  Islancb 
in  the  liojx)  of  such  recovery  as  would  warrant  his  return  to  India; 
but  this  hope  had  to  be  relinquished.     He  tried  a  small  Pastorate 
in  Devonshire  and  afterwards  was  called  to  the  position  of  Secietazy 
and  Superintendent  of  the  Birmingham  Town  Mission.     The  woA 
accorded  with  his  tast-es  and  habits  and  he  spent  seven  years  in  it. 
His  sympathies  v/ero,  however,  all  the  time  still  with  the  mission- 
aries in  heathen  lands,     so  when  he  was  invited     to  become  the 
travelling  agent,  and,  eventally,  the  Secretary    to  the  Bible  Trans- 
lation Society,  he  i-esponded  at  once  and  entered  upon  the  engage- 
ment in  1856,  and  continued  to  discharge  its  duties  for  eleven  years. 

By  that  time  having  completed  his  sixty-fifth  year  age  began 
to  tell  on  him  and  to  point  to  an  early  retirement.  Mr.  Evans,  who 
had  lived  as  a  widower  for  three  years,  married  a  sister  of  h* 
deceased  wife  who  survived  him.  They  spent  their  last  years  in 
Waterloo,  near  Liverixx)l,  wheie  he  lived  till  his  death  in  h* 
seventy-fourth  year,  on  16th  July  1876.  Most  of  the  details  in 
the  above  sketch  have  been  taken  from  one  about  Mr.  Evans  by 
the  Kev.  C.  M.  Birrell,  which  was  sent  to  tba  writer  by  Mr.  A. 
H.  Baynes,  now  Honorary  Secretary  to  the  Mission.  Mrs.  Evans 
was  his  aunt  and  when  he  was  out  here  some  years  ago  he  visited 
her  grave  in  the  Scotch  Cemetery. 

Now,  as  to  the  details  regarding  Mrs.  Evans.     The  following 

THE    PASTORATE   OF    THE    REV.    W.    W.    EVANS.  237 

ount  of  her  is  extracted  from  Carey's  Oriental  ChriBtian  Bio- 
\phy,  and  speaJks  for  itself: — 

Mrs.  Anni'3  Evans,  the  wife  of  the  Kev.  W.  W.  Evans  of 
>  Baptist  Mission,  was  bom  in  Liverpool,  and  in  early  life  was 
Wight  to  a  personal  change  of  heart,  so  that  with  her  sister 
s.  Parsons  she  was  baptized  when  about  the  age  of  sixteen.  Her 
ther  had  been  left  a  widow  with  the  charge  of  eight  children,  all 
whom  were  brought  to  know  the  Saviour  at  an  early  period  in 
lir  history.  Her  two  sons  became  Ministers  of  the  Gospel,  one 
Wellington,  Somersetshire,  and  the  other  at  St.  Catherine's  in 
Qada.  Mrs.  Evaius  soon  after  her  conversion  was  actively  en- 
;ed  in  Sabbath  School  efforts  and  in  promoting  the  interests  of 
t  Bible  and  Tract  Societies.  She  was  united  in  marrjage  to 
.  Evans  on  the  19th  May  1828.  With  him  she  removed  to 
adon  when  he  was  elected  Assistant  Secretary  and  Accountant 
the  Baptist  Missionary  Society,  and  aJtsr  several  years  of  great 
fulness  in  Hackney,  London,  she  volunteered  her  ser- 
96  with  thoise  of  her  husband  to  promote  tha  same  cause  in 
lia.  They  arrived  in  Calcutta  on  the  20th  November  1840. 
E^.  Evans  undertook  the  superintendence  of  the  female  depart- 
at  of  the  Benevolent  Institution,  her  husband  undertaking  the 
I'd  department,  wliere  she  was  very  usefully  engaged  until  within 
bt  days  of  her  death.  She  was  also  active  in  promoting  the 
erests  of  the  Lall-Bazar  Church  of  which  Mr.  Evans  was  pastor 

nearly  four  years.  Among  the  members  of  that  Christian 
jiety  she  was  endeared  to  many,  whilst  'in  the  missionary  circle 
i  was  beloved  by  all.  Mrs.  Evans  had  been  ailing  for  some 
le,  and  rather  more  than  a  month  before  her  death  she  sufPared 
ich  from  diarrhoea  and  from  unaccountable  excruciating  pain^ 
the  region  of  the  stomach.  She,  however,  was  relieved  of  the 
mer  complaint  and  the  latter  symptoms  also  became  more 
derate.  But  on  Tuesday  evening  the  23rd  September  1845,  she 
8  taken  ill  with  fever,  and  three  abcessss  formed  on  the  liver, 
ich,  notwithstanding  the  efforts  of  hsr  medical  attendants,  in- 


creased,  till  on  3rd  October  1845,  one  burst  and  she  died  without 

a  struggle.     The  last  words  of  a  religious  nature  which  she  uttered 

were  "Faint,  faint,  yet  pursuing." 

As  previously  stated,  she  lies  buried  in  the  Scotch.  Cemetery 

where  her  grave  was  only  recently  rapaired.     The  following  is  the 

inscription  on  it: — 

In  memory  of  Anne  Baynes  Evans, 

the  beloved  wife  of  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Evans, 

of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society, 

Sh3  arrived  in  India,  November  20th,   1840, 

and  died  October  3rd  1845. 

"She  sleeps  in  Jesus  and  is  bless' d" 

Dr.  Wcnger  in  his  unpublished  reminiscences  refers  to  her  in 

the  following  terms: — 

"On  the  3rd  October  (1845)  Mrs.  Evans  died.  She 
was  probably,  taken  all  in  all,  the  most  lovely  member  of  our 
Mission  carcle,  and  had  laboured  diligently  during  her  sojourn  of 
nearly  five  years  in  the  Girls'  I>3partment  of  the  Benevolent  In- 
stitution of  which  her  husband  superintended  the  Boys'  Depart- 
ment. It  was  arranged  that  my  wife's  sister  Annie  shoidd  succeed 
her  in  the  school." 

The  following  lines  are  inscribed  in  hsr  own  handwriting  in 
Dr.   Wcnger 's  album  : — 

Oh  Prayer  thou  mine  of  things  unknown, 

Who  can  be  poor  possessing  thee? 
Thou  wert  a  fount  of  joy  alone. 

Better  than  worlds  of  gold  could  be. 
Were  I  bereft  of  all  beside 

That  bears  the  form  or  name  of  bliss, 
I  yet  were  rich,  what  will  (sic)^  betide, 

If  God  in  mercy  leave  me  this. 

(Sd.)    A.  B.  Evans. 
Calcutta,  30th  November  ISU- 

Let  ua  now  proceed  to  the  details  of  the  Pastorate. 

*  There  would  seem  to  be  some  error  here,  but  no  alteration  can  well  *» 
made  by  the  present  writer. 

THE   PASTORATE   OF   THE    REV.    W.    W.    EVANS.  289 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  ktter  addressed  by  the  Church 
to  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Evans  on  21st  December  1840  inviting  him  to 
the  Pastoratd  and  which  faithfully  portrayed  the  state  of  the 
Church  at  the  time : — 

Dear  Sir, — The  Church  of  Christ  mieeting  in  the  Lall-Bazar 
Chapel  having  been  deprived  of  a  Pastor  by  the  departure  of  the 
Rev.  R.  Bayne  for  England,  and  understanding  that  you  are  free 
from  all  other  engagements  except  those  connected  with  the 
superintendence  of  the  Benevolent  Institution,  beg  to  address  you 
and  earnestly  request  that  you  will  kindly  undertake  the  Pastoral 
charge  over  them,  discharging  the  duties  of  that  relation  as  far  as 
the  engagements  already  advert^ed  to  will  admit.  We  are  few  in 
number  and  generally  poor,  and  all  need  the  kind  but  firm  and 
watchful  superintendence  of  a  faithful  Minister  of  Christ  who  will 
not  bd  backward  to  rebuke,  reprove  and  exhort,  doing  all  in  the 
name  and  by  the  constraining  love  of  Jesus  Christ  and  of  souls 
whom  He  has  died  to  save.  We  therefore,  Dear  Sir,  would  desire 
to  know  if  you  think  you  could  accede  to  our  invitation,  and,  if  bo, 
we  would  pray  that  we,  might  be  found  such  as  you  would  approve 
at  least  in  feelings  of  kindness  towards  yourself  and  in  a  desire  to 
^lengthen  your  hands  in  your  labours  of  love  amongst  us. 

We  are,  Dear  Sir,  on  behalf  of  the  Church, 
Your  affectionate  Brethren  in  Christ, 

(Sd.)     J.  C(arrau,)  )  J, 
^      -^  ^  '^  ^  Deacons. 

E.  G(rayO      i 

Mr.  Evans'  reply  of  23rd   December   1840  is  equally  faithful 
«nd  candid  as  will  be  seen  from  the  copy  v/hich  follows : — 

Respected  Brethren, — I  have  the  pleasure  to  acknowledge  the 
receipt  of  your  letter  on  my  reiturn  from  Lukhyantipore  yesterday, 
inviting  me  to  become  your  stated  Pastor,  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord  Jesus. 

I  sincerely  thank  you  for  the  very  considerate  manner  in  which 
you  have  presented  your  request  and  for  the  candid  statement  you 
"*ye  made  of  the  actual  character  and  condition  of  the  Church. 
Faithfulness  and  candour  are  valuable  qualities  in  business  so 
*^ed  and  important,  and,  the  manifestation  of  these,  I  assure 
you,  hafi  increased  my  sense  of  affection  and  respect  for  you  as  a 
^^^ristian  Sixjiety.  Accepting  your  very  cordial  invitation  to 
undertake  ministerial,    as  well     as  pastoral     duties  amongst  you. 


watching  over  your  souls  for  good  as  a  servant  of  Christ,  I  wish 
remind  you,  dear  Brethren,  that  the  treasures  of  Gospel  truth  az 
grace  are  deposited  in  earthen  vessels,  that  tlie  excellencies  of  tho 
treasures  may  be  seen  and  acknowledged  to  be  of  God  and  not 
men.  I  entreat  you,  therefore,  with  earnestness  and  affectioa 
boar  me  much  on  your  minds  in  prayer,  that  God,  whose  I  a 
and  wli/om  I  delight  to  ser\^e,  may  bring  me  amongst  you  in  t! 
fulness  of  the  blessing  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ  Jesus,  and  that  I 
may  render  me  eminently  useful  for  many  days.  As  I  shall  u 
feignedly  dejiend,  dear  Brethren,  on  your  sympathy,  respect « 
afTection  in  tlic  further  discharge  of  my  very  responsible  duty 
your  Paster,  so  it  shall  ])e  my  uniform  desire  and  aim  to  manifc 
Wh  of  these  graces  towards  every  one  of  you  in  the  Church. 
proj)ase  rommencing  a  coui-se  of  Pastoral  visitations  that  I  m 
obtain  your  time  state  and  bo  the  better  prepared  to  minister  t 
Word  of  Life  in  such  wise  as  to  encourage  the  depressed  ai 
doubtful,  and  stimulate  the  lukewarm,  direct  tbe  inexperienoc 
tenderly  guide  the  youthful  and  the  aged,  and  under  the  Kvi 
blessing,  instruct  and  comfort  all,  that  thus  the  great  Head  of  t 
Church  may  .sanction  and  sanctify  our  union,  and  make  us  as 
people,  increasingly  devoted  to  His  praise  in  the  earth. 

It  now  only  remains  for  me  to  request  your  acceptance  of  n 
cordial  afTection  and  to  desire  you  that  my  name,  together  wil 
that  of  Mrs.  Evans,  may  be  entered  in  your  books  as  Memb^B' 
the  Church. 

Commending  you  to  God  and  the  Gospel  of  His  grace,  aa 
leaving  all  further  arrangements  to  future  time 

I  am,  dear  Brethren, 

Your  afTection  ate  and  faithful  servant  in 
the  enduring  and  saered  bonds  of  the  Gospel. 

(Sd.)  W.  W.  Evans. 
Baptist  Mission  House, 
Cnlcvtia,  23rd  Deremher  1840. 

The  proceedings  of  the  Church  meetings  began  to  be  signi 
with  the  very  first  one  Mr.  Evans  presided  at,  and,  at  the  seoon 
which  was  held  only  three  days  after,  viz.,  on  10th  January  1841,1 
made  some  remarks  on  the  importance  of  enlarged  zeal  for  t- 
general  spiritual  advantage  of  the  Church. 

Then  we  read  that  on  the  28th  March  it  was  agreed  that  1 
names  of  the  members  should  be  read  over  every  six  months  a 

THE    PASTORATE   OF   THE   REV.    W.   W.    EVAJTs;-     I  24J. 

st cards  should  boused  at  the  Communion.  Thus  would  indicate 
it  the  Church  Roll  was  not  kept  up  properly,  so  a  new  one  was 
it  in  hand  later  on.  > 

Then  on  the  8t'h  August  it  was  agresd  that  a  series  of  prayer 
^ings  should  be  held  as  soon  as  convenient  for  a  revival  of 
digion  and  the  eixtension  of  Divine  truth,  and  some  of  the  rules 
md  regulations  of  the  Church  were  read  for  the  information  and 
jmdanoe  of  new  members.  Again,  special  prayer — meetings  were 
uld  during  the  first  week  of  November  and  it  was.  decided  to  send 
(Wfc, tracts  and  copies  of  the  Scriptures  to  respectable  native 
geDUeinen  and  the  Europeans  and  Ea^  Indian  inhabitants  residing 
in  Uie  vicinity  of  the  Chapel.  Thus,  Mr.  Evans  endeavoured  in 
way  possible  way  to  stir  up  the  members  to  zeal  and  good  works,, 
Ui» result  being  that  during  1841  twenty-five  were  admitted. 

In  1842,  again  some  trou biers  showed  themselves  in  Israel  for 

wfind  the  following  recorded  in  the  proceedings  of  16th  January 


In  consequence  of  certain  expressions  and  the  indication  of 
lome  feeling  of  dissatisfaction  on  the  part  of  a  few  of  the 
Members,  the  Pastor  after  reference  to  them,  tendered  his 
Agnation  as  he  oould  not  consent  to  retain  his  office  and  dis- 
iarge  the  duties  of  his  station  under  such  circumstances.  After 
mutual  explanation  it  appeared  to  be  the  regret  of  all  that  such 
oiigs  had  transpired  and  that  they  should  be  forgiiven  and  for- 
5]tteii,  on  which  the  Church  was  requested  to  signify  their  wish 
^th  regard  to  the  Pastor  resuming  his  office  of  duty.  As  the 
^  of  .  the  Church  was  unanimous,  and  all  circumstances  fully 
^plained,  Mr.  Evans  again  accepted  the  call  of  the  Church  and 
^ted  some  respective  conditions,  of  his  continuing  the  duties  of 
te  office. 

This  boing  the  Jubilee  year  of  the  Missionary  Society  a  collec- 
l<tti  was  made  on  the  16th  October  for  the  Jubilee  Fund  which 
motinted  to  Rs.  300. 

The  Chapel  had  to  be  repaired  this  year,  so  when  the  repairs 
ere-  completed,  reopening  services  were  held  on  the  29th  May 
ben  Mr.  Mack  of  Serdmpore  and  Dr.  Yates  preached  two 
eellent  sermonB.  ~         ' 


It  wae  decided  on  the  11th  August  to  erect  a  small  Chapel  at 
Ckx)ly  Bazar  (now  generally  called  Hastings)  for  the  members  rend- 
ent  in  that  locality  which  Chapel  was  opened  on  the  2nd  November 

On  the  12th  October  a  plan  was  presented  by  the  Sub- 
Comrndttee  appointed  for  the  purpose  regarding  the  visiting  d 
Church  members  but  the  details  of  the  plan  are  not  recorded. 

On  the  12th  February  1843,  the  depressed  stata  of  the  Sundiy 
School  was  brought  to  the  notice  of  the  members,  and  on  the  6th 
July  the  allowance  from  the  Church  to  the  Missionary  Society  for 
the  services  of  the  Pastor  was  raised  from  Ks.  60  to  Rs.  70. 

On  the  29th  December  Mr.  J.  C.  Page  who  was  » 
member  of  the  Church  was  ordained  to  the  Ministry.  Not  miny 
years  afterwards  Mr.  Page  was  the  instrument  of  building  up  the 
work  of  the  Mission  in  Barisal  and  those  parts  where  there  m 
thousands  of  Christians  at  the  present  day. 

On  the  7th  March  1844,  a  new  Register  of  MembeiB  WM 
ordered  to  be  prepared  and  on  the  same  date  a  Sub-Committee  wtf 
appointed  to  ascertain  the  practicability  *  and  desirableneflB  d 
punkahs  for  the  Chapel. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  Mr.  Evans  interest  in  the  materiel 
and  spiritual  condition  of  the  Church  led  him  to  strive  to  set  right 
whatever  he  considered  to  be  otherwise,  with  the  result  that  will 
next  have  to  be  touched  upon. 

On  the  10th  June  1844  the  letter — a  copy  of  which  is  below— 
from  Mr.  Evans  resigning  the  Pastoral  office  was  read. 

To  The  Members  of  the  Church  in  Lall-Bazar. 
Dear  Brethren, — On  my  arrival  in  this  country  I  was  urgwitly 
solicited  to  accept  the  Pa^oral  office  among  you  as  a  Church  Vii 
people.  I  had  previously  determined  to  be  free  in  this  respect  lad 
to  discharge  my  duties  as  a  Minister  of  Christ  as  my  Bervioci 
might  be  required,  but  your  destitute  condition  at  that  tin^i 
after  consulting  my  Brethren  led  me  to  accede  to  your  unanixDOQ* 
wishes  and  I  consented  to  become  your  Pastor  as  far  as  attentJoB 
to  other  mdssionary  engagements  would  allow. 

THK  PASTORATE  OF  THE   REV.   W.    W.    EVANS.  243 

To  the  best  of  my  ability  I  have  invariably  sought  to  promote 
inr  spiritual  good  amidst  many  interruptions  and  much  of 
izious  imperfections. 

My  numerous  engagements  in  other  respects,  the  staJte  of  my 
salth,  and  now,  other  causes,  render  the  continuance  of  my  ser- 
joes  undesirable,  and,  rather  than  endanger  my  health  and 
ustrate  all  my  attempts  to  be  useful  in  these  departments  of 
bour,  I  beg  to  tender  my  resignation  of  the  Pastoral  office 
ncMigst  you  from  the  present  date. 

I  shall  hand  over  the  books  and  papers  of  the  Church  to  my 
rather  Thomas,  who  has  kindly  consented  to  preside  at  your 
leetdng  this  evening. 

With  earnest  prayers  for  your  future  welfare, 

I  am, 

Dear  Brethren, 

Yours  very  truly, 

(Sd.)    W.  W.  Evans. 

10th  June  1844. 

I^e  troublers  were    again  at  work  in     Israel  as  will  be  seen 

vm  what  ensued,    but  it  is  not  necessary  to    go  into  the  details 

iffice  it  to  say,  that  it  was  arranged  for  a  further  meeting  to  be 

eld  for  the  "other  causes"  mentioned  in     the  above  letter  to  be 

iquired  into  and  that  it  appeared  that  the  evils  had  arisen  more 

xna  misunderstanding  than  from  any  evil  intention.     The  Chair- 

laa  of  the  meeting  reproved  the  troublers  for  their  unlovely  and 

nbecoming  conduct,     after  wEich    the  following  Resolution  was 

wrried : — 

"That  as  an  evil  spirit  appeared  to  exist  in  the  Church  a 
)ason  be  set  apart  for  humiliation  and  prayer  when  Saturday 
Tening  and  Tuesday  morning  were  agreed  upon  for  that 

At  the  meeting  of  the  17th  July  the  following  letter  to  Mr. 
vans  was  passed,  and  was  signed  by  the  Chairman  and  Deacons 
1  behalf  of  the  Church. 

Calcutta,    17th  July  1844. 

To  Rev.  W.  W.  Evans. 

Dear  Sir, — ^We  beg  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter 
lerein  you,    for  various  reasons,  some  of     which  are  specified^tf 


signify  your  reeignatioo  of  the  PastoraJ  charge  over  us  as  a 
Christian  Church. 

We  regret  that  any  circumstance  should  have  occurred  to  have 
deprived  us  of  a  Pastor,  especially  as  we  have  been  more  than  once 
in  the  destitute  condition  in  which  we  now  are.  But  we  indulge 
the  hope  that  our  future  good  may  be  promoted  by  our  present 
painful  circumstances. 

We  cannot  allow  you  to  leave  us  without  expressing  our  s&» 
of  the  great  obligations  under  which  your  ministrations  have  \ui 
us,  and  offering  you  our  sincere  thankd  for  the  affection  and  inter- 
est in  our  spiritual  welfare  which  you  have  manifested  during  the 
three  years  and  a  half  you  have  labour^  among  us, 

We  trust  your  labours  have  not  been  in  vain  and  wepny 
that  the  Lord  may  be  with  you  and  bless  you  abundantly;  ttf 
would  we  close  this  leitter  without  expressing  our  high  respect  ■■' 
esteem  for  your  estimable  partner  Mrs.  Evans  whose  nttj 
excellencies  and  uniform  kindness  have  greatly  endeared  her  to  w. 
Our  earnest  prayer  is  that  she,  with  you,  may  partake  richly  ^ 
every  New  Covenant  blessing. 

Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Church, 
J.  Thomas,  Chairman, 
Jas.  Irvine, 

E.  Gray,  [  Dea^om 

L.  Mendes, 

After  this  the  following  entry  occurs: — 

"  At  the  Church  meeting  on  the  11th  Fieibruary  1845,  it  having 
been  stated  by  the  Rev.  J.  Thomas  that  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Eva« 
our  late  Pastor  on  behalf  of  himself  and  Mrs.  Evans  had  expressed 
a  desire  to  withdraw  their  membership  from  the  Church  and  bii 
accordingly  requested  that  their  names  might  be  taken  off  tl» 
Register  of  Church  Members,  it  was  resolved  unanimously  tW 
the  request  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Evans  be  complied  wiA 
and  we  earnestly  desire  that  their  futurs  steps  may  be  guided  l>f 
heavenly  wisdom,  and  that  they  may  not  only  enjoy  much  of  ^ 
Divine  favour  in  their  own  souls,  but  be  made  eminently  useful  ii 
promoting  the  cause  of  our  Gk)d  and  Saviour." 

This  would  indicate  that  there  were  no  more  troublers  in  IsnA- 

Mr.  Evans,  however,  remained  on  in  Calcutta  till  after  th 

death  of  his  wife  on  3rd  October  1845  and  assisted  in  vemacultf 

and     English     work     at     Cooly    Bazar.     The    following    rcmi* 

THE   PASTORATE    OF    THE    REV.    W.   W.    EVANS.  245 

ppeaiB  in  the  Churcli's  letter  to  the  Miasiooiary  Association,  dated 
il6  21st  December  1845  : — 

"The  English  services  at  Cooly  Bazar  have  been  conducted 
XD  the  most  part  by  our  late  Pastor  Mr.  Evans,  who,  as  long  ae 
it  health  permitted,  never  failed  to  attend  and  some  of  whose 
let  efforts  to  make  known  the  Gospel,  before  he  embarked  for 
bgland,  were  spent  there." 

His  health  and  spirits  soon  broke  down  after  his  wife's  death 
Qd  he  had  to  leave  for  Europe  in  December. 

Tbsore  is  no  Tablet  in  the  Chapel  commemorating  Mr.  Evans' 
«6lx>rate.  Every  effort  has  been  made  by  the  present  writer  to 
kirocnie  portraits  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Evans  but  he  has  unfortunately 
ijldd  as.  none  seem  procurabb  in  England  even  from  the  members 
F  their  family. 


The  Benevolent  Institution.  I 

It  has  been  stated  in  Chapter  VII.  that  a  letter  was  leceiwd 
from  Mr.  King  of  Birmingham  in  1809,  regarding  the  working  of 
certain  Charity  Schools  in  that  town,  which  was  psad  in  Calcutta  in 
September  of  that  year,  when  Mr.  Leonard  suggested  that  ft 
similar  school  might  be  opened  in  Calcutta.     The  idea  was  takes 

Intebior  op  the  Benevolent  Institution,  Calcutta. 

up  by  the  Serampore  Missionaries,  so  on  Christmas  Day  of  II 
Dr.  MaiBhman  preached  his  sermon  at  the  Lall-Bazar  Chapd  in 
aid  of  the  projected  Charity  School  from  Psalm  37 :  3,  when 
the  sum  of  Rs.  269-9-0  was  raised  at  the  collection ;  other  oontiabiK 
tions  were  sent  in  afterwards  which  raised  the  total  to  Bs.  300. 
In  February  1810,  Mr.  Peacock  was  chosen  Msster  as  thi 
school  already  had  between  30  and  40  children,  and  on  the  SOtis 


March  of  that  year  Mr.  Leonard  \va£  appointed  one  of  the  Teachers 
^  more  children  came  for  instruction  than  could  be  received  j  Mr. 
Leonard  was  a  Deacon  of  the  Church.  He  was  shortly  after  appoini- 
Bd  Head  Master  in  succession  to  Mr.  Peacock  when  the  latter 
irent  to  Agra  with  Mr.  Chamberlain. 

In  1811,  a  Girls'  School  was  modelled  after  the  same  plan 
la  tlie  Boys'  School.  In  December  1811,  Dr.  Marshman  wrote 
i  letter  describing  the  benefits  likely  to  result  from  these  schools 
md  Bhowing  the  extensive  advantages  the  cause  of  God  might 
?eap  fxom  this  field. 

The  school  had  at  first  been  started  in  a  house  in  £)mambagh 
jane  in  which  the  private  Seminary  of  Mr.  Gumming  had  formerly 
een  held^  and,  within  the  first  six  months  more  than  80  children 
rera  in.  attendance.  No  report,  however,  wa&  published  till  the 
nd  of  1812^  which  embraced  the  three  years  1810,  1811  and  1812. 
b  ahowB  {liat  the  collection  at  the  Ghapel  on  Christmas  Day  of 
810,  amounted  to  Es.  529  and  that  on  Christmas  Day  of  1811 
t>  Bs.  291-9^0. 

The  school  was  more  especially  intended  for  the  children 
f  the  poor  nominal  Christians  who  were  steeped  in  ignorance 
ad  sin,  and  for  whose  temporal  and  spiritual  benefit  nothing  was 
ipparently  being  done.  The  following  account  of  a  poor  castaway, 
ilio  was  practically  a  savage,  and  not  even  a  nominal  Christian, 
a  BO  interesting  that  no  apology  is  made  for  reproducing  it  in 
MerUo  from  that  report,  and,  if  this  individual  alone  were  the 
mly  visible  result,  the  missionaries  might  consider  that  they  had 
Deen  amply  repaid. 

"Thamas  Chance,  a  lad  about  12  years  old,  after  having  been 
Knnetime  in  the  school  was  placed  with  me,  wrote  Mr.  Leonard 
die  Head  Master,  as  a  boarder  by  his  generous  benefactor  Captain 
(Williams,  who  in  one  of  his  late  trading  voyages  had  occasion 
ic  touch  on  the  coast  of  Sumatra  in  a  part  inhabited  by  Battas, 
rheie,  amongst  other  things,  he  one  day  observed  three  boys  oon- 
ined  in  a  kind  of  wooden  cage,  cooped  up  like  hogs,  and,  enquiring 
flic  their  circumstances,  found  they  were  fattening  for  the  knife ^ 
ind  were  for  sale.    Captain  Williams  instantly  bargained  for  tli||H|| 


and,  for  150  dollars,  had  the  high  gratification  of  carrying  them 
safely  to  his  ship.  Whether  the  other  two  died  of  not,  I  cannot 
say,  but  Captain  Williams  wishing  to  train  up  this  boy  to  lisefnl 
life,  brought  him  to  our  school.  When  he  was  first  placed  with,  us 
we  found  it  excaedingly  difficult  to  make  him  understand  the  mo»b^ 
simple  things,  and  more  bo,  to  persuade  him  to  touch  food  in  the 
presence  of  any  of  our  family.  He  continued  so  for  more  than  a 
month,  although  we  used  every  moans  we  could  devise  to  cultivate 
familiarity  with  him.  He  picked  up  a  few  words  of  broken 
English  on  board  and  in  Captain  William's  family,  but  appeared  to 
have  no  idea  whatever  of  any  .other  language,  nor  does  he  seem  to 
have  any  idea  of  father  or  mother.  I  have  repeatedly  questioned 
him  upon  the  subject,  but  have  received  no  other  reply  than  that 
all  be  remembered  was  Captain  Williams  carrying  him  to  the  ship. 
His  rude  state  when  placed  with  us  both  as  it  regarded  ideas  and 
articulation  was  such  as  made  it  exceedingly  difficult  to  get  him 
to  either  understand  or  to  pronounce,  however,  I  am  happy  to 
inform  you  that  he  has  since  surmounted  these  obstacles  by  his 
voluntary  and  indefatigable  diligence.  But  even  here  his  strange* 
ness  of  disposition  has  still  appeared,  for,  although  he  seldom 
parts  with  bis  book  while  daylight  continues,  it  is  not  often  that 
we  see  him  at  his  studies  (out  of  school  hours)  as  he  prefers  the 
most  dark  and  retired  corners  of  the  house.  One  of  his  favourite 
places  of  retreat  has  been  an  old  palankeen  that  stands  in  a  corner 
of  a  lower  room.  In  this  he  has  remained  shut  up  many  hoiBl 
in  the  day,  allowing  himself  only  sufficient  light  to  see  his  lettCH. 
He  lately  took  a.  great  liking  to  writing  and  became  so  familiar 
with  my  second  son  as  to  allow  of  his  ruling  his  book  and  setting 
him  copies,  but  he  has  now  so  far  improved  as  to  do  without  hii 
assistance,  he  rules  his  book  himself  and  goes  on  writing  in  hi 
own  way.  He  begins  likewise  to  read  and  pronounce  pretty 
clearly ;  in  short,  if  his  life  be  continued,  I  have  every  reason  to 
hope  he  will  prove  a  valuable  member  of  Society.  This  poor 
savage  boy  in  the  few  months  he  has  been  in  the  school  has  80 
far  advanced  as  to  read  the  New  Testament  fluently,  defects  in 
his  pronunciation  excepted,   and  to  write  a  legible  hand." 

Nothing  more  is  traceabla  about  this  boy. 

The  next  published  Report  contains  interesting  details  regard- 
ing some  of  the  boys  admitted,  clearly  showing  the  necessity  for 
the  establishment  of  such  a  school  with  a  view  to  raising  them  a 
little  in  the  social  scale  even  by  the  restricted  education  that  they 
received  at  it. 



•  jShorty  afterwards  it  was  decided  to  adopt  the  Lancastrian 
mtem  of  teaching  and  Dr.  Lancaster  was  asked  to  select  and 
md  out  some  one  who  had  bsen  trained  up  in  it.  All  this  time 
Jr.  Leonard  had  been  in  charge  of  the  school,  but  now  Dr.  Lan- 
ister  selected  and  sent  out  Rev.  J.  Penney  who  had  been  specially. 
maed  by  him,  with  a  special  letter  of  recommendation  addressed 
>  Dr.  Carey.  Mr.  Penney  embarked  for  India  towards  the  close 
f  1816,  which  was  the  year  Mr.  Leonard  left  for  Dacca,  where 
e  afterwards  started  a  similar  institution.  Mr.  Peacock  was 
gain  put  in  charge  till  Mr.  Penny  arrived  on  1st  February 
81T.  After  Mr.  Penney  took  over  charge  of  the  Institution  Mr. 
^9acotk  went  to  Chittagong,  where  he  also  started  a  similar  school 
I  1819. 

Land  was  purchased     measuring   1  biggah,    14    cottahs    and 
ehittacks,  morid  or    less,  and  a  schoolhouse     was     erected  on  it 
ipable  of  accommodating  several  hundreds  (up  to  800)  children  and' 
le  cost  of  grounds  and  schoolhouse  amounted  to  Rs.  24,000. 

When  Mr.  Penney  arrived  he  took  the  charge  of  the  Boys' 
Apartment  and  Mrs.  Penney  of  tba  Girls'  Department  and  between 
mm  they  used  to  draw  Rs.  300  a  month  in  all. 

The   collections  at   Lall    Bazar   were   as   below  on    Christmas. 
»y  of  each  of  the  years  specified : — 




Christmas  Day 





















.     „ 

















1834  . 





from  which  it  will  be  noticed  that  the  collections  decxeased  a£ 

number  of  the  other  objects  of  charity  increased,  and  eventi 

they  ceased  altogether. 

The  names  of  persona  of  all  ranks  aire  found  in  the  lisl 

Donors  and    Subscribers.     Thus: — 

The  King  of  Denmark  used  to  give      Rs.     50  annually. 
The  Baretto  Fund  „  „         „     300        „ 

Lord   William  Bentinck    ,,  ,,         ,,     200         „ 

In   1826,     Government  on  the     recommendation  of  Mr. 

Lushington,  gave  a  lump  sum  of  Rs.  13,000  as  below: — 
Rs.  10,000  to  wipe  out  the  debt,  and 
Rs.  3,000  towards  the  repairs  needed. 

and  the  same  year  Lord  Amherst  sanctioned  a  monthly  gran 

Re.  200  for  the  future  support  of  the  school,  which  was  oantii 

till   1882. 

Mr.   Statham  in  his  ''Indian  Recollections"  states: — 

"  At  the  last  examination  of  the  children  at  which  I 
present  (which  would  be  1826  as  he  left  in  1826),  there  wet 
the  Boys'  School  2  Europeans,  22  Indo-Brifcons,  102  Portugi 
22  Hindoos,  7  Chinese,  3  Mussulmans,  2  Africans,  2  Annci 
and  2  Jews.  Total  164  and  94  girls  of  the  same  nations  ii 
other  school.  These  all  evinced  by  their  great  improvement 
great  attention  bestowed  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Penney  on  their  e 
tion.  The  needlework  exhibited  by  the  girls  was  peculiarly 
and  clean.  In  fact,  their  specimens  were  such  as  would  have 
credit  to  any  ladies'  school  in  Britain." 

In  1829,  Mr.  Beddy  acted  for  Mr.  Penney  and  Mrs.  Bedd 
Mrs.  Penney  from  February  to  May  as  they  went  to  Saugo 
a  change.  They  were  both  members  of  Lall-Bazar. 
Penney  died  on  the  24th  December  1829.  Mrs.  Beddy  acted 
for  the  greater  part  of  1830,  i.e.,  until  Mrs.  William  Rol 
(formerly  Mrs.  Lish)  took  charge  in  October  of  that  year. 

Shortly  after,  his  arrival  in  India  in  1830  Dr.  Duff  en 
for  his  English  School  a  Mr.  Pereira  who  had  been  train 
this  Institution  and  he  gave  Dr.  Duff  every  satisfaction. 


yw  is  a  sketch  of  Mr.  Penney  teaching  the  children. 

OF  Rev.  J.  Penney  teachinq  some  op  the  Children  of  thr 
Benevolent  Institution. 

kind  permisnion  of  the.  Lihmrian  of  the  Imperial  Library  from 

Mr,  Cohsworthij   GranVs  Litkograpkic  Sketches.')  i 


At  the  end  of  1852  Mr.  Penney'e  health  was  much  impaired 
and  a  change  to  England  became  necessary.  But  before  starting 
he  married  the  widow  of  the  son  of  Mr.  Brunsdon  the  missionary. 
He  rsiurned  to  India  on  the  26th  September  1834  in  robust  hfialtli. 
Mr.  Kirkpatrick  acted  for  him  during  his  absence  of  two  years. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Penney  were  never  members  of  the  Lai  Banr 
Church,  but,  when  the  School  property  was  sold  in  1888,  the  Be?. 
A.  McKenna,  thair  son-in-law,  asked  the  permission  of  the  Chnwii 
to  allow  Mr.  Penney's  Memorial  tablet  which  was  in  the  Bsoevoknt 
to  be  placed  in  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel,  which  was  done,  and  it  ii 
still  there.     The  inscription  on  it  runs  thus: — 



is  erectsd 

to  the  memory  of 

The  Kev.  James  Penney, 

for  22  years 

the  able,  esteemed   and  successful  Teacher 


The  Benevolent  Institution, 


a  Memorial  of  gratitude  and  respect 

by  his  Juvenile  friends  and  pupils 

whose  morals  and  lives  were  improved  by  his 

instruction  and  example. 

He  was  born  in  London  1st  February  1792, 

Arrived  in  India,  1st  February   1817, 

Was  arrested  by  the  hand  of  death  on 

the  1st  February  1839, 

and  after  a  struggle  of  only  a  few  hours, 

fell  asleep  in  Jesus. 

"Mark  the  perfect  man  and  behold  the 

upright,  for  the  end  of  that  man  is  peace." 

Psalm  XXX vii.,  verse  37. 

THE    BENEVOLENT   H^STITUTldN^        -  -  2 6^ 

While  Mr.  Leonard  had  charge  of  the  school  he  used  to 
ring  a  contingent  of  boys  to  the  Chapel  every  Sunday. 

Many  of  the  girls  and  boys  of  the  school  joined  the  Lall 
tttlu:  Church  and  many  of  the  members  of  the  Church,  male  and 
smale,  were  teachers  in  the  school  and  some  were  Superintendents 
a  the  Boys'  Department  and  others  in  the  Girls'  Department. 
Ekns,  in  October  1830  the  charge  of  ths  Girls'  Department  was 
p¥ai  to  Mrs.  William  Robinson  and  she  gave  up  her  own  school 
« tiiis  afforded  her  a  larger  sphera  of  usefulness,  beside  being  a 
^d  appointment. 

The  Rev.  W.  W.  Evans  and  his  wife  came  out  in 
1840  specially  for  the  charge  of  the  Institution  as  Mr. 
md  Mrs.  P'dnney  had  done  previously,  and  while  Mrs.  Evans  was 
l»i»  Miss  Carrau  and  Miss  Gonsalves  both  members  of  this 
3hurch  (and  the  latter  of  whom  is  still  living)  were  teachers  in  the 
ftmale  Department. 

At  the  public  examination  of  the  pupils  which  was  held  on 
lie'21et  and  22nd  January  1844,  it  was  stated  in  the  report  that 
n©  presented  on  that  occasion,  that  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Evans  had 
»«en  constant  and  uninterrupted  in  their  attendance  and  that 
lie  children  were  greatly  and  desiervedly  attached  to  them. 

When  Mrs.  Evans  died  on  the  3rd  October  1845  her  plaee  was 
5«ven  to  Miss  Annie  Lawson,  a  daughter  of  the  Rev.  John 
tAWBon  who  had  been  co-pastor  between  January  1816  and 
October  1819,  but  she  herself  was  not  a  member  of  this  Church. 

On  8th  dctober  1849  ,Mr.  Robert  Robinson  was  appointed 
^Tiperintemdent  of  the  Boys'  Department  and  held  the  post  for 
'^0  or  three  years..  He  was  a  son  of  Rev.  William  Robinson  and  a 
l^ttnger  brother  of  the  Rev.  J.  Robinson  but  he  was  not  a  member 
^this.  Church.  Prior  to  him  had  been  Mr.  R.  A.  Fink  (a  son  of 
flev.  J.  C.  Fink)  who  had  gone  to  Cjhittagong. 

'.  On  3l8t  Aiigust  1851  Miss  Annie*  Lawfeon  resigned  her  post 
«d  from  1st  Septembdi^  of  that  year  Miss  Efnily  iEink  a  daughter 

25^         THE   8T0BT  OF   THE    LALL-BJlZAB   BAPTIST    GHUBOH. 

of  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Fink  just  referred  to,  and  who  subsequently 
married  the  Rev.  R.  Robinson,  was  appointed  to  the  Girb' 

After  Miss  E.  Fink's  marriage  with  the  Rev.  R.  Robinson 
her  eldest  sister,  Miss  Susan  Fink,  was  appointed  to  the  GiiV 
Department  in  1852.  After  18  years  of  continuous  service  she 
was  granted  6  months'  leave  in  1870.  After  rejoining  aha 
continued  in  charge  till  March  1876  when  she  died  after  24  yein' 
seirvice  in  the  school. 

In  1859  Mr.  J.  B.  Lawson,  a  son  of  the  Rev.  J.  Lawson  jvfc 
referred  to,  was  appointed  Superintendent  of  the  Boys'  Department 
and  he  held  the  post  for  some  years. 

During  the  second  period  of  his  Pastorate  the  Rev.  J.  Sik 
was  Secretary  to  the  school,  and,  while  he  was  away  the  Bef. 
G.  Kerry  who  acted  as  Pastor,  had  been  Secretary  so  that  in  evsj 
way  the  School  seemed  more  or  less  intimately  connected  mih  flu 
Church  and  the  several  Pastors  and  the  members  of  the  Chnidi 
always  took  an  interest  in  it.  In  fact,  it  appeared  to  some  astt, 
adjunct  of  the  Church. 

In  the  course  of  years  things  got  lax,  so  in  1869  Mr.  J.  IX 
Rodway  was  sent  out  from  England  specially  to  take  charge  of 
the  school  and  to  put  it  into  a  sound  condition.  He  came  out 
under  an  agreement  for  three  years.  The  Baptist  Missiooarf 
Society  gave  a  donation  of  Re.  900  towards  the  funds,  besfde  pi^ 
ing  Rs.  2,500  for  the  passages  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rodway,  Bf 
entirely  changed  the  system  of  teaching  so  thai  the  school  begtt 
to  look  up  again.  At  this  time  Mr.  F.  P.  Lindeman  one  of  tiii 
members  collected  Rs.  2,099  for  the  Institution.  Mr.  Rodwift 
however,  did  not  stay  beyond  his  three  years'  agreement  all 
went  away  in  1872  when  Mr.  Ardwis©  was  appointed  to  act  U 
Head  Master,  the  old  designation  having  been  changed. 

In  1877  Mr.  S.  C.  Aratoon,  a  member  of  this  Churcb  !«• 
appointed  Head  Master.  During  this  year,  Mr.  Lawrence  several 
his  connection  with  the  school.  He  had  been  connected  witk 
it  for  a  long  period,  having  befen  one  of  Mr.  Penney's  pupils  lal 
assistants.  Mr.  Austin  also  left.  He  had  endeared  Himself  to 
most  of  the  boys  by  his  great  kindness  to  them. 


On  the  24th  April  1876  the  then  Lisoitenant-Govemor  of 
Bngal,  Sir  Richard  Temple,  visited  the  school,  and  viaits  wero 
lid  to  it  hj  the  Inspector  of  Schools. 

In,  1863     awards     had     been     given  on    two    occasioDs    by 
[agistrates  of  Calcutta  from  moieti>e8  of  fines  levied  by  them  on^ 
Bvaons  having  in  their  possaesion  counterfeit  -gold  coins,  viz, : — 
Bupees  520  by  Mr.  G.  S.  Fagan. 
Bupees  400  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Roberts. 

In  1877  Government  sanctioned  a  Capitation  Grant  which 
'«  not  to  exceed  Re.  75  a  month,  and,  in  this  year,  a  legacy 
mfUXK  invalid  through  a  techincal  informality. 

When  Mr.  Blacki^  assumed  the  pastorate  at  the  end  of  1877,. 
M  became  Secretary  of  the  school  and  in  1879  the  Viceroy  (Lord 
^ytton)  gavie  a  donation  of  Rs.  200  and  Mr.  Dear  of  Monghyr  ona- 
f  Bb.  500.  Mr.  Dear's  name,  as  a  donor  to  the  funds  of  this  Insti- 
bfcion^  appears  for  the  first  time  in  18^  when  he  gave  Rs.  10. 

It  is  a  singular  thing  that  in  1879  the  Head  Master  was  am 
^menian,  the  second  Master  a  Hilndu,  the  third  a  Chinese,  the 
Yvrth  a  Hindu  and  the  fifth  a  Jew. 

About  1880,  Mr.  A.  C.  Ward,  another  member  of  the  Church 
old  the  appointment  of  Head  Master  which  he  retained  till  his 
iaath  in  1886. 

In  1884  and  in  1885  the  Viceroy  gave  Rs.  200  each  year  and' 
X  the  latter  year  the  Lieoitenant-Governor  of  Bengal  gave  Rs. 
©•  After  this  the  Missionary  Society  had  to  give  large  grants 
iQar  after  year  to  make  up  deficits.  Thus,  in  1885  they  gave  Ra. 
JOG,  in  1886  Rs.  2,050  and  in  1887  Rs.  1,000. 

The  annual  grant  from  Government  ceased  to  be  paid  from  and 
iber  1882  and  the  school  was  closed  in  1888.  Thus  closed  an 
mfcitution  which  for  nearly  80  years  had  done  such  good  service 
or  the  class  whom  it  was  intended  to  reach.  The  Serampore 
KldHionaries  have  been  blamed  by  some  for  diverting  their  labours 
Uto  this  channel,  instead  of  on  Natives  for  whom  Dr.  Du£P  begaa 
io  labour  as  soon  as  he  came  out  in  1830;  but  this  class  of  nominal 
Soistians  seemed  in  such  a  low  and  d^raded  condition  that  the* 
Mrts  of  the  good  men  o7  Serampore  were  move3  with  compassaom 
ar  them.     Now  things  entered  upon  another  stage. 


In  January  1889  Mr.  R.  Belchambers,  the  Rev.  C.  Jordan  and 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Rouse,  the  then  Trustees,  were  directed  to  prepare  a 
scheme  for  establishing  a  Trust  Fund,  which  they  did,  and  on  the 
22nd  July  of  that  year  an  application  was  made  to  the  High  Court 
for  permission  to  sell  the  premises  and  apply  the  proceeds  to  the 
payment  of  school  fees  for  poor  children.  On  the  same  day 
Justice  Norris  decreed  that  the  Managers*  scheme  should  be  eane- 
tioned,  the  property  sold,  and  fees  paid.  The  property  was  ac- 
cordingly sold  for  a  nett  sum  of  Rs.  31,300.  After  deducting 
certain  expenses,  eventually  Rs.  25,000  were  invested  m  4  peront. 
Government  Promissory  Notes,  and  the  interest  of  the  funded 
amount  has  hitherto  been  usad  for  the  purposes  of  the  Trust.  The 
first  child  taken  on  under  the  new  scheme  was  in  March  1891  and 
others  in  1892  and  1893  and  eventually  a  Bengali  boy  was  admitted 
as  one  of  non-European*  habits.  In  addition,  the  Fund  ha* 
contributed  Rs.  30  a  month  to  the  Old  Church  Free  Day  School 
as  they  have  a  free  Department  doing  the  work  that  used  tobedoM 
by  tha  eld  Benevolent,  which  was  always  known  in  the  locaUly  M 
Penney 's  School. 

A  sum  of  Rs.  1,335  was  obtained  later  from  the  Official 
Trustee. under  the  will  of  Mr.  Lawrence  De  Souza. 

In  1898,  the  4  per  cent,  investments  had  to  be  transferKd  ta 
the  3^  per  cent,  and  3  per  cent,  loans  whichi  reduced  the  income 
of  tho  trust  considerably. 

The  present  Trustees  were  appointed  on  4th  June  1902.  Thef 
are  the  Revs.  H.  Anderson,  T.  W.  Norledge  and  J.  Sutton  Page. 

The  Dunn  Bequest  of  Rs.  10,500  was  received  in  Ssptember 
1904  and  the  Dear  Legacy  of  Rs.  50,000  was  realized  in  1906  and 
Government  Promissory  Notes  up  to  tha  value  of  Rs.  52,000  n^ 
purchased.  Government  Promissory  Notes  up  to  the  value  d 
Rs.  90,700  constitute  the  Trust  Fund  at  the  present  time  and* 
is  on  this  sum  that  interest  is  now  drawn.  ; 



It  is  intended  to  give  as  briefly  as  possible  only  the  main 
ictB  in  the  personal  history  of  the  Serampore  missionaries  in- 
bridnally,  and  not  the  history  of  the  work  done  by  them  col- 
Nitively,  as  the  writer  thdnks  that  this  book  would  be  incomplete 
rxUiaat  some  such  epitome. 

The  Rev.  William  Carey,  D.  D. 

QBy  kind  permission  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society ^  London.') 

"He  wbs  born  in  the  village  of  Pury,  or  Paulerspury,  in  Norih- 
iptcmahire^  on  the  17th  August  1761.  His  grandfather  and 
bher  were  successively  the  pariah  clerk  and  schoolmaster  of  the 
lage.  His  father's  name  was  Edmund  Carey.  His  uncle,  Feber 
ney,  was  a  gardener  in  that  village.  At  the  age  of  fourteen 
f7S),  be  waa  bound  as  an  apprentice  to  Clarke  Nicholls,  a  Shoe- 
iioer  at  Hackleton  which  was  a  few  miles  off.  His  master  died  about 



two  years  after  his  apprenticeship  commenced  (i.e.,  in  1777)  and 
he  had  to  pay  something  to  his  widow  to  get  off  the  remainder  rf 
hie  apprenticeship.  He  then  engaged  himself  as  a  joumeymaB 
shoemaker  to  a  Mr.  T.  Old,  who  is  described  as  a  "  worthy  and 
respectable  man."  The  Kev.  Thomas.  Soott,  the  author  of  flu 
Commentary  on  the  Bible,  who  was  Pastor  at  the  village  of  Ravea* 
stone  a  few  miles  distant,  used  to  pay  pastoral  visits  to  the  UsuSj 
of  Mr.  Old  and  there  met  young  Carey,  who  had  been  led  toBflri- 
ously  reflect  on  his  spiritual  condition  through  the  instrumentditj 
of  a  fellowHservant. 

He  was  brought  up  a  strict  Churchman  as  became  the  8« 
and  grandson  of  the  Parish  Clerk^  and  was  in  due  time  confiiQed, 
but  he  saw  many  inconsistencies  in  the  established  ChuTdiiD^ 
in  course  of  time  he  came  across  Robert  Hall's  "Help  to  IkSy 
Travellers "  which  had  recently  appeared.  This  encouraged  to 
to  give  himself  up  to  the  exclusive  service  of  the 
Jesus  Christ.  He  had  joined  the  small  Church  fonned 
Hackleton  by  a  few  pious  men  an3  at  the  age  of  eighteen  (lift 
attempted  to  preach  to  them.  He  was  then  asked  by  some  d 
people  of  the  village  of  Earl's  Barton  to  preach  to  them, 
lie  did  for  three  years  and  a  half.  He  was  also  asked  to  pMflk 
at  his  own  village  of  Pury  which  he  used  to  do  onoe  a  moiA 
Whilst  employed  in  £his  way  hia  views  on  the  Bubjecb  of 
becamed  changed  and  he  imbibed  the  conviction  that  Baptism 
immersion,  and  that  after  a  confession  of  faith,  was  ScripteW 
and  Apostolic.  He  was  accordingly  baptized  by  Dr.  John  RyliiA 
his  future  associate  in  the  cause  of  Missions,  on  the  5th  OctoM 
1783  in  the  river  Nen,  a  little  beyond  Dr.  Doddridge's  Chapel  h 
Northampton,  and,  not  long  after,  joined  him»&lf  as  a  membtf 
to  Mr.  SutcUff's  Church  at  Olney,  and,  later  on,  was  set  apiri 
to  the  Ministry. 

Before  he  had  reached  the  age  of  twenty  (1781),  Mr.  Oil 
^ied  and  Caney  not  only  purchased  Ms  businesB  from  his  widot 
but  married  her  sister  and  engaged  to  support  her  as  well.    Th 


whom  he  thus  married  was  Miss  Dorothy  (Dolly)  Placketb. 
r  his  marriage  he  ranted  a  little  cottage  at  Hackleton,  but 
•ade  became  dull  he  had  to  sell  off  his  stock  at  great  sacrifice, 
he  same  time  he  was  attacked  with  fever  which  hung  on  him 
eighteen  months.  Though  feeble  he  was  obliged  to  travel 
it  from  place  to  plaod  to  dispose  of  his  goods  to  procure  food. 
»ve  him  from  starvation  his  brother  made  over  to  him  what- 

he  could  spare  from  his  own  scanty  earnings  and  a  small  col- 
ioii  was  made  for  him  at  Pury.     With  this  aid  he  removed 

diange  of  air  to   the  village  of  Piddihgton.     Unfortunately 

cottage  he  selected  was  situated  in  a  swamp  and  its  miasma 
QgU  on  ague  and  fever  which  made  him  prematurely  bald. 

In  1784  the  Baptist  monthly  prayer  meeting  for  Missions  was 
ted  and  early  in  178 6 — at  the  age  of  twenty-four  and  a  half — ^ho 
owd  to  Moulton  where  he  took  charge  of  the  little  Church  as 
x>r.  'They  could  give  him  only  £11  a  year  for  his  support  to 
i  £5  wer3  added  from  some  fund  in  London.  The  school 
jh  he  started  dwindled  away,  so  he  had  to  resort  to  his  former 
e  for  subsistsnoe,  and,  once  a  fortmght,  walked  eight  or  ten 
B  to  Northampton  with  a  wallet  of  shoes  for  sale  and  returned 
.  a  fresh  supply  of  leather  to  complete  another  batch. 
On  the  10th  August  1786,  he  was  ordained  Pastor  at  Moulton, 
a  Ryland,  Sutcliff  and  Fuller  took  part  in  the  service.  The 
rdi  increased  and  a  larger  Chapel  had  to  be  built.  But  the 
ge  did  not  present  a  sphere  suited  to  a  man  of  Carey's  char- 
r  and  aspirations.     He,  therefore,  in  1789  accepted  the  inviitar- 

of  the  Church  in  Harvey  Lane,   Leicester,   and  removed  to 

town  at  the  age  of  twenty^ght.     After  having  been  there 
ar  and  ten  months  he  was  solemnly  set  apart  to  the  office  of 
CD  on  the  24th  May  1791.     On  the  31st  May  1792  he  preached 
Famous  sermon  at  the  Association  Meeting  at  Nottingham  on 
Expect  great  things  from  God, 
Attempt  great  things  for  God. 
On  the  2nd  October  1792  at  Kettering  the  services  of 



the  day,  the  ministers,  twelve  in  number,  withdrew  to  the  parloorl 
of  Mrs.  Wallis,  the  widow  of  one  of  tlie  Dsacons,  whose  anoeBtopJ 
had  established  the  first  Baptist  Churcli  in  the  town  a  centiuyl 
before.  After  a  long  and  anxious  discussion  tbey  pledged  theDhl 
selves  in  a  solemn  vow  to  God  and  to  each  otber  to  make,  at  ib J 
least,  an  attempt  to  convey  the  Gospel  message  to  some  portaoBJ 
of  the  heathen  world.  When  the  subscripfion  paper  whddi  wail 
handed  round  was  filled  up  Car^y  offered  to  embark  for  any  coon- 
try  they  might  select.  Thus  was  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society 

Mr.  John  Thomas,  the  Surgeon  of  the  "  Oxford "  IndiamtB  I 
returned  to  England  in  1792,  and,  on  hearing  of  the  fomutioBJ 
of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society  at  Kettering,  wrote  a  letter  to  J 
Dr.  Carey  stating  the  efforts  that  had  been  made  among  thij 
natives  of  Bengal.  Eventually  on  10th.  January  1793,  Cawywrfj 
Thomas  were  appointed  at  Kettering  missionaries  to  the  Wl 
Indies,  for  preaching  the  Gospel  to  the  heathen  and  on  the  204j 
March   1793  they  were  set  apart  at  Leicester. 

There  appeared  to  be  no  prospect  of  the  missionaries 
a  "License"  so  it  was  determined  to  send  them  out  without < 
An   attempt  was  made  to  come  out  in  the     Oxford     Ind 
but,  at  the  last  moment,  the  commander  refused  to  take  them  t 
they  had  to  re-land  with  all  thedr  baggage.     Mr.    Thomas 
efforts  to  secure  a  foreign  vessel  and  heard  of  a  Danish  East  \ 
man.     This  turned   out  to  be  Kron     Princessa  Maria    (C» 
Christmas)  on  which  they  embarked  at  Dover  on  the  13th  Jn 
1793   and  arrived  in  Calcutta  on  the  11th  November  foUowinf*] 
Through  some  unknown  cause  no  list  of  the  passengers  was  | 
to  the  Pilot  and  Mr.  Thomas  and  Dr.   Carey  entered  the 
wd'thout  being  molested  or  even  noticed. 

The  expense  of  living  in  Calcutta  being  very  great,  and  tt«j 
money  raised  by  the  sale  of  their  goods  being  exhausted,  a  cli6fl|iir| 
locality  was  sought,  and  Dr.  Carey  removed  to  Bandel.  But  tWl 
place  was  not  adapted  to  his  plan  of  missionary  labor  so  he  f^\ 


ieded  in  company  with  Mr.  Thomas  to  Nuddea,  where  they 
nided  only  a  few.  days  and  then  returned  to  Calcutta.  Mr. 
Sbomas  set  up  house  in  Calcutta  without  referenoe  to  the  neces- 
Umb  of  his  colle«iigue,  bo  Dr.  Carey  had  to  seek  a  place  for  himself 
pd  found  shelter  in  a  small  house  at  Manicktollah,  which  was 
&red  to  him  by  the  generosity  of  an  opulent  native.  Into  that 
imue  he  and  his  family  of  seven  persons  (eelf ,  wife,  wife's  sister 
dud  four  childrsn)  removed  at  the  beginning  of  1794.  Twenty 
r«ttrg  afterwards  when  the  tables  were  turned  as  to  the  circum- 
toioes  of  both  Dr,  Carey  placed  this  native  gentleman  in  a  eitua- 
iaon  of  ease  and  comfort.  In  spite  of  all  difficulties  Dr.  Carey 
ifplied  himself  to  the  Bengalee  language  and  to  his  attempts  to 
mnab  the  rough  translation  of  the  Bible  which  Mr.  Thomas  had 

On  the  20th  January  1794  he  was  offered  the  occupation  of 
in  old  bungalow  in  the  Sundarbuns  till  he  could  obtain  a  suitable 
Aiidence  for  his  family,  but  he  could  not  remove  to  it  for  want 
I  funds.  At  last  he  got  some  money  from  Mr.  Thomas,  so,  on 
ae  4th  February  1794,  he  embarked  in  boats  for  the  wilderness, 
lerally  not  knowing  whither  he  want.  When  he  had  provisions 
A  for  only  a  single  day  he  perceived  a  European  on  the  bank 
fthe  liver  at  Dehatta,  a  village  about  40  miles  from  Calcutta, 
ith  a  gun  in  hand  following  his  sport  at  a  littl&  distance  from 
ift  bungalow.  ThiB  waa  Mr.  Charles  Short,  an  Assistant  under 
Q>VBmment  in  the  Salt  Department.  Dr.  Carey  left  the  boat 
Id  walked  up  to  the  house  with  all  his  family  and  explained  his 
resent  circumstances  and  the  object  whiich  had  brought  him  to 
kis  country.  Mr.  Short  invited  Dr.  Carey  to  make  his  house 
8  home  for  six  months  or  for  a  longer  period,  till  he  oould 
xmde  suitable  accommodation  for  his  family.  Soon  after,  how- 
er.  Dr.  Carey  proceeded  to  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river  to  a 
loo  called  Hasnabad  and  began  to  erect  hns  "  huts  "  for  his  family 
lilie  tract  of  land  cleared  of  the  jungle  which  he  had  obtained 
ISth  January.     This  was,  of  all  places,  most  unfavourable  for 


the  development  of  missionary  plans,  and,  providentially,  lie  wtf 
»oon  redcued  from  it  through  the  kind  serviceB  of  Mr.  Thomas  and 
Mr.  Udny.  The  latter  wae  in  domestic  trouble  and  Mr.  Thanai 
went  up  to  Malda  to  condole  with  him.  Mr.  Udny  needed  aaoA* 
ants  to  superintend  two  of  his  indigo  factories.  One  he  offend 
to  Mr.  Thomas,  who  accepted  it  with  delight  and  authorized  hi» 
to  offer  the  management  of  the  other  to  his  frieoid  (Dr.  Carey). 
Mr.  Thomas'  letter  reached  Dr.  Carey  on  1st  March  aaid  it  did 
not  take  him  long  to  accept  the  proposal.  He  had  not  evieneom- 
pleted  his  "  huts,"  and  did  not  stay  to  do  so,  but  set  out  on  fl» 
23rd  May  and  reached  Mr.  Udny's  house  at  Malda  safely  on  Ito 
15th  June.  He  was  appointed  to  the  charge  of  the  factoiyat 
Mudnabatty,  about  30  miles  north  of  Malda,  and  'Mr.  Tlnfias 
to  the  charge  of  that  at  Mypaldigy,  about  16  miles  further  noA- 
He  was  to  PDceive  Ks.  200  monthly  as  well  as  a  commissioxi  on  ill 
the  indigo  manufactured.  As  soon  as  he  had  taken  charge  <rfth 
factory  he  wrote  to  the;  Society  in  England  that  he  would 
require  any  further  support  from  them.  (The  whole  sum 
the  Committee  remitted  to  India  between  May  1793  and  May  IW 
for  the  support  of  two  missionaries  and  their  wives  and  fco 
children,  was  only  £200). 

In  September  1794  he  had  a  violent  attack  of  fever  .and 
he  was  still  ill  hisi  eld-est  boy,  aged  five  years,  died  on  the 
October.  He  sought  a  change  in  a  boat  journey  with  Mr.  Thoitf 
towards  Thibet,  but  had  to  give  it  up  ae  the  season  was  agaiiJ 
them.  The  fever,  however,  was  not  removed  before  4th  DecendNl 
of  that  year. 

In  April  1795  his  congregation  was  increased  to  600  nath« 
of  all  descriptions.  The  translations  had  gone  on  very  do^t 
but  by  August  of  that  year  some  portions  of  the  Bible  were  reift 
for  the  press — all  at  his  own  expense  in  addition  to  a  school  k] 
kept  up.  Under  a  new  order  of  1795,  unlicensed  Euiiopeans  ii«* 
required  to  enter  into  covenants  with  the  Government  and  to  tti 
securities  for  the  performance  of  them  in  sums  varying  from  XMH 


»  £2,000.  Undeii  iihis  order  Dr.  Carey  was  returned  as  an  Indigc 
lantsr  residing  in  the  District  of  Malda  and  Mr.  Udny  and 
nother  friend  stood  his  securities.  In  the  early  part  of  1796 
Ir.  Carey  was  obliged  to  discharge  his  munshi,  so  the  translations 
KOgressed  still  more  slowly,  but  by  June  nearly  the  whole,  of 
hd  Pentateuch  and  the  New  Testament  were  complete. 

In  that  same  year  his  affairs  took  a  gloomy  turn  as  Mr.  Udny 
incurred  great  losses  owing  to  the  failure  of  his  brother's  large 
house  of  business  and  Mr.  Udny  had  to  give  up  th.e  factory  at 
Mudnabatty,  just  when  some  natives  appeared  ready  to  join  the 

Mr.  Fountain  reached  Mudnabatty  on  the  10th  October  1796. 
Kb  had  conie  out  to  Calcutta  in  an  American  ship  and  entered 
Hie  city  without  observation  and  received  friendly  assistance  from 
Kr.  Udny  and  Mr.  Brown  to  enable  him  to  proceed  up-country, 
ft  wias  at  this  juncture  that  Dr.  Carey  wrote  to  Mr.  Fuller  pro- 
wundihg  the  Moravian  system  of  having  one  Mission  famUy, 
fiiicb  a  few  years  later  was  carried  into  effect  at  Serampore. 

On  the  6th  March  1797,  Dr.  Carey  and  Mr.  Thomas  took  an 
icursion  into  Bhootan.  They  succeeded  in  reaching  Bote  Haut 
nd  were  well  received,  and,  later  in  the  year,  when  the  Mudnar 
»tty  factory  was  given  up  Dr.  Carey  purchased  from  Mr.  Udny 
fimall  factory  called  Kidderpore  to  which  he  removed  with;  his 
imily.  He  entered  into  a  fresh  covenant  in  1797  as  an  Indigo 
lantsr  and  waa  free  for  five  years. 

In  September  1798  a  printing  press  was  purchased  from  Cal- 
ttta  and  sent  up.  Dr.  Carey  had  written  from  there  to  Mr.  Fuller 
January  1798  that  the  Mission  should  be  strengthened  and 
is  letter  reached  Mr.  Fuller  at  the  beginning  of  August  1798. 
wordingly,  in  course  of  time,  Dr.  Maishman,  Mr.  Ward,  Mr. 
"uniadon  and  Mr.  Grant  embarked  on  thie  American  ship 
'iterion  (Captain  Wdckes)  on  29th  May  1799.  The  ship  reached 
ugor  on  the  5th  October  and  the  Captain  entered  their  names 
Christian  missionaries  proceeding  to  the  Danish  Settlement  at 

264         THE    STORY   OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHUBCH. 

Serampore.  Th«re  was  no  one  to  receive  them  at  Calcutta,  \fA 
Captain  Wickee  procured  boats  for  them  and  escorted  by  bis  siictt, 
they  reached  Serampore  on  Sunday  morning,  the  13th  October 
1799.  On  Monday  the  14th  the  misEuonaries  waited  on  the  Govw- 
nor  of  Serampore  with  the  letter  from  the  Danish  Consul  in  LondoA. 
On  that  same  day  when  Captain  Wickes  applied  at  Calcutta  to 
enter  his  vessel  he  was  informed  that  instructions  had  been  issued 
by  Grovernment  to  refuse  it,  unless  the  four  missionaries  appeared 
at  the  Poldce  Court  and  entered  into  engagements  to  return  imme- 
diately to  England.  The  missionaries  at  Serampore  were  infonned 
and  next  day  waited  on  the  Governor  and  explained  the  dif&cultieB 
of  their  position  and  he  took  them  under  his  protection.  They 
wrot3  at  once  to  Dr.  Carey  and  urged  him  to  come  down  as  quicUy 
as  possuble  and  aid  them  with  his  advice  at  this  crisis.  Ward  and 
Brunsdon  came  down  to  Calcutta  to  make  interest  for  pemuBSBOn 
to  remain.  The  Governor-General  saw  he  had  gone  too  far  and 
gave  in  with  a  good  grace  and  removed  the  interdict  oil  the 
Criterion.  But  none  of  the  new  missionaries  could  go  to  Dr. 
Carey,  so  they  had  to  await  his  reply  to  their  communicatJon. 
In  the  meantime,  Mr.  Grant  died  on  31st  October.  Dr.  Caieyli 
reply  was  received  on  3rd  November  showing  that  he  was  very 
unwilling  to  abandon  Kidderpore.  The  Governor  called  on  the 
missionaries  on  the  6th  November  and  pressed  them  to  make 
Serampore  the  Headquarters  of  their  Mission,  assuring  them  d 
the  protection  of  the  Danish  Crown  so  that  they  would  h«^ 
notlning  to  fear  from  the  opposition  of  their  own  Grovemment. 

Lord  Wellesley  would  on  no  account'  permit  the  existence  d 
a  Press  in  the  vicinity  of  Malda,  and  he  was  not  altogether  avene 
to  their  settling  at  Serampore  where  he  would  not  need  to  disturb 
them,  so  the  missionaries  saw  it  their  duty  to  give  up  Kidderpore 
and  the  Malda  District.  On  the  12th  November  Mr.  Fountain 
arrived  at  Serampore  in  order  to  be  married  to  Miss  Tidd  who  had 
come  out  with  the  missionaries  for  that  purpose,  and  on  the  lift 
idem  he  and  Mr.  Ward  set  out  to  visit  Dr,  Carey  with  a  view  to  get 


toft  to  remove  to  Serampore:  Mr.  Ward  proceeded  under  the  pro- 
tdrtBOQ  of  a  Danish  passport.  They  reached  Dr.  Carey's  bungaJaw 
Stt  1st  December.  The  pros  and  cons  were  put  before  Dr.  Carey 
IM  eventually  he  yielded  und>e>r  the  assurance  from  Mr.  Ward 
HMt  he  had  a  passport  from  the  Governor  of  Serampore  and  did 
ikt  therefore,  fear  interruption. 

Dr.  Carey  arrived  at.  Serampore  with  his  family  consisting  of 

four  aons  and  a  wife  (the  last  in  a  state  of  hopeless  insanity)    on 

LOth  January   1800.     They  then  purchased  a  dwelling-house  and 

Fonnad  themselves  into  one  Mission  family.     They  immediately  set 

up  the  Press   and  Mr.  Ward   at  once  commenced   printing     the 

hriptures  in  Bengalee.     An  impression  of  the  first  page  of  the 

Sew  Testament   in  Bengalee   which  had   been   composed   by   Mr. 

Wtxd  was  taken  off  by  Dr.  Carey  on  tha  18th  March  and  on  16th 

Kay  of  that  year  the  first  sheet  of  it  was  struck  off.     On  the 

Hb.  February  1801,  Dr.    Carey  enjoyed  the  supreme  delight     of 

receiving  the  last  sheet  of  it  from   the  Press.     The  typa  of  the 

Cnftter  portion  of  it  was  set  up  by  Mr.   Ward  hdmself,   assisted 

ij  Mr.  Felix  Carey,  and  by  Mr.  Brunsdon,  when  his  health  per- 

oitted   him  to  labor.     With   such   diligence  had   the  work   been 

VMhed  forward  that  even  under  every  disadvantage  it  was  oom- 

*lefced  within  nine  months.     As  soon  as  the  first  copy  was  bound 

b  was  plac?d  on  the  Commundon  Table  in  the  Chapel  (at  Seram- 

Kawl)  and  a  meeting  was  held  of  the  whole  of  the  Mission-  f amilv 

aid  the  newly  baptized  heathen,   to  acknowledge  their  gratitude 

0  God  for  the  completion  of  this  important  work;    Dr.    Marsh- 

Um  thus  describes  the  occasion  in  a  letter  written  by  him  to  Dr. 

tyland  on  the  5th  March  1801  :— 

"We  hav.3  lately  had  a  meeting  for  the  purpose  of  returning 
Links  to  our  God  for  His  goodness  in  enabling  us  to  finish  the 
ew  Testament. 

"Our  Hindu^  brothsrs  and  sisters  were  present  and  Kristno 

•  By  this  Dr.  Marshnmn  meant  converts  from  Hinduism.  Copies  of  this  New 
lament  were  subsequently  presente<l  to  the  Governor  of  Serampore  and  to  the 


(the  first  oonvert)  engaged  in  prayer.  After  prayer  and  prwe 
at  proper  intervals,  Brother  Carey  delivered  an  exhorUtioii 
in  Bengalee  and  English  from  Col:  III.  16,  "Let  the  irord 
of  Christ  dwell  in  you  richly.''  The  subject  having  dwelt  raflw 
forcibly  on  my  mind,  produced  the  following  lines,  which  ve» 
then  sung :  and  which,  on  account  of  the  occasion,  I  take  ib 
liberty  to  insert." 

1.  Hail^  precious  Book  Divine! 
Illumiu'd  by  thy  rays. 

Wo  rose  from  death  and  sin, 

And  tune  a  Saviours  praise: 
The  shadas  of  error,  dark  as  night, 

Vanish  before  thy  radiant  light. 

2.  We  bless  the  God  of  grace. 
Who  hath  His  word  reveal 'd. 

To  this  bewilder'd  race, 

So  long  in  darkness  held : 
His;  love  designs;   His  people  pray; 

His   providence  prepares  the   way. 

3.  Now  shall  the  Hindus  leam 
The  glories  of  our  King; 

Nor  to  blind  Gooroos  turn. 

Nor  idol   praises  sing: 
Diffusing  heavenly  light  around. 

This  book  their  Shastens  shall  confound. 

4.  Deign,  gracious  Saviour  deign. 
To  smile  upon  Thy  word; 

Let  millions  now  obtain. 

Salvation  from  the  Lord: 

Nor  let  its  growing  conquests  stay, 

Till  earth  exult  to  own  its  sway. 

They   formed  themselves   into   a  church  on   the   24ih  Apd 

1800  and  elected  Dr.  Carey  as  sola  Pastor.     Oh  the  22nd  DeceO' 


if  that  year  the  first  Natives  broke  caeto  and  on  the  28tb 
the  firet  native  convert,  Krishna  Pal,  was  baptized. 
Trom  1st  January  1801,  the  Marquess  Wellesley's  scheme  of 
lollege  of  Fort  Wdlliam  was  put  into  effect  and  on  8th  April 
Mr.  Brown  made  the  proposal  to  him  of  Dr.  Carey's  being 
nted  Teacher  of  Bengalee,  but  he  was  appointed  to  an^ 
or  grade  on  a  salary  of  Ks.  500  a  month  as  he  was  a 

3e  commenced  his  duties  on  the  12th  May  of  that  year.  On 
:tli  September  1804,  Dr.  Carey  as  Moderator  of  Bengalee  and 
jrit  at  the  public  disputation  was  called  upon  to  deliver  public 
hes  in  both  these  languag^as  before  the  Governor-General  and 
le  Chief  Officers  of  Government.  On  the  6th  February  1805 
IS  made,  in  addition,  Professor  of  Mahratti  with  an  addition 
>  income  and  from  the  1st  July  1807  when  the  clause  abrogat- 
le  obligation  for  Officers  of  the  College  to  profess  the  religion 
e  Church  of  England  took  effect,  he  was  raised  from  the 
of  Taacher  to  that  of  Professor  and  his  allowance  was  in- 
d  from  Rs.  500  to  Rs.  1,000  a  month. 

)n  the  7th  December  1807  the  first  Mrs.  Carey  died  having 
in  a  state  of  mental  aberration  for  12  years.  She  was  carried 
a  fever  after  a  fortnight's  illness.  On  the  8th  of  May  1808 
Jarey  married  Miss  Charlotte  Rumohr,  who  was  of  a  noble 
J  in  the  Duchy  of  Sleswick,  her  sister  being  married  to  the 
berlain  of  the  King  of  Denmark. 

n  June  1809  Dr.  Carey  was  attacked  by  fever  which  rapidly 
ht  him  to  the  brink  of  the  grave,  and  he  did  not  recover 
.ugust,  much  prayer  having  been  made  for  his  recovery, 
g  the  night  of  the  11th  March  1812  the  printing-press  at 
pore  was  totally  consumed  by  fire,  which  seriously  hindered' 
rinting  of  the  Scriptures.  The  loss  was  reckoned  at  not  lees 
Ete.  70,080. 

ti  1815,  Dr.  Carey  began  to  feel  the  need  of  a  fellow-mis^ 
y  for  the  translation  work.     In  1816  the  misunderstandi: 



betwsen  the  Serampore  Missionaiics  and  tte  Society,  begaiQ  and 
the  breach  was  not  heal  3d,  as  in  1827,  the  two  separated.  Though 
Dr.  Carey  was  sensitive  about  this,  yet  the  difference  befciwen 
himself  and  the  Junior  Brethren  in  1817  did  not  render  him  in- 
sensible to  the  importance  of  their  labours.  The  Junior  Bietluoi 
separated  themselves  in  1818  from  their  Seniors  under  the  oonvio* 
tiion  that  the  Society  was  right  in  their  view  in  the  oontroyenij 
and  started  the  Mission  in  Calcutta  in  connection  with  the  Paient 
Society.  In  1820  a  reconciliation  meeting  took  place,  and,  by 
1822,  Dr.  Carey  was  able  to  write  that  the  most  perfect  hannony 
subsisted  between  them  and  the  Junior  Brethren. 

In  September  1820  he  was  instrumental  in  establoehiiig  tie 
Agri-Horticultural  Society  in  Calcutta.  He  had  written  i^  W^ 
to  England  that  a  cabbage-seed  coidd  not  be  bought  out  hero  ipihr 
£2  2s.,  but  40  years  after,  the  best  could  be  obtained  for  trinr 

At  the  beginning  of  1821,  Dr.  Carey  was  attacked  witt  ds- 
eaea,  which  for  a  time  appeared  to  threaten  has  life,  but  he  re- 
covered after  a  while.  When  he  was  ill  the  Governor  of  Senw- 
pore  called  with  a  most  favorable  letter  from  the  King  of  Demnaxk. 

On  30th  May  1821,  Dr.  Carey  lost  his  second  wifei  and  in 
1822,  he  married  as  his  third  wife  Mrs.  Hughes,  a  widow  of  fwty- 
five.  She  was  assiduous  in  promoting  liis  comfort,  and  was  tb* 
best  of  nurses  for  a  man  of  sixty-two.  The  banns  for  the  marriage 
were  published  in  the  Cathedral  at  Calcutta.  She  survived  him 
only  a  year. 

In  October  1823  he  received  from  Government  an  appoint- 
ment to  a  new  offic?,  dn  addition  of  that  of  Professor  viz,,  tiiat 
of  Translator  of  the  Regulations  of  the  Governor-General  in  Gouncil 
into  the  Bengalee  language  which  he  held  till  July  1830. 

On  the  8th  October  of  this  year  Dr.  Carey  had  a  fall  in  getting 
out  of  his  boat  and  injured  his  hip-joint  severely,  which  resulted  in 
an  alarming  fever  on  the  tenth  day  and  his  life  was  deepaired  of, 
but  he  was  spared,  though  he  never  perfectly  recovered  from  tMa. 


or  six  montlis  he  was  unable  to  walk  without  crutches.  The 
atch€is  are  shown  to  visitors  among  the  Carey  relics  at  Serampore. 
uring  his  illness  there  was  a  heavy  and  unprscedented  inunda- 
>n  an  October.  The  substantial  river  bank  in  front  of  his  house 
,ve  way  under  the  rush  of  waters  from  the  River  Damuda,  and 
the  course  of  a  few  days  there  was  a  depth  of  50  feet  of  water 
iere  the  public  road  had  recently  stood.  The  river  was  rushing 
:e  a  torrent  within  ten  feet  of  Dr.   Carey  s  bedroom  in   which 

View  op  the  Flagstaff  Ghat,  Babbackpore. 

Opposite  the  Serampore  College,  as  it  was  in  the  early  years 

of  the  19th  century, 

w>  rents  had  become  visible,  when  he  was  obliged,  with  great 
iluct^nce,  to  hasten  from  it.  He  took  refuge  in  one  of  the  suites 
'  apartments  allotted  to  the  ProfeB6ors  on  the  College  premises, 
id  there  he  continued  to  reside  till  his   deathi. 

In   1824  he  was  elected  President  of  the  Agri-Horticultural 

At  the  beginning  of  1826  the  reply  of  the  Missionary  Society 
their  letter  of  January  1825  for  a  second  grant  of  £1,000  was 
oedred  and  had  a  serious  effect  on  Dr.  Carey  as  it  dispelled  every 
:pectation  of     a  future     union.     He    wanted  to     abandon  the 


premises  at  Serampore  and  take  others  on  the  other  side  of  tlu 
river,  but  calmer  counsels  prevailed. 

From  1st  July  1830  his  allowance  as  Professor  was  reduced 
from  Ks.  1,000  to  Rs.  500  a  month,  owing  to  the  financial  exigencw 
of  the  Government.     This  was  practically  a  pension. 

In  July  1833  so  great  a  change  took  placa  in  him  that  kl 
was  not  expected  to  live  and  hds  children  were  summoned  to  In 
bedside,  but  he  recovered  in  a  most  miraculous  manner,  and  al- 
though he  was  ever  after  almost  confined  to  his  bed,  he  lingsed 
on  till  the  9th  Juna  1834  when  he  passed  away  in  his  73rd  JW, 
of  which  more  than  forty  had  been  spent  in  India.  Lady  Beniasck 
crossed  over  repeatedly  from  Barrackpore  to  see  him,  and  Dr. 
Wilson,  the  Bishop  of  Calcutta,,  also  came  to  his  dying  bedtfd 
sought  his  benediction. 

Thus  passed  away  the  Benefactor  of  Asia,  but  no  memorUt 
national,  catholic,  or  sectarian,  marks  the  work  of  Dr.  Carey,  exa^ 
the  Lall  Bazar  Chapd  and  the  Serampore  College ;  and  it  has  beet 
decided  that  from  and  after  the  1st  January  1909  the  Centenirf 
Day — the  Chapel  will  be  called  the  "  Carey  Baptist  Chapel "  after 
him  and  the  Church,  the  Carey  Baptist  Church. 

The  Rev.  Joshua  Mabshican,  D.D. 

roRTBAiT  OP  Tin:  Hbv,  ^t.  Mabshmax,  D.D. 
\Bi,  iiM.f  yrrmitsioH  o/  th,-   fi,tf>ti*t  M'*iioHtrp  Society.  London,) 


Dr.  Marshman  was  bom  at  Wastbury  Leigh,  in  Wiltshire,  on 
!20tli  April  1768.  His  family  traced  its  descent 
a  an  officer  in  the  Parliamentary  Army,  who  retired 
t  private  life  in  Wiltshire,  after  Charles  II 
>anded  that  body  in  1660.  Like  his  comrades,  when  deprived 
all  further  hope  of  public  employment,  he  betook  himself 
^  useful  trade;  and  his  grandson,  as  a  smith,  realized 
It  waa  then  considered  a  little  fortune,  which  he  bequeathed 
his  only  son  at  his  death  in  1720.  This  independence  enabled 
i  laifcter  to  indulge  an  idle  and  dissipated  habits,  and  ensured 
rndn.  His  wife  was  a  woman  of  strong  character,  and  had 
nind  a  superior  education.  When  abandoned  by  her  husband, 
3  leduc&d  to  destitution,  she  determined  to  support  her  family 
her  own  labors,  and  at  the  same  time  apprenticed  her  son  John 
ashman,  the  father  of  the  Serampore  Missionary,  to  a  weaver, 
the  age  of  twelve.-  But  he  was  treated  with  such  severdty  by  his 
Bter,  that  at  the  end  of  three  years  he  escaped  to  London,  where 
er  suffering  many  hardships,  he  at  length  entered  as  a  seaman 

the  Viper,  and  then  in  the  Hind  ships  of  war.  The 
omander  of  the  latter  was  Captain  Bond.  The  Hind  was 
t  to  Canada,  and  he  had  thus  am  opportunity  of  being  present 
the  capture  of  Quebec  (the  tercentenary  of  which  has  reoently 
•n  celebrated),  the  action  in  which  the  gallant  Wolff  fell.  After 
dng  been  for  years  at  sea,  he  obtained  his  discharge,  and  retum- 
'  to  Wiltshire  and  settled  at  Diltona  Marsh  as  a  weaver  of  super- 
>  woollen  cloth,  then  the  staple  manufacture  in  that  distinct. 

removed  from  here  to  Westbury  Leigh  and  was  subsequently 
atble  to  afford  his  son  any  education  beyond  what  his  native 
lage  supplied,  except  in  his  own  Christian  principles ;  and  he 
ad  to  see  the  principles  he  had  instilled,  ripen  into  the  most 
arged  and  active  benevolence.  Dr.  Marshman  from  a  very 
'ly  age  exhibited  so  extraordinary  a  thirst  for  knowledge,  as 
tx)nvince  his  family  and  friends  that  he  was  destined  for  som^- 
ng  higher  than  the  loom. 

His  father  was  a  member  and  deacon  of  the  Baptist  Church 


there,  who,  in  1764  married  Miss  Mary  Gouzener,  a  desoendMitof 
one  of  ih&  French  refugees.  She  was  a  woman  of  greet,  piety  aoi 
exemplary  benevolence.  It  was  under  these  favourable  leligioai 
associations  that  Joshua  Mamhman  was  trained  up. 

At  the  age  of  seven  (1775),  he  was  sent  to  the  little  viDigi 
school  and  gradually  developed  a  desire  for  readdng  until  it  bal 
such  a  hold  on  him  that  he  thought  nothdng  of  walking  a  doM 
mil'SS  for  the  loan  of  a  book. 

At  the  age  of  fifteen  (1783)  Mr.  Gator,  a  bookseller  iiiHoI- 
bom,  London,  and  a  native  of  Westbury  Leigh,  visited  the  ^iDip 
and  proposed  to  receive  young  Marshman  into  his  shop,  ud 
accordingly,  to  London  ho  went,  but  after  five  months  his  fatlier 
recalled  him  to  Westbury  Leigh.  Here  he  resumed  his  hbmn 
at  the  loom.  He  offered  hilnself  for  membership  to  the  QlmA 
at  Westbury  Leigh,  but  was  kept  on  probation  for  seven  jcm^ 
and  eventually  left  the  place  without  having  been  baptixed. 

In  1791  lie  married  Miss  Hannah  Shepherd,  the  granddaughtal 
of  the  Rev.  John  Clark,  who  was  for  sixty  yeais  the  Pastor  of  tto 
Baptist  Church  at  Crockerton,  in  Wiltshire,  where  he  pwictod 
his  last  sermoni  in  1803  in  his  ninety-fiiBt  year.  In  1794  k» 
accepted  the  post  of  Master  in  a  school  supported  by  the  Bwii 
mead  Church,  Bristol,  on  a  salary  of  £10  a  year,  ajid  had  p» 
mission  to  take  private  pupils.  He  accordingly  removed  to  BrM 
at  the  age  of  twenty-six.  During  the  same  year  he  was  receiW 
into  the  Church  at  Broadmead  after  baptism.  His  friend  ttJ 
pupil  Mr.  Grant  having  offered  himself  for  Mission  work  he  M 
so  too  in  1799,  and  was  accepted  along  with  three  othere.  Oi 
the  3rd  May  of  that  year  he  and  l^lr.  Grant  were  ordained  A 
Bristol,  and  on  the  10th  idem  a  farewell  meeting  was  held.  Oi 
the  25th  May  the  missionary  party  embarked  and  on  the  S9tt 
idem  they  set  sail  in  the  American  ship  Criterum  commiuuM 
by  Captain  Wickes.  To  prevent  immediate  banishment  by  land- 
ing at  Calcutta  they  were  furnished  with  a  letter  of  intiodadiioi 
f  rem  the  Danish  Consul  in  London  to  f  he  Governor  of  Senapon.  ' 


hi  reaching  Calcutta,  through  the  kindness  of  Captain  Wickes, 
hoj  got  boats,  and,  under  the  eeoort  of  his  sircar,  arrived  at 
teampore  on  Sunday,  the  13th  October  1799. 

After  Dr.  Carey  came  down  to  Serampore  the  following  year, 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Marshman  opened  a  Boarding  School.  Though 
lomed  with  Dr.  Carey  and  Mr.  Ward  in  on  3  object  and  with  one 
impulse,  there  were  particular  objects  which  engaged  Dr.  Marsh- 
Duns  time  and  attention  and  these  will  now  be  specialised. 

On  1st  October  1800  Dr.  Marshman  began  to  preach  in 
Bengalee  to  the  Natives.  In  April  1802  he  undertook  his  first 
yJA  to  Jessore,  and  in  May  1803  he  undertook  his  second  visiit 
tfcere.  Early  in  1804  he  proceeded  on  a  missionary  tour  with 
Krishna  Pal  and  other  converts  to  tho  Jessore  District. 

At  the  beginning  of  1806  lie  gave  himself  diligently  to  the 
itady  of  Chinese  with  a  view  to  the  translation  of  the  Scriptures 
Bto  that  language.  For  fifteen  years  he  laboured  devotedly  giving 
p  every  moment  he  could  spare  to  the  work  of  this  translation, 
n  it  was  carried  through  the  Press.  To  his  personal  exertions  in 
i07  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  is  mainly  indebted  for  its  erection. 

On  Christmas  Day  1809  he  preached  the  inaugural  sermon 
t  behalf  of  the  Benevolence  Institution,  which  was  indebted  tx> 
ta  for  its  subsequent  vigor.  He  was  associated  with  Dr.  Carey 
the  translation  of  the  Ramayan  into  English  and  gave  up  much 
ae  and  labour  to  the  plan  of  native  schools. 

In  1814,  Dr.  Manshman  published  his  '' Clavis  Sinica''  or 
r  of  the  Chinese  language,  the  result  of  eight  years  of  labour  and 
dy.  In  April  1818  the  publication  of  the  "Friend  of  India" 
English  was  commenced  as  a  monthly  magazine.  In  the  first 
)k  of  December  1822  the  last  sheet  of  the  Chinsce  translation 
the  Bible  was  sent  to  Press.  Thia  was  the  first  Chinese  work 
r  printed  from  moveable  metallic  type.  These  had  been 
mted  by  the  Kev.  J.  Lawson.  In  1836  Mr.  J.  R.  Morrison,  the 
of  the  distinguished  Missionary,  Dr.  Morrison,  joined  Mr. 
olaff  in  the  request  that  an  impression  of  their  New  TeBta> 
it,   of  which  they  sent  the  manuscript,   might  bs  printed  at 


274         THE    STORY   OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHUHCUI. 

Serampore  from  these  meitallic  types.  They  were  also  used  in 
printing  for  the  *Roman  Catholic  Vicar- Apostolic  of  Cochin-China 
his  ''Anamitic  and  Latin  Dictionary.'  The  advantage  of  thu 
mode  of  printing  instead  of  from  blocks  was  thus  beginning  to  be 
appreciated  even  by  tlie  missionaries  in  China. 


TrxT.    '•  \nd  he  railed  iht  multitude,  and  said  unto  them,  Hear,  and 
umlrr-iand:  m>i  thai  which"  go€th  into  the  imnith  defilethanuini  bnt 
thai  Mhichcoineth  out  of  the  mouthy  this  defileth  the  man." 

Math.  XV.  10,  1L     | 


^  -&  m  iff  n^^ 


o    ^  ^   7^  ^   #1 

#   n  ».  °   ^  A 


Text.  ^  In  the  beginning  God  created  the  beaveni  and  the  earOu    And 
the  earth  wai  without  (brm  and  void,  and  darknesi  waa  npon  the  &ct 
of  thedeepi  and  the  Spirit  of  God  moved  npon  thefeceof  dtewatmt   . 
And  God  «ald,  Let  there  be  light:  and  there  was  light"  Gnr.  L  1— ft,  / 

§  i:  ^  W  ^  tt  ^  #  : 


Metal  Types  introduced  by  Mb.  Lawson. 


i  In  March  1822,  his  daughter,  Mrs.  WilliaxoB,  died,  and  he  felt 
Iwr  death  very  much.  Mr.  Ward's  death  in  March  1823  also 
^ected  him  very  much  and  he  wrote,  "I  have  indeed  lost  the 
4mre  to  live." 

At  the  end  of  1825,  he  detetnmned  to  visit  England,  and 
BjBBlbarked  in  January  1826.  He  travelled  through  the  United 
■Xingdom  and  visited  Denmark,  where  he  obtained  a  Charter  for 
rilie  College  from  the  King.  He  returned  to  Serampore  on  the 
SKh  May,  1829,  looking,  as  his  friends  remarked  with  deep  regret, 
'"flfteen  years  older." 

In  1830,  as  an  outcome  of  the  reply  received  from  the  Com- 
mittoe  in  England,  he  vacated  the  house  at  Serampore  which  he 
^lad  occupied  for  30  years  and  removed  into  a  small  house  which 
^  had  erected  for  him&slf. 

-6.  At  the  beginning  of  1833,  he  experienced  another  visitation 
Sol  mental  weakness  and  wandered  about  the  premises  like  a 
re;  and  Dr.  Carey's  death  the  following  year,  seemed  to 
en  a  return  of  his  mental  debility,  so  he  took  a  change  to 
herrapoonijee)  where  Mrs.  Marshman  had  previously  gone. 

^  In  1836  his  health  began  to  fail,  and  the  calamity  which  befell 
mk  daughter,  Lady  Havelock,  at  Landour  on  the  night  of  the  18th 
^October  1836,  when  she  was  nearly  burnt  to  death,  inflicted  a 
•hock  on  his  feelings  and  constitution  from  which  he  never 
Moovered.  He  wandered  about  the  house  in  a  state  of  gloomy 
idbstration  occasionally  talking  without  object  or  coherence  until 
fhe  news  was  received  that  she  was  out  of  danger. 

On  the  5th  December  1837,  he  gently  sank  to  rest  in  the  70th 
year  <tf  his  age,  and,  as  the  funeral  procession  was  leaving  the 
louse  where  he  died,  mails  were  delivered  announcing  that  the 
tBhnanpore  Mission  was  no  more.  Thus  passed  away  the  last  of 
ilia  Serampone  triumvirate  and  the  Serampore  Mission  simul- 
teneously,  the  latter  as  a  separate  organization,  being  practically 
Imiied  in  his  grave. 

276         THE   STORY  OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    GHUROH. 

The  Rev.  William  Ward. 

POBTRiUT  01'   TKJi    B,EV    W.  WARD. 
(Jiy  kind  permu-^ion  .;/  the  Bavtisf  Missionary  Sfciety^  Londo%) 

Ho  was  born  at  Derby  on  the  20tli  October  1769. — He  was  the 
of  Jolin  Ward,  carpenter  and  bmlder.  His  father  didd  whei 
was  a  cliild  and  his  education  devolved  upon  his  mother,  a  pe 
of  superior  partes  and  exemplary  piety,  who  attenided  the  min 
of  thd  Methodists.  He  v/as  placed  under  the  tuition,  first  of 
Congreve,  and  then  of  Mr.  Breary,  of  Derby.  On  leaving  8i 
he  was  plao^^d  as  an  apprentice  with  Mr.  Drury,  who  was  ai 
head  of  a  large  printing  establishment  in  the  town.  He  soon 
to  the  grade  of  corrector  in  the  Press.  At  the  end  of  his  &p 
tioeship  he  undertook  the  editing  of  the  "Derby  Mercury, 
behalf  of  has  master.  Under  his  management  its  circulatioii 
to  1 ,500,  and  it  became  one  of  the  most  influential  papers  i 
country.  He  imbibed  democratic  feelings  and  oognpoeed  & 
tical  address  which  led  to  the  prosecution  of  the  London  paj 
which  it  appeared,  but  the  paper  was  acquitted.  Unfortnn] 
at  a  subsequent  period  he  admitted  without  the  consult  o 
Church  a  democratic  orator  named  Thelwsll  into  the  Bi 
meeting  house  to  deliver  a  political  lecture  with  the  result 


3at  odium  was  broughb  on  the  character  of  the  Danomination 
the  town.  Having  worked  up  the  "  Derby  Mercury,"  he  wag 
lUced  to  remove  to  Stafford,  where  he  oommsnced  another 
imal,  but  he  subsequently  proceeded  to  Hull  to  undertake  the 
itorial  managament  of  th©  "Hull  Advertdser."  Six  years  were 
us  passed  in  the  duties  of  an  Editor. 

In  August,  1796,  hs  was  baptized  at  Hull  by  Mr.  Pendered 
id  began  visiting  the  poor.  This  brought  him  into  acquaintance 
ith  Mr.  Fisliwick  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  who  was  charmed 
ith  his  address;  and  was  anxious  that  his  miniKterial  talents 
loold  not  remain  buried  in  obscurity.  He  placed  him  at  his 
m  expense  under  the  tuition  of  the  Eev.  Dr.  Fawcett,  to  whose 
sidence  (Ewood  Hall)  he  removed  in  August  1797.  After  a  time 
>  renounced  politics  and  journalism  and  gave  his  heart  to  the  nobler 
K^tion  of  preaching  the  Grospel.     He  would  not  so  much  as  take 

a  newspaper  till  after  ten  years*  residence  at  Serampore  and 
len  read  the  Morning  Font,  a  weely  journal  published  in  Calcutta, 
.exchange  for  his  contributions  to  it. 

After  he  had  been  with  Dr.  ^awoett  about  a  year,  a  member 
\  the  Baptist  Miss:ionary  Committee  visited  "  Ewood  Hall ''  in 
Wtfch  of  recruits  for  Dr.  Carey's  pressing  requests  for  additional 
dpers  and  he  conversed  frequently  with  Mr.  Ward.  About  four 
ears  previously  Dr.  Carey  had  been  introduced  tO'  Mr.  Ward  on 
tie  eve  of  his  departure  for  India  and  had  remarked  that  if  their 
ibours  were  blessed  with  success  they  would  need  an  individual 
:  his  calling  to  enable  them  to  print  the  Scriptures,  and  he  hoped 
)  would  consent  to  follow  them.  This  remark  was  forgotten  at 
ie  time  by  Mr.  Ward,  but  was  vividly  recalled  now,  so  he  deter- 
ined  to  offer  himself  without  delay  for  service  as  a  Missionary 

tile  hope  of  being  employed  in  printing  the  Scriptures.  He 
IS  accepted,  but  for  three  months  he  supplied  the  pulpit  of  the 
>v.  S.  Pearoe  at  Birmingham.  On  the  7th  May,  1799,  he  and  Mr. 
xinsdon  were  ordained  at  Olney.     The  farewell  service  was  held 

ibe  10th  May,   and  eventually  he  embarked  in  the  Criterion 

278         THE    8TORT   OF    THE    LALL-BAZAB    BAPTIST    GBUBGH. 

with    Marshmau,    Brunsdon    and    Grant    at    the   end    of  tU 

On  the  10th  May,  1802,  Mr.  Ward  was  married  to  the  iridw 
of  Mn.  Fountain  at  the  Mission  House,  Serampore,  by  Dr.  Carfly. 
With  Mr.  Ward,  she  had  come  out  in  the  Criterion,  as  Miss  !Md 
in  1799,  for  the  purpose  of  marrying  Mr.  Fountain. 

As  his  health  became  impaired  he  took  a  trip  in  1803,  to 
Dinagapore  to  visit  Mr.  Fermandez,  and  he  returned  to  Seramporo 
on  the  16th  December  of  that  year. 

In  1806,  he  printed  off  the  first  sheet  of  the  Sanscrit  S«v 
Testament  in  the  Nagree  type.  On  the  1st  June  of  that  year,  b 
opened  the  mat  shed  ini  Calcutta  for  Divine  Service  and  en  fl* 
25th  January  1807  the  little  Chapel  in  the  Chitpore  Bead. 

Towards  the  close  of  1810,  he  published  the  first  editKm  ot 
his  work  on  the  "  History,  Literature  and  Mythology  of  flie 
Hindoos,  including  a  minute  description  of  their  manners  and 
customs,  and  translations  from  their  principal  works,"  in  tio 
Volumes.     It  is  now  out  of  print  and  is  of  considerable  value. 

On  the  night  of  the  11th  March,  1812,  the  Printing  Office  »t 
Serampore  was  totally  consumed  by  fire  and  the  labour  of  twdw 
yeai's  destroyed  in  a  few  hours.  The  discovery  that  the  matriofli 
and  punches  were  intact  was  a  source  of  inexpressible  delight  to  Mr, 
W^ard;  or,  otherwise,  the  work  of  the  missionaries  would  luwe  1 
been  crippled  for  a  long  time. 

Again  his  health  began  to  decline  and  at  the  beginning  cf 
1818,  he  was  advised  to  take  a  trip  on  the  river,  so  took  the  oppo^ 
tunity  to  visit  Chittagong,  Mr.  D'Bruyn  having  been  killed  thera 
about  fifteen  months  before.  This  excursion  produced  only  tem- 
porary relief  and  his  medical  advisers  insisted  on  a  voya^  to 
England.  He  embarked  accordingly  on  the  15th  December  1818, 
and  landed  in  May  1819,  feebler  rather  than  stronger.  Af&r 
completing  the   canvas  of  England  on  behalf  of  the  Serampore 


Ikge,  he  visited  Holland,  but  his  visit  produced  little  result 
>  returned  to  England  aft«r  three  wesks  and  then  went  over  to 
nesrica  in  October  1820.  His  journey  through  that  country  is 
id  to  have  been  one  continuous  ovatibn  and  he  succeeded  in 
■ing  ten  thousand  dollars  for  the  College.  He  returned  to 
piglond  in  April  1821,  and  embarked,  on  his  return  voyage  for 
idia  in  May,  with  Mrs.  Marshman,  bringing  with  him 
b.  Mack.  They  arrived  at  Serampore  on  the  20th  October  of 
kit  year. 

After  his  return  from  England,  he  was  enabled  to  resume 
lui  labours  in  the  Mission  and  in  the  College  with  all  the  energy 
Ustspcved  health,  but  after  a  brief  period  of  only  sixteen  months 
A  life  was  suddenly  terminated  by  cholera. 

On  Sunday,  the  2nd  March  1823,  he  was  at  Calcutta  and 
taached  in  the  evening  from  "  Lead  us  not  into  temptation "  in 
Q  searching  a  manner  as  to  attract  particular  notion.  He  also 
ttended  the  monthly  prayer  meeting  held  on  Monday  evening 
I  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  after  having  spent  the  day  in  visiting 
Mr  the  last  time  the  flock  he  so  much  loved.  On  Tuesday  morning, 
le  4th,  he  returned  to  Serampore.  He  appeared  quite  well 
le  whole  of  that  day  as  well  as  the  next,  in  the  evening  of  which 
I  preached  the  weekly  lecture  in  the  Mission  Chapel  at  Seram- 
»e  from  "He  that  believeth  and  is  baptized  shall  be  saved, 
c."  No  one  suspected  that  this  was  the  last  message  he  had 
deliver  in  his  great  Master's  name.  He  retired  about  10  o'clock 
at  night,  but  about  5  a.m.  on  Thursday,  the  6th,  he  felt  him- 
If  troubled  with  what  he  considered  simple  diarrhoea,  but  that 
temoon  it  became  evident  that  the  disease  was  cholera  of  a 
rolent  type;  at  11  o'clock  on  Friday,  7th  March,  he  b^an  to 
ik  and  by  5  o'clock  that  evening  he  was  a  corpse. 

He  appears  to  have  been  distinuished  by  anj  amiable  and 
.  affectionate  disposition.  By  his  death  one  strand  of  the  thres- 
IcL  cord  was  snapped,  and  H  had  its  effect  on  the  other  two.  H« 
Bd  at  the  age  of  53  only. 


The  Rev.   John  Mack. 

Mr.  Hack  was  born  at  Edinburgh  on  th.3  12th  March  1797.— 
His  father  was  a  Solicitor-at-law  and  held  an  influential  eituatkm 
in  the  Sheriff's  Office  at  Edinburgh,  but  died  while  Mack  was  young. 
He  was  brought  up  by  his  mother,  who  was  a  lady  of  eteriing 
piety.  He  was  given  a  thorough  academic  education  in  Scotiand, 
first  at  the  High.  School  and  thsn  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh. 
The  certificates  of  proficiency  which  he  received  from  his  Bevffai 
Professors  were  flattering  teet'imonialB  of  his  attainm;3nt8.  He 
subsequently  attended  a  course  of  chemical  Isctures  at  Grays lad 
the  surgical   lectures  of  "  mild  Abemethy." 

He  was  onginally  int-ended  for  the  Church  of  Scotland,  buti 
with  a  view  to  acquire  a  thorough  English  ptyle  in  speaking,  1» 
was  appointed  an  usher  in  a  respectablo  school  in  the  West  of 
England.  Having  changed  his  vie^v^  regarding  Baptism  ind 
Church  polity  through  the  influence  of  Mr.  Winterbotham,  * 
Baptist  Minister  in  tlie  neighbourhood,  he  was  baptyized  batore  a 
large  congregation.  This  change  in  his  views  was  a  sad  blow  to 
his  relatives,  and  especially  so  to  his  mother,  whose  heart-  had  been 
set  on  his  being  a  Minister  of  the  Church  of  Scotland.  He  thai 
entered  the  Bristol  Academy  to  qualify  for  the  Ministry.  Mr. 
Ward  on  his  return  from  America  in  1821,  selected  Mm  at  Briatd, 
and  he  was  set  apart  as  a  Missionary  to  the  heathen  in  tJie  Chapel 
in  which  lie  bad  bsen  bapt;ized. 

He  was  an  excellent  classic  and  thoroughly  versed  in  the 
different  branches  of  Natural  Science,  though  chemistry  was  h» 
favourite  study.  He  was  an  elegant  and  powerful  speaker.  In 
all  respects  he  was  an  accomplished  man,  and  a  fitting  afiBOciAie 
and  colleague  of  Carey,  Marshman  and  Ward,  to  whom  he  became 
as  warmly  attached  as  they  wera  to  one  another. 

He  embarked  with  Mr.  Ward  and  Mrs.  Marshman  in  May 
1821,  and  as  soon  as  he  arrived  at  Serampore  he  entered  upwi 
hds  duties  as  Professor  at  ths  College  and  for  fourteen  yeare  be 
was  steadily  engaged  in  training  up  missionary  labour  in  India. 
He  prepared  the  first  Bengalee  map. 

'ough  the  kindne^n  of  the   Haptitft  MiJtsionartj  So'itty^  London.'^ 





On   the  27th   June   1832,  he   was  oardained   Co-Pastor  withi 

Carey   and   Maorshman  of  the  Church  at   Ssrampore.     The 

rer    was  offered   by   Dr.    Carey  and   the   charge   delivered  by 

.    W.    Robins<m,      Pastor   of    the  Lall  !bazar     Church,    from 

I  11:  24. 

In  1836,  he  took  a  tour  through  the  Eastern  Provinces  of 
gal,  the  Khassia  Hills  and  Assam,  but  on  his  return  was 
eked  by  fever  from  which  he  recovered  with  difficulty.  He 
eventually  to  take  a  voyage  to  England  but  was  delayed 
the  close  of  the  year  before  he  could  start.  He  reached 
{IttDd  in  April  1837,  and  while  there  sigfned  the  Act  of  Re- 
oo  of  the  Serampore  Mission  with  the  Parent  Society  which 
»  date  the  7th  Deoember  1837. 

He  returned  to  India  at  the  beginning  of  1838  with  a  deter- 
ation  to  continue  the  labours  of  his  deceased  colleagues.  He 
:  charge  of  Dr.  Marshman's  Seminary  and  raised  its  reputu- 
to  the  highest  degree  and  made  it  the  first  private  educar 
al  establishment  in  India.  He  also  sustained  the  pastoral 
•ge  of  the  Chiirch  at  Serampore,  both  European!  and  Native, 
cted  the  Missionary  efforts  of  the  station  and  its  neighbour- 
J  with  zeal  and  gave  his  invaluable  aid  to  the  general  cause 
Missions  in  India. 

Soon  after  his  first  arrival  in  India  he  gave  a  series  of  lectures 
Chemistry  in  Calcutta,  the  first  ever  delivered  in  the  city,  but 
proceeds  he  handed  over  to  the  Mission.  Later  on  he  pre- 
3d  an    elementary   treatise  on   Chemistry. 

To  have  been  associated  with  Carey,  Marshman  and  Ward; 
hxve  assisted  in  their  labours,   and  participated  iii  their  joys 

sorrows,  he  considered  the  glory  of  his  life. 

As  a  public  writer  he  had  few  equals  in  India. 

When  the  Friend  of  India  was  started   in   1835  at  Seram- 

>,   he  took  an  active  share  in  its  editorial  management.     He 

the  most  perfect  contempt  for  money,  except  as  it  could  be 


284         THE   STORY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CUUKOH. 

used  to  benefit  others.  His  liberality  was  not  limited  \^  1 
means  and  he  had  the  far  more  rare  and  difficult  virtue  tiwt 
generosity  of  feeling. 

His  end  is  reported  to  have  come  on  this  wise.  On  bis  retuB 
from  his  ride  he  hoped  to  conduct  school  as  usual,  but  a  littt 
after  10  o'clock  in  the  day  it  became  evident  that  be  had  f alka 
M.  victim  to  cholera  from  which  he  suffered  extremely  till  abook 
7  P.M.,  and  about  10-30  p.m.  he  fell  asleep.  He  died  on  the 304 
April,  1845,  and  thus  fell  the  last  of  the  Serampore  giarUtA .  It  il 
thought  by  some  friends  that  on  the  preceding  evening  he  b* 
partaken  rather  too  freely  of  the  leechee  fruit  of  which  he  is  B«ii 
to  have  been  passionately  fond. 

The  Tablet  in  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  was  put  up  by  one  ol 
his  pupils.  This  is  what  another  pupil  of  Mr.  Mack's,  whowai 
known  to  the  writer  for  many  years  before  his  death,  has  pi 
on  record  in  his  reminiscences  of  Mr.  Mack: 

"  The  Reverend  John  Mack,  who  was  both  Head  Teacher 
owner  of  the  Serampore  Seminary,  was  a  man  universally  belowi 
by  all  his  pupils.  He  was  kind,  but  he  was  firm;,  he  waste  < 
father  to  has  boys,  he  was  very  painstaking  and  a  ripe  scholw 
he  was  a  thorough  tutor;  he  was  just  in  all  his  dealings:  he  " 
not  spare  the  rod,  but  he  used  it  with  becoming  niodera;b]on. 

"  The  boys  lost  in  him  a  father  and  friend  as  well  as  tutor: 
Serampore  Church  a  beloved  Pastor,  the  Native  Christians  a  lath^i 
in  Christ,  the  residents  of  Ser-ampore  a  friend.  The  native  c<» 
munity  held  him  in  high  esteem  and  the  rich  Babus  patrwii* 
his  school  by  sending  their  sons  to  be  educated  by  him.  "Ee^ 
too  liberal-minded,  too  benevolent.  It  was  very  fortunate  W 
a  few  months  previous  to  his  death  he  insured  his  life,  though  hi 
was  in  good  health  at  the  time." 

Probably  feelings  similar  to  those  expressed  above  prompt* 
Mr.  W.  H.  Jonas  to  put  up  the  Tablet  in  the  Chapel. 

Mr.  Mack  is  referred  to  in  the  highest  terms  in  the  Bef* 
E.  S.  Summers'  memorial  sermon  for  the  Rev.  R.  Robinson,  wh 
was  trained  under  Mr.  Mack  and  who  imbibed  much  of  his  tutort 
mind  and  spirit. 


was  tLuB  cut  off  in  tha?  prime  of  life  and  in  the  midst  ^6f 
ilness  when  length,  of  days  and  increasing  usefulness  seemed' 

Mh.  J.  C.  Marshman.  C.8.1. 

OBTRAIT   OF   MR.   J.   C.   MABSHMAN,   C  S.I  ,    IN   EARLY    LIFE.         .- 

\  chapter  will  be  incomplete  without  a  ]X)rtrait  of  Mr. 
arshman,  the  historian,  which  is,  accordingly  given  above 
e  is  no  occasion  to  write  a  biographical  sketch  of  him . 


The  Pastorate  of  the  %ev.  James  Thomas. 

{From  11th  June  18U  to  20th  July  1858) 
It  will  be  necessary  first  tx>  introduce  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Tl 
to  the  reader  before  proceeding  to  detail  the  events  of  the  p 
ate,  but  let  it  be  borne  in  mind  at  the  outset  that  this  was 
Thomas'  third  wife,  to  whom  he  was  married  on  the  4th  J« 
1842  and  who  survived  him  and  lived  on  to  a  good  old  age, 
ing  away  in  her  81st  year  on  the  25th  October  1898.  It 
thus  be  seen  that  she  was  his  co-laborer  for  the  whole  time 
he  was  Pastor.  The  biographical  sketch  of  Mr.  Thomas  in 
followed  by  a  brief  ona  of  Mrs.  Thomas. 



The  Rev.  James  Thomas  was  bom  in  Bewdly  Forest  in  Wosv 
^rshire  on  the  18th  September  1799.  He  was  the  son  of  Bev. 
1  Thomas,  who  was  bom  on  28th  May  1760,  in  Kidderaainster. 
i  after  his  birth  his  parents  removed  to  Brosly,  in  Shropshire, 
DD  his  father  became  the  Pastor  of  the  Baptist  Church  and 
Be  he  labored  for  upwards  of  thirty  years.     His  mother  was 

barn  in  Bewdly  Forest.  Both  parents  were  truly  pious  and 
Died  servants  of  Christ.  They  had  a  large  family,  but  the 
'iisi  loved  her  children  and  was  the  means  under  God  of  lead- 
f'flwBi  to  the  Saviour.  She  died  on  15th  March  1835,  but  her 
Amd  lived  to  the  advanced  age  of  ninety  years. 

Mr.  Thomas  went  to  L#ondon  when  about  sixteen  years  of  age 
I  there  surrendered  his  heart  to  the  Redeemer  and  at  the  age 
eighteen  he  was  baptized  by  tbs  Rev.  Mr.  Williams,  Pastor  of 
•  Baptist  Church  in  Grafton  Street,  of  which  he  was  admitted 
fiember.  Soon  after  his  conversion  his  mind  turned  strongly 
f^ds  the  Ministry  of  the  Gospel,  and  consequently  in  1821  he 
Bied  the  Baptist  College  at  Bradford  in  Yorkshire  then  und2r  • 

direction  of  two  eminent  men.  Dr.  Steadman  and  Dr.  Godwin.  J; 

ire  were  a  number  of  Baptist  Churches  in  Yorkshire,  at  that 
e  without  stated  Pastors,  so  that  tbs  students  at  Bradford  were  j 

[uently  called  upon  to  supply  their  pulpits  and  this  interfered  | 

nderably  with  their  general  studies-  { 

Having  been  accepted  as  a  candidate  for  missionary  service 
[ndia,  Mr.  Thomas  left  Bradford  in  1826  and  entered  the  Bap- 

CollegD  at  Stepney,  the  President  of  which,  at  that  time  was 

Newman.  Here  he  became  acquainted  with  the  Rev.  George 
nee,  who  was  a  fellow-student  and  who  eventually  came  out 
h  him  and  survived  to  preach  his  funeral  sermon.  Mf .  Pearce 
laelf  died  on  6th  June  1887  at  the  age  of  81.  While  at  Stepney 
order  to  qualify  himself  the  better  for  his  work.  Mr.  Pearce 
I,  Mr.  Thomas  (1)  took  up  the  study  of  the  Hindustani 
^age  undto  Dr.  Gilchrist,  and  (2)  attended  the  London  Hosr 
ii  in  the  Whitechapel  Koad,   where    he     hoped  to  gain  some 


288         THE    STORY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHURCH. 

knowledge  of  surgery  and  medical  practice  that  might  be  of  use 
to  him  when  settled  amonjg  the  natives  of  India.  These  two  objects 
occupied  the  whole  of  the  four  months  of  his  residence  at  Stepney. 

About  the  middle  of  May  1826  the  missionary  candddatea  re- 
ceived notice  from  tha  Committee  to  prepare  for  embarkation  and 
on  the  17th  idem,  he  married  Miss  Ann  Poole  in  London.     She 
was  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Edward  Pcole,  a  Deacon,  of  an  Independ- 
ent Cliurch.     On  the  7th  of  June,   1826,  he  was  ordained  to  the 
work  of  a  missionary  at  Shrewsbury  when  his  father  offered  the 
Ordination  Prayer  and  Dr.  Steadinan,  his  beloved  tutor,  preached 
the  Ordination  Sermon  from  the  words.     "  He  endured  as  seeing 
Him,   who  is  invisible,'  and  on  the  22nd  Mr.   and  Mrs.  Thomas, 
with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Pearce,  embarked  at  Deal  on  the  Flor- 
entia  having   been   duly  furnished    v/ith  passports   from  the  East 
India  Company  for  India. 

Th&  Court  of  Directors  used  to  make  a  heavy  charge  for  these 
parchment  passports  with  a  view  to  make  them  prohibitive,  ZA 
they  could  not  refuse  to  give  permission  to  missionaries  to  go,  but 
showed  their  reluctance  in  this  way. 

They  arrived  at  Calcutta  on  Sunday,  the  22nd  October  1826, 
after  a  voyage  of  four  months.  Dr.  Yates  was  then  the  Pastor 
at  the  Circular  Koad  Chapel  and  before  he  began  his  evening  eeflv 
mon  he  gave  a  hearty  welcome  from  the  pulpit  to  the  two  young 
brethren  just  arrived  and  at  the  close  of  the  service  they  had  a 
joyful  and  hearty  welcome  from  the  members  of  the  Clwirch.  On 
his  voyage  out  Mr.  Thomas,  had  made  good  use  of  his  time  by 
oontinudiig  his  study  of  Hindustani  with  the  help  of  Dr.  Gilchrist'B 

The  missionaries  after  landing  had  to  report  themBelves  at 
the  Police  Office  and  each  had  to  declare  on  oath  that  he  would 
conduct  himself  peaceably  and  without  detriment  to  the  interests 
of  the  Hon'ble  Company  s  Government,  etc.  The  Sabbatb  Day  in 
Calcutta  at  that  time  was  known  only  by  seeing  the  Union  Jack 
Positing  'm  the  breeze  at  Fort  William,  but  the  mer<Au|n.tB'  offices 


e  all  open  and  the  ships  discharged  and  took  in  cargo  jiust 

same  as  on  any  other  day. 

For  eighteen  months  after  their  arrival  in  Calcutta,  Mr. 
omas  and  Mr.  Pearce  ware  supported  by  the  "  Union  ''  of  the 
oior  Brethren.  Mr.  Lawson  had  died  just  a  year  before,  viz.^ 
Hie22nd  October  1825.  Dr.  Yates  was  at  that  time  in  very  poor 
iltli  and  in  order  that  he  might  have  the  opportunity  to  recruit 

health  by  a  visit  to  England,  Mr.  Thomas  was  asked  to  take  ' 

tha  pastorate  of  the  Circular  Eoad  Church,   Mr.  Boardman  *  j 

i  aho  been  invited,  but  declined  to  take  it,  promising,  however,  J  ! 

pcwch  as  often  as  he  could.     With  this  promise  of  assistanoe,  I  ! 

K  Thomas   undertook  the  pastorate  for  two   years,    viz.,    Feb-  J   ! 

iiy  1827  to  February  1829,  when  Dr.  Yates  returned  and  was 
du  unanimously  invited  to  become  Pastor  and  the  sum  of  Kb.  ' 

I  was  presented  to  Mr.  Thomas  by  the  Church  "  as  a  token  of  the  • 

titude  of  the  members  for  his  kind  services,  and  their  sense  of  % 

affectionate  and  constant  solicitude  for  their  spiritual  welfare."  3 

\3i  the  help  of  the  Lord  he  was  enablsd  to  put  new  life  into  5 

Church.  « 

From  July  1829    he     was     stationed  at     Howrah,    or,   moie  ^ 

perly  speaking,  Sulkea,  where  he  was  enabled  to  do  some  good,  ^ 

h  among  the  European  and  the  native  population.     Here  he  ( 

liblished  schools  and  bsgan  to  use  his  knowledge  of  Hindustani  < 

going  about  from  house  to  house  for  conversation  with  the 
iple  and  before  long  commenced  giving  roadside  addresses  and  ' 

>d  to  cross  over  often  to  Calcutta  to  preach  at  the  roadside 
*pel  in  Jaun  Bazar.  He  also  prepared  Hindustani  tracts,  one 
fcMed  "Reasons  for  not  being  a  Mussalman,"  was  the  means 
opening  the  eyes  of  many  Mahomedans  to  the  claims  of  Chris- 
•ify  and  has  gone  through  many  editions  and  been  widely  cir- 
wed.  During  the  eight  years  he  was  stationed  at  Howrah 
Wal  were  added  to  the  English-speaking  Church.  Ram 
idina,  a  pupil  of  his  school  became  converted  and  his  subsequent 
cistian  life  gave  great  satisfaction,  but  ere  long  he  was  carried^ 



off  by  cholera.     Mrs  Thomas  died  at  Sulkea  on  the  11th  3vm 

1833.  1 

When  in  1836  it  became  necessary  foa:  the  Bev.  W.  H.  Peaw 

to  go  to  England  on  account  of  failing  bealth  thei^e  was  no  ob» 

on  tlie  staff  of  the  Mission,  who  had  any  knowledge  of  pTintiqg 

and  the  multifarious  and  important  matters  in  connection  vift 

the  Baptist  Mission  Press.     After  long  and  prayerful  conaLdentiODf 

Mr.    Thomas  was  selected.     He  was  quite  startled  at  the  Aout 

as  he  had  no  idea  whatever  of  the  work.     Morsover,  he  tbUlni 

fellow  missionaries  his  object  for  coming  out  to  India  and  tlubl* 

oould  not  put  that  aside  for  the  other  work,    but  they  in  twi 

pointed  out  to  him  that  he  would  be  the  instrument  of  aduevny 

greater  good  through  the  means  of  the  Press,  bo  he  consented  uA 

this  object  he  kept  in  view  all  the  22  years  that  he  was  connBcbBS 

with  that  Press,  and,  what  faithful  and  untiring  labor  it  was,  vil 

well-known  to  the  community  and  to  the  missionaries  in  particular. 

He,  however,  continued  to  supply  the  pulpit  at  Howrah  for  at  knfc 

three  years.     Mr.    Pearce  returned   in   September    1839   and 

about  a  month's  time  Mr.  Thomas  made  over  the  Press  to  hoit 

but  retained  charge  of  the  Scripture  Depository.     On  17th  Mi«k 

1840,  however,  Mr.  Pearce  died  and  the  entire  work  at  the  Pwi 

devolved  upon  Mr.  Thomas  again.     Besides  the  work  of  the  Pwi 

he  was  the  Corresponding  Secretary  of  the  Mission  in  India,  a  dirij 

which   draw   heavily   upon   his  time.     He  became  Pastor  of  ^\ 

Lall  Bazar  Church  in  1844  and  remained  so  for  nearly  14  j«Wi 

till  his  death  in   1858.     He  was  also  engaged  in  the  revision  q( 

the  Hindustani  New  Testament  to  which  he  added  marginal  not* 

Mr.  George  Pearce  said : 

"  This  accumulation  of  labor  necessarily  occupied  every  momenft 
of  his  time,  and  more  indeed  than  the  twelve  hours  of  day  gw« 
to  a  man  to  work.  It  trenched  upon  the  allotted  rest  of  m^ 
seldom  did  he  retire  to  rest  before  midnight,  and  frequently  i* 
was  later.  It  is  wonderful  how  his  constitution  bore  it  all  afli 
bore  it  so  long.  It  is  also  remarkable  that  he  was  never  ill  mow 
than  twice,  I  believe,  during  his  long  residence  of  thirty-two  ye*^ 
in  this  country  and  that  without  any  trip  to  England." 


His  son  William  in  his  reminiscenoes  of  his  father  has  place! 
the  following  on  record : — 

"Religion  was  truly  the  grand  spring  and  sustaining  power 
of  his  laborious  life.  In  eveoy  movement  of  his  life  he  seemed 
to  have  respect  to  the  will  of  God.  That  was  paramount  with  him 
to  every  other  consideration.  He  was  a  man  of  eminent  integrity; 
he  acted  in  the  fear  of  God,  as  in  the  presence  of  God/'  and  this 
k  oorroborated  by  Mr.  George  Pearoe's  statement  that "  his  brethzen 
kad  always  perfect  ooaifidence  in  him.  The  Society  at  Home  had 
Mpect  confidence  in  him.  Two  deputations  from  the  Baptist 
IGffiion  in  England  hiave  visited  this  country  within  the  last  few 
jears,  they  both  looked  into  the  affairs  of  the  Press;  they  did 
n  carefully,  and  both  deputations  left  behind  them  the  most  ample 
and  honorable  testimony  to  our  friend's  upright  and  efficient  man- 
igement  of  the  establishment.'' 

In  support  of  the  above  the  present  writer  trusts  that  he  will  be 
I  ttcosed  for  giving  below  in  eostenso  the  concluding  remarks  of  Dr. 
[Ibderhill,  the  Secretary  of  the  Society,  in  hia  report  on  the  Baptist 
[jlBBBion  Press,  dated  Calcutta,  4th  October  1855 : 

''I  must  confess  that  I  have  been  led  greatly  to  admire  the 
wgadty,  the  prudence  and  skill,  together  with  the  untiring  and 
■eceesful  industry  brought  into  play  for  the  prosperity  of  the 
hm  by  your  Superdhtendent.  A  large  proportion  of  your  Widows' 
ttd  Orphans'  Fund,  say  £12,000 ;   the  means  of  expending  some 

.  filyOOO  on  your  Indian  Mission  during  the  past  fifteen  years,  in 
icUiticsn  to  the  funds  derived  from  the  Society;  the  increase  of 
tke  Capital  of  the  concern  by  some  £12,000  since  1842,  and  now 
*Sun  a  prospective  addition  of  £4,400  to  the  Widows'  and  Orphans' 
fond,  a  total  of  nearly  £50,000  exhibit  results  of  astonishing 
iBBgnitude  calling  for  devout  acknowledgement  to  Him  by  whose 
pnnddence  this  instrumentality  has  been  placed  in  our  hands  for 
tteiextension  of  His  Kingdom,  and  also  for  the  warmest  and  most 
'•Mty  thanks  on  the  part  of  the  Committee  to  Mr.  Thomas,  by 
^iose  daily  and  nightly  toil  these  great  things  have  been  accom- 

:  jBAed."     This  is  the  testimony  which  Mr.  Pearce  refers  to  above 

i  ^i  it  speaks  for  itself. 


.       The  end  came  in  this  wise.     He  had  been  feeling  very  unwell 

i  tte  whole  of  Wednesday,  the  14th  July  1858,  but  was  at  his  work 

^  day  as  uisual  and  in  the  evening,  though  a  wet  one,  he  attended 

^Clmrch  meeting  at  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel.     The  matters  that 



came  up  at  that  meeting  were  oonnected  with  repairs  to  the  Chapel 
roof,  fixing  Jhilmils  (screens)  and  th^  examination  of  the  beams 
of     the    verandah,     but,     the     last    item     of     the     agenda    was 
probably     what     led      the     good     man     to     make     the     effort 
to     go  in     spite     of  ill-health     and  bad     weather.     The     Pastor 
stated     that     his     "son     John     had     expressed     a  desire     to  be 
baptized  and     to  join  the  Church,  '  and  after  a  deputation  had 
been     appointed     to  see     him     "the     meeting    closed     with  the 
Benediction,"  but  the  Minutes  remain  unsigned  to  this  day,  the 
servant  of  the  Lord  having  been  translated  to  glory  within  the 
next  few.  days.  On  his  return  home  he  said  he  felt  better  and  sat 
down  to  read.  At  2  a.m.  he  got  worse  and  the  Doctor  had  to  be  sent 
for.     By  8  a.m.  all  the  eymptoms)  denoted  cholera  and  his  suffer- 
ings were  so  severe  that  nothing  could  be  said  to  him.     Next  day 
the  cholera  symptoms  subsided,    but  were   followed   by  extreme 
exhaustion.     He  could  speak  only  a  word  or  two  at  a  time  and 
it  was  difficult  to  hear  him.     To  the  last  he  seemed  to  entertsin 
hopes  of  his  own  recovery.     On  the  Sunday  he  suffered  much  from 
exhaustion.     On  Monday  the  Doctor  pronounced  it  to  be  pleuri^; 
after    this,     there    was    no  further  hope  of  his  recovery    and  he 
passed  away  on  Tuesday,  the  20th  and  was  buried  the  sameevenii^ 
in  the  Scotch  Cemetery  where  his  grave  can  be  seen  to  this  day 
in  good  condition. 

On  the  26th  July  1858  a  meeting  of  the  Church  was  held  at 
which  the  following  resolution,  regarding  their  late  Pastor,  waa 
passed  and  placed  on  record : — 

"That  the  Church  deeply  and  sincerely  laments  the  removal 
by  death  of  their  much  esteemed  Pastor,  the  Rev.  James  Thomas, 
who  for  thirteen  years  had  the  oversight  of  the  Church  and  for 
a  gr^at  portion  of  which  period  he  rendered  to  it  his  gratuitouB 


The  Church  desire  to  remember  with  gratitude  the  readin»  ^ 
and  cheerfulness  with  which,  under  the  then  painful  oircumstanoa 
our  late  Pastor  accepted  the  call  of  the  Church  to  take  its  pastoral 
charge  and  the  untiring  interest  he  ever  evinced  on  acoou^t  of 
Its  spiritual   welfare.     Though  burdened  with  a  large  amount  of 


iness  in  connection  with  the  Baptist  Mission  Preee^  he  nevier 
got  the  Church  of  which  he  had  taken  the  oveirsight,  and  gave 
it  as  much  of  his;  time  and  strength  and  labor  which  other 
iness  would  allow.  His  zeal  for  the  honor  of  his  God  and 
ioux,  and  the  purity  of  the  Church  were  a  prominent  trait  in 
diaracter ;  though  unwilling  to  give  a  hasty  credence  to  reports 
ught  against  any  member  of  the  Church,  when  satisfied  of  their 
IMulness,  he  was  not  lacking  in  the  exercise  of  Christian  di^ 

The  Church  mourns  his  loss,  but  while  it  grieves  on  account 
luB  removal  it  rejoices  in  the  perfect  assurance  that  what  is  • 

I  CSrarch's  loss  is  his  everlasting  gain.  2 

The  Church  desires  to  sympathize  with  the  widow  and  fatheov  \ 

B  dildren  of  its  late  Pastor,  and  prays  that  Christ,  the  Head  C 

tte  Church,  will  graciously  vouchsafe  to  them  the  consolatdons  t 

His  Holy  Spirit  and  give  them  to  realize  the  blessing  of  the  ] 

mise.     "Leave  thy   fatherless  children,   I  will   preserve   them  ^ 

^  and  let  thy  widows  trust  in  Me."  I 

Not  long   after  Mr.  Thomas'  death  a  Memorial  Tablet  was  ; 

up  in  the  Chapel,  the  inscription  on  which  is  as  below: —  } 

Sacred  • 

To  the  Memory  of  • 

The  Eev.  Tames  Thomas  j 

For  thirtean  years 
the  beloved  Pastor  of  the  Church  ( 

meeting  in  this  House  of  Prayer.  I 

"Not  Slothful  in  Business,  fervent  in  spirit,  I 

serving  the  Lord."  ; 

He  devoted  thirty-two  years  of  his  life 
to  the  furtherance  of  the  Gospel  in  India, 
in  connexion  with 
the  Baptist  Missionary  Society. 
He  was  born  in  England  ?he  18thi  of  September  1799. 
Arrived  in  India  the  21st  October  1826, 
and  died  on  the  20th  July  1858. 
"  For  my  Name  sake  thou  hast  laboured 
and  has  not  fainted." 



The  inscriptLon  on  his  grave  is  as  below: — 

Sacred  to  the  Memory 


The  Rev.  James  Thomas, 

Superintendent  of  the  Baptist  Mission  Press 


Pastor  of  the  Church'in  Lall  Bazar. 

During  a  Missionary  career  of 

thirty-two  years, 

He  proved  himself. 

A  devoted  Minister  of  the  Gospel, 

A  wise  Counsellor, 

A  pattern  of  consecrated  industry, 

and,  above  all, 

An  humble  believer  in  Christ, 

the  Saviour  of  sinners. 

He  was  born  in  England,   18th  September  1799, 

Arrived  in  India,  22nd  October   1826, 

And  died  in  the  Lord,  20th  July  1858. 

"  Not  slothful  in  business,  fervent  in  spirit,  serving  the  L 
Bom.  XII:  IT. 





Mfb.  Maortha  Thomas,  the  third  wife  of  the  Eev.  James  Thomas, 
waa  the  daughter  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Wilson  of  London.  She 
was  bom  on  the  22nd  February  1818  an3  in  1840  arrived  in  India, 
having  been  sent  out  by  the  Ladies'  Society  of  London  to  become 
Head  Teacher  in  one  of  their  schools  at  Solo,  Krishnaghur,  in 
charge  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society.  She  must  have  endeared 
herself  to  the  workers  of  that  Society,  for  ever  after,  she  was  much 
thoughib  of  by  their  missionaries,  who  often  used  to  put  up  at  the 
Baptist  Mission  Pr^ss  when  they  came  to  Calcutta.  Mr.  Thomas' 
second  wife  had  died  on  23rd  September  1840.  As  there  was  an 
infant  only  ten  days  old  and  several  young  children,  Mr.  Thomas 
very  naturally  saw  that  a  third  marriage  was  a  necessity.  He 
was  married  to  Miss  Wilson  on  4th  January  1842  at  the  Circular 
Boad  Chapel  by  Dr.  Yates.  It  will,  therefore,  be  seen  from  tins 
that  she  was  his  fellow-laborer  throughout  the  whole  period  of 
his  pastorate  and  shared  his  joys  and  sorrows  in  that  work. 
When  Mr.  Thomas  died  on  20th  July  1858,  she  oould  njot 
leave  the  country  immediately  but  sailed  for  England  on  the  17tb 
December  in  the  ship  Surrey, 

On  the  26th  July  1858,  a  letter  of  sympathy  and  condolence 
was  addressed  to  Mrs.  Thomas  and  in  September  she  replied  say- 
ing among;  other  things,  "  I  shall  ever  feel  a  lively  interest  in  your 
welfare  as  a  Church." 

On  the  7th  December  the  record  runs: 

"  It  was  proposed  by^ — ^and  seconded  by — ^that  as  Mrs.  Thomas 
was  on  the  eve  of  leaving  the  country  for  her  native  land,  a  Bible 
be  presented  to  her  accompanied  with  an  address  expressive  of 
lihe  Cfhurch's  sympathy  with  her  in  the  affliction  she  had  been 
called  to  sustain  and  as  a  token  of  the  gratitude  they  felt  for  the 
deep  interest  evecr  evinced  by  their  late  Pastor  in  their  spiritual 
welfare.     To  this  an  unanimous  consent  was  accorded." 

As  soon  as  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Evans  resigned  the  pastorate  in 
June  1844  the  Rev.  James  Thomas  took  temporary  charge  of  the 
Church  and  at  the  end  of  his  career  when  recording  their  resolu- 
tion regarding  him  and  his  work  the  Church  remarked: — 


"  Tb^  Church  desires  to  remember  with  gratitude  the  readinMi 
and  cheerfulness  with  which,  under  the  then  painful  circmiusUooei 
our  late  Pastor  accepteH  the  call  of  the  Church  to  take  its  pas- 
toral charge." 

As  we  have  seen,  the  circumstances  were  indeed  padnful,  but 
God  sent  the  right  man  to  effect  a  different  state  of  thingi^ 
for  before  long  a  very  different  spirit  prevailed  and  peace,  happi- 
n-ess,  and  kindly  feelings  were  manifested.  Mr.  Thomas  appre- 
ciated this  very  much  and  he  used  to  speak  about  it  to  Us  ms- 
sionary  brethren.  His  face  used  to  brighten  up  when  he  moied 
aljout  among  his  people,  and  the  members  came  to  love  him  laj 
much.  After  the  services  whan  the  members  met  each  other  tlwie 
were  smiles,  greetings  and  warm  hand-shakings,  no  matter  whafler 
they  were  European  or  Native,  rich  or  poor,  learned  or  ignonnt^ 
fair  or  dark  skinned,  as  they  were  all  one  in  Christ  Jesus.  ■ 

The  Church  saw  that  Mr.   Thomas'  hands  were,   if  poBBbte^l 
over-full  of  work,  so  on  5th  November  1844  they  addressed  til 
Eev.   Mr.  Denham  asking  him  to  take  the  Pastoral  charge  tnff 
them,  but  on   11th  February  1845  he  replied  declining  to  accept 
the  pastorate,  offering,  however,  to  preach  when  in  CalcutU. 

A  new  Deacon  was  appointed  permanently  in  August  1M4 
as  one  of  the  existing  Deacons  was  very  infirm  through  age.  Tte 
it  was  decided  that  the  Native  members  should  have  Church  MW*" 
ings  in  th^ir  own  language.  After  that  it  was  decided  "to  haaj 
up  in  the  vestry  a  list  showing  all  cases  reqiiiring  visits,  Cbxvti» 
sympathy,  and  the  prayers  of  the  Church."  This  showed  wW 
the  weak  points  were  which  apparently  had  been  neglected.  NW. 
owing  to  the  low  state  of  the  funds,  it  was  decided  to  reduce  ti> 
payments  to  the  Missionary  Society  from  Rs.  70  to  Rs.  50  montMy. 

On  23rd  December  1844  a  farewell  meeting  was  held  in  hon* 
of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  Gray,  who  were  leaving  the  country  forgool 
and  proceeding  to  Scotland.  On  this  occasion  a  Bible  wm  p* 
sented  to  them  as  a  token  of  love  and  esteem.  Mr.  Gray  was  • 
Watch  and  Clock-maker  and  had  succeeded  to  the  business  <rf  Mft 


vid  Hare,  well  known  for  his  zeal  in  promoting  the  secular  edu- 
ion  of  the  Natives.*  There  is  a  reminiscence  of  Mr.  Gray  to 
8  day  in  the  Chapel  clock,  which  he  put  up  and  which  has 
ved  the  Church  for  65  years  I 

In  February  1845  the  Church  again  made  a  move  to  try  and 
are  a  Pastor,  and  this  time  the  Local  Committea  of  the  Mis- 
aary  Society,  was  addressed  begging  them  to  take  into  con- 
eration  the  claims  of  the  Church  and  to  use  their  influence  with 
»  Committee  in  England  to  obtain  a  Pastor  for  them.  In  Sop- 
onber  of  the  same  year  a  Committee  was  appointed  to  enquire 
lat  iteps  should  be  adopted  to  secure  a  Pastor  for  the  Church, 
d  flie  following  month  that  Committee  reported  that  there  was 
libelihood  of  getting  a  Pastor  at  present. 

In  1844  eight  were  received  into  the  Church  and  in  1845  ten, 
tt,  the  Church  was  not  satisfied,  so  on  the  11th  December  it  was 
solved  to  hold  a  series  of  morning  meetings  to  implore  the  Divine 
essing  for  a  revival. 

On  the  26thi  December  1845  Mr.  John  Robinson  was  ordained 
the  Ministry  at  the  Chapel. 

In  April  1845  a  Committee  had  been  appointed  to  enquire 
to  the  practicability  of  hanging  punkahs  in  the  Chapel,  but 
ds  could  not  be  carried  into  effect  for  a  considerable  time,  the 
inkahs  not  being  hung  up  until  1851. 

In  January  1846  the  Church  wrote  a  letter  to  the  Rev.  Wil- 
im  Robinson  asking  him  to  take  up  the  pastorate  again,  but 
»re  is  no  copy  of  this  letter  on  record,  nor  of  his  reply. 

On  the  20th  January  1846,  the  Church  adopted  the  Minute 
Inch  had  been  adopted  by  the  Circular  Road  Church  regarding 
embers  not  going  to  Theatres,  Balls,  Dances,  etc.,  and  ordered 
lat  it  be  entered  on  the  records  of  the  Church,  and  a  copy,  signed 
'  the  Pastor,  forwarded  to  every  member  of  the  Church.     This 

*  When   David  Hare  sold  his  business  it  became  a  joke  among  the  young 
igB  of  Calcutta  that  **  Old  Hare  had  turned  Gray.'* 



jesolution  has  never  been  modified  or  cancelled  since.     As  this  ii 
an  important  Minute  a  copy  is  given  below  in  exten$o: — 

Copy  of  Minute  unanimously  adopted  on  the  8th  January 
1846,  to  be  entered  on  the  Church  records  and  a  copy  signed  Ijy 
the  Pastor  to  bs  forwarded  to  every  member  of  the  Church  (CSt- 
cular  Road). 

It  having  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  Pastor  that  wmb 
of  the  members  of  the  Church  have  attended  Balls  or  Duunng 
Parties  it  is  considered  advisable  that  the  sentiments  of  the  Chnrdi 
should  be  explicitly  stated. 

The  attendance  of  persons  at  Balls,  Theatrical  Exhibitumi 
and  such  like  has  ever  been  deemed  by  the  Church  inccnsiBtent 
with  a  Christian  profession.  In  the  case  of  membeiB  such  con- 
duct is  a  breach  of  the  pledge  given  to  the  Church  at  their  recep- 
tion, and  an  open  violation  of  the  command  ''Be  not  oonknoed 
to  this  world."  The  Church  has  no  hesitation  in  placing  on  xeoord 
its  unqualified  condemnation  of  such  conduct.  This  meefcmg, 
however,  addresses  itself  to  the  erring  members  in  the  spini  of 
love  and  entreats  them  for  t^^eir  own  safety  and  comfort,  and  for 
the  Lord  Jesus  Christ's  sake  to  separate  themselves  from  all  sach 
worldly  associations  and  to  yield  themselves  in  all  their  engage- 
ments unto  God  as  those  that  are  alive  from  the  dead. 

But  the  Church  is  in  duty  bound  to  separate  dtself  from  every 
member  that  walketh  disorderly,  and  this  meeting  is  fully  convinoed 
that  the  unflinching  execution  of  a  wholesome  discipline  is  sk 
this  time  imperatively  necessary  to  maintain  the  purity  of  the 
Church,  to  encourage  and  enforce  a  Scriptural  separation  from 
the  world,  and  to  prevent  (as  far  as  in  it  lies)  worldly  amusemenfi 
from  destroying  the  souls  of  those  for  whom  Christ  died.  Th«»- 
fore  the  Church,  now  assembled  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jen* 
Christ,  deliberately  and  solemnly  resolves  to  suspend  from  Cbnn 
munion,  and,  should  it  be  found  necessary,  ultimately  to  exclude 
altogether  from  the  privileges  of  the  Church,  any  member,  who 
shall  hereafter  be  known  to  disregard  in  the  manner  abovemen- 
tioned  the  commands  of  God  and  the  entreaties  of  his  breUuKH. 

This  meeting  further  considers  it  the  duty  of  every  member 
to  make  known  to  the  Pastor,  and  through  him,  to  the  Chmdii 
any  instance  that  may  come  to  his  knowledge,  of  the  diBordeily 
conduct  under  consideration  in  order  that  the  same  may  be  duly 
investigated  and  the  character  of  the  Church  vindicated.     In  thii 


my  will  the  memberb  of  the  Church  fulfil  their  duty  to  each 
bher  and  to  TTim    who  has  redeemed  them  by  His  blood. 

Signed  by  request  of  the  Church, 

A.  Leslie. 
XOth  January  18^6. 

Shortly  after  followed  another  important     resolution     which 

M  oome  to  on  the  22nd  June  1847.     The  record  runs  thus: — 

The  Church  having  noticed  with  much  pain  and  grief  imscrip- 
iral  alliances  formed  by  several  of  its  members  resolved  that  in 
itnre  such  unscripturaJ  marriages  will  nof  be  tolerated  by  the 
hajdi  and  any  members  forming  such  connections  will  be  amen- 
Ue  to  the  censure  of  the  Church  and  dealt  with  according  to 

Thus  one  by  one  efforts  were  made  to  remove  the  plague  spots, 
id,  in  order  to  help  to  build  up  the  Church  again,  on  the  27th 
'<yFember  1847,  Class-Leaders,  were  appointed,  whereby  the  wants 
f  the  members  generally  would  be  looked  after  and  they  be  more 
xquently  visited.     Thus: — 

Class  1  ...  Leader    ...  ...  Mr.  L.  Mendes. 

>»     ^  ...       .,         ...  „     J.  L.  Carrau. 

,,     3  ...       „         ...  ...     „     R.  W.  Chill. 

,»     ^  ...        „         ...  ...     „     D.  H.  Chill. 

,.5  ...       „         ...  ...     „     W.  Blakely. 

»»     ^>  ...       „         ...  ...     „     W.  J.  Ryper  and 

J.  Floyd, 
The  congregation  had  diminished  so  greatly  that  on  the  16th 
fevember    1847    it  had  actually  been  proposed  to  close  the  gallery 

>  SB  to  bring  the  congregation  together  in  the  seats  below,  but 
Us  proposal  was  rejected. 

At  this  time  a  proposal  to  light  the  Chapel  with  gas  was  put 

>  the  vote  and  lost. 

In  1847  there  were  only  seven  admissions,  but  after  that 
latide  began  to  turn  for  in  1848,  there  were  21,  in  1849,  17,  and 
I860,  17. 

300         THE    STORY  OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAjfTIBT    CiHTTBCH. 

On  the  27th  February  1848  was  baptized  MiaB  C.  V.  God- 
salves,  who  ds  alive  to  this  day,  being  nearly  79  years  of  age,  vA 
is  thus  tha  oldest  member  of  the  Church. 

On  the  12th  June  1849  the  Pastor  intimated  that  fle?enl 
members  were  engaged  in  the  Gospel  Field,  and  thoiight  that  the 
Church  should  sanction  their  being  so  employed.  On  the  144 
August  he  brought  the  matter  again  to  notioe  and  said  iiat  in 
these  efforts  to  do  good  they  should  T>e  countenanced  by  the 
Church,  and  supported  by  its  prayers,  and  a  resolution  to  tie 
effect  that  the  members  named  had  the  full  concumenoe  ol  ft* 
Church  and  its  earnest  prayers  for  a  blessing  on  their  effortott 
win  souls  for  Christ.  It  was  at  the  close  of  this  year  that  Mr. 
Thomas  signed  the  Association  letter  as  Pastor. 

On  the  6th  April  1850,  Mr.  Thomas  was  afflicted  wiUi  • 
heavy  bereavement  in  the  death  of  a  beloved  daughter  nanttd 
Elizabeth  Ann.  She  had  been  her  father's  companion  to  tta 
Chapel  for  years,  and  was  much  beloved  of  all  the  membeis  86  d* 
had  a  very  affectionate  nature.  It  is  thought  that  she  had  giWB 
her  heart  to  Jesus  in  early  life,  but,  as  she  had  not  made  a  pnUic 
profession  of  her  faith  though  she  was  over  20  years  of  age,  tsi 
was  suddenly  cut  off,  the  father  grieved  for  her,  being 
uncertain  whether  she  had  found  the  pearl  of  great  price  below 
she  fell  a  victim  to  the  attack  of  cholera  which  carried  hsr  off. 

At  the  Church  Meeting,  which  was  held  on  the  16th  Apd 
1850,  the  record  regarding  this  event  runs  thus: — 

"  It  was  proposed  by  Brother  Carrau,  and  seconded  by  Bzotbv 
Hassell,  and  resolved  unanimously  that  we  desire  as  a  ChuTcbte 
record  our  cordial  sympathy  and  condolence  with  our  Pastor  on  tta 
occasion  of  the  recent  bereavement,  which  he  had  in  the  Providence 
of  God  been  called  to  endure.  And  while  we  have  every  leaan  t* 
unite  our  thanksgiving  with  his  for  that  infinite  grace  wbini 
enabled  his  daughter  in  the  prospect  of  death  to  rejoice  in  tihe 
hope  of  the  glory  of  God,  we  would  also  unite  in  fervent  pr»J« 
that  the  Father  of  Mercies,  and  the  God  of  all  comfort  woild 
grant  unto  him  abounding  consolations,   and  aboindantly  sanctiff 


lis  bereavement  to  all  the*  members  of  his  family.  At  the  same 
me  we  would  not  ourselves  forget  the  solemn  lesson  this  Provi- 
moe  reads  to  us,  to  be  ready  also,  seeing  we  know  not  the  day 
>T  the  hour  when  the  Son  of  man  oometh." 

On  the  18tb  June    1850    a  paper  was  read  proposing  to  form 
choir  for  conducting  the  singing,   but  after  a  long  discussion 
16  proposal  was  negatived. 

This  year   money  had  to  be  raised  a^ain  to  repair  the  Chapel. 

At  the  end  of  the  year    it  was  reported  that  the  number  of  * 

iwibeiiB  on  the  Rolls  was  152.     The  number  at  the  end  of  1844  j 

RB8  given  as  122  BO  that  tbare  was  a  clear  increase  of  30  in  the  ; 

z  years. 

On  the  21st  October  1851,  Mr.  Thomas  was  asked  to  take  per- 
Mn&nt  charge  of  the  Church    which  he  accepted  the  following  I 


It  was  announced  at  that  meeting  that  Rs.   1,234    had  been 
cpended  on  repairing  the  Chapel     and  Bs.  388   on  suspending  : 

le  punkahs. 

On  the  16th  March    1852    a  letter  was  read  from  Mr.  W.  H. 
ones  requesting  permission  to  erect  a  Tablet  in  the  Chapel  to  [ 

le  memory  of  Dr.  Carey  and  his  colleagues,   and  it  was  unani-  j 

tonsly  agreed  to  grant  Mr.  Jones'  request    and  to  return  him  I 

letteir  of  thanks  for  his  kind  offer.     Mr.   Jones,   though  not  a  ; 

iesKiber  of  the  Church  a.t  this  time  had  been  a  member  some  years 
P!9yioT]sly.  In  September  1842  a  Sub-Committee  had  been 
jipointed  to  ascertain  the  expense  of  erecting  a  tablet  in  the 
Impel  to  the  memory  of  Cary,  Marshman  and  Ward,  some  persons 
vviag  expressed  an  interest  in  the  propriety  of  such  a  step,  but 
Killing  further  is  on  record  about  this  matter  until  Mr.  Jones 
l|de  this  move  on  the  16th  March  1852.  It  certainly  is  remarkable 
gvA  the  Church  which  the  Serampore  Missionaries  foutided,  and 
I  cpiineption  with  which  they  laboured  so  long  and  so  hard,  never 


erected  a  memorial  tablet.     The  inscription  oiTthe  Tablet  put  op 
by  Mr.  Jones  ia  given  below: — 

In  memory  of 

The  Serampore  Missionaries 

William  Carey,   D.D., 

Joshua  Marshman,  D.D., 

William    Ward, 

and  of  their  colleague  and  successor 

John  Maeky 

who  preached  the  Gospel  faithfully 

in  this  place  for  many  years, 

and  whose  praise  is  in  all  the  Churches. 

'•'  The  righteous  shall  be  had  in  everlasting  remembrance.*' 

This  Tablet  is  erected 

as  a  mark  of  grateful  veneration 

by  one  of  their  pupils, 

A.D.,  1852. 

In   1852    a  fresh  list  of  the  members  was  drawn  out,  and, 
after  being  engrossed,  was  hung  up  in  £he  vestry. 

Mr.  Thomas'  name  was  this  year  enrolled  as  a  member  of  iba 

On  the  19th  November  1852,  the  Lecture  Boom  of  the  Oalentti 
Christian  Juvenile  Society  in  Bow  Bazar  Street  was  opened  by  Mr. 
Macleod  Wylie.  This  Society  was  originally  started  by  Be^.  Johi 
Lawson  in  1 81 6  under  another  name.  From  and  aifter  thdt  time  hub/ 
of  the  members  of  the  Society  were  members  of  Lall  Bazar.  Tbaf 
used  to  hold  their  meetings  in  different  places,  but  one  place  wInM 
they  were  pretty  frequently  held  was  the  Benevolent  Institnticm. 
As  they  felt  the  need  of  a  Hall  this  one  in  Bow  Bazar  was  bxult.  Tbk 
Juvenile  Society  was  the  precursor  of  the  Young  Men's  Chrisliaa 
Association  in  Calcutta    which  was  not  founded  till  the  year  18M. 


The  latter  Association  died  out  after  only  a  brief  ezistenoe 
I  tile  Juvenile  Society  then  changed  its  name  in  1856  to  Calcutta 
wag  Men's  ChHstian  Association. 

On  the  27th  October  1853  a  plan  was  agreed  upon  for  trying 
bidng  about  greater  social  interoouise  between  members,  and 
rUa  decided  to  hold  a  meeting  for  unitedly  reading  the  Scriptures. 

In  1854  repairs  to  the  roof  had  to  be  taken  in  hand,  but 
the  season  was  too  far  advanced,  Mr.  Mendes.  was  placed  in 
ids  to  execute  siich  temporary  repairs  as  were  absolutely 

In  July  of  this  year  as  the  receipts  were  short  of  the  expendi- 
10  it  was  decided  to  discontinue  the  payment  of  Es.  50  to  the 

On  the  24th  August  a  collection  was  made  on  account  of  the 
kywB,  and  orphans  of  tba  sailors  and  soldiers,  who  had  gone 
bbe  Crimean  War    which  amounted  to  Rs.  55. 

A  proposal  was  made  to  introduce  a  Harmonium,  but  it  was 
Qtnally  dropped  as  the  members  were  against  it. 

On  the  24th  August  1854  it  was  resolved  to  have  a  Sunday 
col,  if  one  could  be  started,  and  it  was  accordingly  started 
the  15th  October  of  that  year. 

In  November  the  work  of  executing  thorough  repairs  to  the 
ftpel  was  given  to  Mr.  Mendes  and  Mr.  Ryper  was  entrusted 
Oi  the  repairs  to  the  Oooly  Bazar  Chapel.  In  February  1855 
r.  Mendes  was  instructed  to  put  up  jhilmils  to  the  verandah 
kidi  was  done  at  a  cost  of  Bs.  700. 

On  the  1st  July  1855  the  Chapel  at  Cooly  Bazar  was  sold  to 
i  London  Mission  for  Es.  1,400  which  was  paid  by  instalments, 
fetmal  statement  in  regard  to  the  sale  was  drawn  up  on  the  1st 
if  1857  signed  by  the  Rev.  James  Thomas  and  the  Eev.  E.  Storrow 
A  Mr.  J.  Imlay,  but  the  final  instalment  was  not  paid  till 
ibmary  1858.  The  London  Mission  had  been  conducting  ser- 
ies at  Oooly  Bazar  for  years,  just  as  the  Baptists  had  been 
ing,  but  as  the  land  on  which  their  Chapel,   which  had  been 


opened  in  1847,  was  raquired  by  Government  they,  gave  tHem  il 
lieu  the  land  on  which  their  present  Chapel  waa  built.  'Hni 
was  in  1854,  and  the  Baptist  Chapel  was  almost  adjoining,  and 
was  stated  by  the  London  Mission  to  be  required  for  muBioniiJ 
purposes,  probably  as  a  rssidence  for  the  London  MisGaoa  Societjfll 
Missionary  in  charge.  It  seems  to  have  been  mutually  amngd 
for  the  Baptists  to  withdraw  from  Cooly  Bazar ;  hence  tluB  aale. 
The  London  Mission  Society  Chapel  was  duly  opened  on  the  27th 
September  1855  Mr.  Leslie  of  the  Circular  Road  Chapel  pttdfld 
one  of  the  opening  sermons  on  Sunday,  the  30th  Septenjiber,  isd 
Dr.  Underbill,  the  Secretary  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Sode^i 
spoke  at  the  public  meeting  on  the  2nd  October.  Thesd  detaili 
are  mentioned  to  show  the  cordiality  that  existed  between  fa 
two  Societies.  The  London  Mission  appear  not  to  have  made  my 
use  of  ths  building  they  purchased  from  this  Church,  but  Bcid  ii 
again  before  long. 

Having  parted  with  this  Chapel  the  Church  did  not  confiid* 
it  necessary  to  build  a  bungalow  Chapel  at  Cooly  Bazar  for  tin 
native  members  there. 

On  the  30th  January,  1856,  Mr.  Angus  McKenna  wasbaptued 
at  the  Chapel.  He  afterwards  became  a  Missionary  of  the  SocietJ 
and  laboured  for  many  years  in  connection  with  it. 

A  storm  having  thrown  down  the  Venetian  screens  on  tltf 
East  and  West  side  of  the  verandah,  new  ones  had  to  be  put  in 

We  now  come  to  the  Mutiny  year,  1857.  On  the  3rd  M»J 
the  Mutiny  broke  out  at  Eucknow,  by  tte  10th  it  had  extcndrf 
to  Meerut,  and  on  the  11th  to  Delhi.  On  Sunday,  tlie  1^ 
June,  there  was  a  panic  in  Calcutta — whence  its  name  Panic  Sa* 
day — it  was  the  universal  opinion  that  the  mutineers  would  eater 
Calcutta,  and  attack  all  the  European  inhabitants,  while  at  DiviB» 
Service,  but  they  were  themselves  disbanded  instead  at  Barradh 
pore.     There  was,  however,  no  service  at  the  Chapel  on  that  date- 

On  the  19th  August  a  collection  was  made  for  the  widows  ari 


lians  of  thoee  who  might  be  killed  in  the  conflict  against  the 
tinous  sepoys    which  amonnted  to  Bs.  173. 

Sunday,  the  4th  October  1857,  waa  the  day  appointed  by 
reniment  for  special  prayer  for  a  blessing  to  rest  upon  all  the 
males  €aken  for  the  repression  of  the  Mutiny. 

On  the  3rd  March  1858  there  waa  a  repetition  of  ''Panic 
Mby''  at  Calcutta. 

^The  last  Church  Meeting  attended  by  Mr.  Thomas  was  held 
Sud  14th  July  1858  when  he  announced  that  his  son  John  wished 
lib  baptized   and  join  the  Church. 

Slie  admissions  in  the  later  years  of  Mr.  Thomas'  ministry 
W1851,  5;  1852,  6;  1853,  5;  1854,  1;  1855,  10;  1856,  8; 
7^  B;  and  1858,  1  only;  but  the  seed  sown  bore  fruit  in  the 
m  tiwt  followed. 


The  Indian  Mutiny. 
It  is  not  the  writer's  intention  to  give  a  History  of  tlie  Mutiny 
or  of  the  several  events  connected  with  it  aa  so  many  boob  iiava 
been  written  on  the  subject,  and  others  may  yet  be  written  aa 
further  freah  facte  come  to  light.  He  wishes.,  however,  monfuir 
cularly  to  give  the  reader  the  benefit  of  what  one  of  the  monbett 
of  the  Church  has  placed  on  record  as  to  what  he  and  hit  ooB* 
panions  in  Calcutta  did  at  that  time,  as  the  writer  thinks  Iub  M»^ 
ments  will  be  of  sufficient  interest  to  be  read  even  by  outsidflB. 

The  Mutiny  broke  out  at  Lucknow  on  3rd  May  1857  tiid«- 
tended  to  Meerut  by  the  10th,  and  to  Delhi  by  the  11th  id«ii. 

To  counteract  the  malicious  falsehoods  that  were  being  cDf* 
culated  that  the  Government  of  India  were  meditating  interferen« 
with  the  religions  of  the  country  they  issued  the  following  Pro- 
clamation disclaiming  any  such  intention: — 

No.  952. 
Fort  William — Home  Department. 
The  16th  May  1857. 
The  Governor-General  of   India  in  Ooancil  has  warned  th 
Armj  of  Bengal    that  the  tales  by  which  the  men  of  certain  Bflgi- 
ments  have  been  led  to  suspect  that  offence  to  their  religion  * 
injury  to  their  caste  is  meditated  by  the  Government  of  Into 
are  malicious  faleshoods. 

The  Governor-General  in  Council  has  learnt  that  tUi 
picion  continues  to  be-  propagated  by  designing  and  evil-mindrf 
men  not  only  in  the  Army  but  amongst  other  classes  of  f* 

He  knows  that  endeavours  are  made  to  pursuade  Hindoo> 
and  Mussulmans,  Soldiers  and  Civil  Subifecte^  that  tKSlr  religiott 

THE    INDIAN    MUTINY.  307 

tiireatened  secretly,  as  well  as  opanly,  by  acts  of  the  (Jovern- 
Bnt,  and  that  the  Government  is  seeking  in  various  ways  to 
.trap  them  into  a  loss  of  caste  for  purposes  of  their  own. 

Some  have  been  already  deceived  and  led  astray  by  ffiese  tales. 

Once  mora,  then,  the  Governor-General  in  Council  warns  all 
uses  against  the  deceptions  that  are  practised  on  them. 

The  Government  of  India  has  invariably  treated  the  religions 
dings  of  all  its  subjects  with  careful  respect.  The  Govemor- 
meral  in  Council  has  declared  that  it  will  never  cease  to  do  so. 
e  {iow  respeats  that  declaration,  and  he  emphatically  proclaims 
lat  the  Government  of  India  entertains  no  desire  to  interfere 
:tii  their  religion  or  caste,  and  that  notfidng  has  been  or  will  bo 
ioe  by  the  Government  to  affect  the  free  exercise  of  the  obeer- 
aice  of  religion  or  caste  by  every  class  of  the  people. 

The  Government  of  India  has  never  deceived  its  subjects, 
crefore  the  Governor-General  in  Council  now  calls  upon  them 
refuse  their  belief  to  seditious  lies. 

This  notice  is  addressed  to  those  who  hitherto  by  habitual 
jralty,  and  orderly  conduct,  have  shown  their  attachment  to  the 
)vemment,  and  a  well-founded  faith  in  its  protection  and  justice. 

The  Governor-General  in  Council  enjoins  all  such  persons  to 
use  before  they  listen  to  false  Guides,  and  Traitors,  who  woidd 
id  them  inio  danger  and  disgrace. 

By  order  of  the  Governor-General  of  India  in  Council. 

(Sd.)    Cecil  Beadon. 
Secretary  to  the  G(yvemment  of  India. 

But  even  this  Proclamation  did  not  seem  to  have  as  great  an 

xrt  as  was  desired.     The  member  referred  to  has  placed   tho 

lowing  on  record: — 

"  The  citizens  felt  it  to  be  theu:  duty  to  protect  their  hearths 
I  homes,  and  with  all  their  courage  and  resolution  they  would 
rer  have  succeeded.  It  was  wholly  through  the  blessing  of  our 
avenly  Father  that  the  scenes  that  were  witnessed  in  the  Upper 
>vincee  were  not  enacted  in  Calcutta.     Fear  and  panic  pnevailed 


throughout  the  City     and  its  surburbs.     Before  the  Volunteer 
movement  was  set  afoot^  we  young  people  thought  it  best  to  mftb 
some  demonstration.     As  we'reeided  in  the  outskirts  of  the  C% 
we  used  to  patrol  the  lanes  in  the  neighbourhood  of  our  dweUii^lp 
with  muskets  on  our  shoulders^   which,  were   lent  to  us  for  tk 
occasion  by  the  Head  Inspector  of  the  Entally   Police.    Li  tb 
meantime  the  residents  of  Calcutta  urgently  pressed  the  GcfvermX' 
General,  Lord  Canning,  to  allow  the  Chxistian  population  to  enrd 
themselves  as  Volunteers  for  the  safety  of  the  City.     It  was  scxoe 
time  before  Lord  Canning  could  ses  the  necessity  for  it,  in  fact 
not  until  things  began  to  look  serious.     It  was  well  for  the  (Sty 
of  Calcutta,   humanly  speaking,   that    the    Volunteer    moTODSSt 
was  granted,  as  that  alone  checked  the  malcontents,  as  the  natives 
expressed  in  fear  and  trembling  that  the  gentlemen  had  beoone 
soldiers    and  they  had  better  not  create  a  tumult. 

"Panic  Sunday,"  as  it    was    termed,  was  a  day  not  tobeior- 
gotten;    many  families  fled  to  Fort  William;    it  was  carm&J 
reported  that  when  the  citizens  were  at  Divine  Service  the  popnlir 
tion  would  rise  en  mamse,  headed  by  the  Sepoys  of  Barrackpoie, 
who  had  risen  in  rebellion,  and  were  marching  down  to  Calcatta> 
a;nd^would  take  that  opportunity  to  kill  the  Kafirs   and  poaaes 
themselves  of  Calcutta,  thus  verifying  tlie  prophecy  at  the  Batfle 
of  Plaasey,   which  was,   that  one  hundred   years   hence  Calcafcti 
would  be  re-taken  by  the  Mabomedans.     It  is  very  remarkable, 
however,  that  on  that  day  everything  was  very  qiuet.     It  waa  a 
false  rumour  that  reached  the  City;  it  was  not  that  the  Sepo^ 
were  marching  down,  but  that  they  were  disarmed,  as  they  wete 
all  in  a  state  of  frenzy,  and  brooded  mischief.     One  of  our  dtueoB 
good-naluredly   gave  up  his  two^rtoreyed   dwelling-house  for  the 
use  of  the  Volunteers;   the  Commandant  of  the  Army  placed  a 
large  cannon  from  Fort  William  in  the  gateway  of  this  house  wKch 
was  situated  on  the  Suburban  side*  of  Circular  Road.     It  waa  a 
very     kind     act     on    the     part     of     the     citizen     and     a    ?8W 
thoughtful  one     on     the     part     of    the     Commandant,     for   ft 
was    rumoured    that    on    the    night    of    the    Mohurram    whiA 
was    fast     approaching     the     Mahomedans     intended     to    begin 
their  diabolical  work  of  slaughter  of  all  Christians  on  the  ni^ 
designated     kutat-konrat,  i.e.,    night  of  slaughter,    for,    as     they 
expressed  it  among  themselves,  instead  of  slaughtering  goats  and 
sheep  as  is  their  custom,   they  would  slaughter  the  Kafirs.    But 
m  the  good  Providence  of  God  the  Mohurram  passed  off  very  quietly, 

*  This  is  probably  the  house  now  known  as   Topghvr  which  has  a  cannoa 
on  each  side  of  its  entrance  gate. 

THB    INDIAN    MUTINY.  309 

d  that  night  in  particular  the  Natives  ware  very  much  alarmed 
•seeing  such  eaimest  demonstrations  manifested  by  the  otherwise 
ftoeable  residents  that  they  carried  their  Tazziahs  quietly  and 
derly,  so  that  the  Police  had  an  easy  task  before  them.  Stilly 
ete  were  many  fanatics  in  oonoealment,  who  often  made  theiv 
does  heard  in  out-of-the-way  places.  The  Mahomedans  were  very 
irbulent  and  endeavor^  to  provoke  a  Breach  of  the  peaoe^  bufc 
le  Clmstian  population  were  on  their  guard,  though  they  had 
i  hear  and  endure^'temarks  and  provocations  not  only  from  their 
im  menial  servants,  but  from  pedestrians  in  the  streets,  as  the 
■It  spark  of  resentment  would  have  caused  a  conflagration  which 
w  Mahomedan  population  including  the  fanatics  c^  the  other 
neds,  were  impatiently  waiting  for.  A  respectable  Mahomedani 
nnafked  to  a  citizen  that  the  whole  population  to  a  man  was 
mared  to  revolt,  but  they  had  no  leader.  Thus  the  good  hand 
I  the  Lord  prevented  the  outbreak." 

The  Government  next  issued  the  following  Proclamation  fixing 
onday,  the  4th  October,  to  be  observed  as  a  day  of  special  prayer 
ve  a  blessing  to  rest  upon  all  the  measures  taken  for  the  repi^ession 
^rabellion  and  crime  and  for  the  restoration  of  peace,  order  and 
tttentment  throughout  British  India. 

No.  1788. 

Fort  William,  Home  Department,    Ecclesiastical. 

The  7th  September  1857, 


In  the  presence  of  the  heavy  calamities  and  sufferings  which 
jr  the  acts  of  wicked  and  bloody-minded  men  have  fallen  upon 
9»1  persons  of  every  class  in  many  parts  of  the  Queen's  Ibminions 
1  India,  the  Bight  Hon'ble  the  Governor-General  in  Council  desires 
).  invite  all  faithful  subjects  of  the  British  Crown  to  join  in  a 
smble  offering  of  prayer,  supplication,  and  confession  of  siiia 
I  Almighty  Grod,  and  to  implore  a  blessing  upon  all  measures 
ien.  for  the  repression  of  Rebellion  and  crime,  and  for  the  restorar 
on  of  peace,  order,  and  contentment,  throughout  British*  India.  « 

To  thia  end  the  Govemor-C^eneral  in  Council  proposes  that 
inday,  the  4th  October  shall  be  observed  in  each  Presidency  as 
day  of  Special  Prayer. 

810         THE   STORY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAB    BAPTIST    OHUBCH. 

For  all  congregations  subject  to  the  spiritual  authority  of  the 
Bishop  of  Calcutta,  Hds  Lordship  will  be  requested  to  prepare  a 
Form  of  Prayer  suited  to  the  occasion. 

By  order  of  the  Governor-General  in  Council, 

(Sd.)     Cecil  Beadon, 
Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India. 
The  extraordinary  Proclamations  of 

(1)  Khan  Bahadur  Khan,  the  rebel  chief  of  Bareilly,  iaraed 
in  July  or  August  1857,  and 

(2)  Feroz  Shah,  son  of  Bahadur  Shah,  ex-king  of  Ddhi,  afe 
Bareilly  issued  on  18th  February  1858  distinctly  reoc^nized  misswn' 
ary  effort,  among  other  things,  as  contributing  to,  and  very  neariy 
accomplishing  the  oveirthrow  of  both  Hinduism  and  MahomedaniflnL. 

It  may  not  be  out  of  place  in  this  narrative  to  insert  at  tiiii 

Btagei  the  Royal  Proclamation  of  1st  November  1858,  taking  o?er 

the  Government  of  this  country  as  also  the  subsidiary  Proclama' 

tion  of  the  Government  of  India  thereon.     Here  they  are : — 

The  Royal  Proclamation. 

Allahabad,  Monday  1st  November  1858. 

The  Right  Honorable  th©  Governor-General  has  receivied  the 
Commands  of  Her  Majesty  the  Queen  to  make  known  the  follow- 
ing gracious  Proclamation  of  Her  Majesty  to  the  Princes,  the 
Chiefs  and  the  people,  of  India. 

Proclamation  by  the  Queen  in  Council, 
To  the  Princes,   Chiefs  and  People  of  India. 

VICTORIA  by  the  Grace  of  God,  of  the  United  Kingdom  rf 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  and  of  the  Colonies  and  Bependencies 
thereof  in  Europe,  Asia,  Africa,  America,  and  Australasia. 

Whereas,  for  divers  weighty  reasons,  We  have  resolved,  by 
and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Lords  Spiritual  and  Tem- 
poral, and  Commons,  in  Parliament  assembled,  to  take  upon  Otu> 


Ives  the  Crovemment  of  the  Territories  in  India,  heretofore  ad* 
blistered  in  trust  for  Us  by  the  Honorable  East  India  Company : — 

Now,  therefore,  we  do  by  these  Presents  notify  and  declatie 
sA,  by  advice  and  consent  aforesaid,  We  have  taken  upon  Our- 
Ives  the  said  Government,  and  We  hereby  call  ux>an  all  Our  Sub- 
3t0  within  the  said  Territories  to  be  faithful  and  to  bear  true 
legiance  to  Us,  Our  Heirs  and  Successors,  and  to  submit  them- 
Ives  to  the  authority  of  those  whom  We  may  hereafter,  from 
ne  to  time,  see  fit  to  appoint  {o  administer  the  Government  of 
nr  said  Territories,  in  Our  name  and  on  Our  behalf. 

And  We,  reposing  especial  trust  and  confidence  in  the  loyalty, 
id  judgment  of  Our  right  trusty  and  well-beloved  Cousin  and 
randllor,  Charles  John  Viscount  Canning,  do  hereby  constitute 
id  appoint  him,  the  said  Viscount  Canning,  to  be  Our  First 
Loeroy  and  Governor-General  in  and  over  Our  said  Territories, 
A  to  administer  the  Government  thereof  in  our  name,  and 
merally  to  act  in  Our  name  and  on  our  behalf,  subject  to  sudi 
dexB  and  regulations  as  he  shall  from  time  to  time,  receive  from 
3  through  one  of  Our  Principal  Secretaries  of  State. 

And  We  do  hereby  confirm  in  their  several  Offices,  Civil  and 
ilitary,  all  persons  now  employed  in  the  Service  of  the  Honor- 
iki  East  India  Company,  subject  to  Our  future  pleasure  and  to 
ch  laws  and  regulations  as  may  hereafter  be  enacted. 

We  hereby  announce  to  the  Native  Princes  of  India,  that  all 
eaties  and  Engagements  made  with  them  by  or  under  the  authority 
the  Honorable  East  India  Company  are  by  Us  accepted  and  will 
I  scrupulously  maintained,  and  we  look  for  the  like  observanos 
.  their  part. 

We  derire  no  extension  of  Our  present  territorial  possessions ; 
d  while  we  will  permit  no  aggiesdon  upon  our  Dominions  or 
ir  Bights  to  be  attempted  with  impunity.  We  shall  sanction  no 
croachment  on  those  of  others.  We  shall  respect  the  Bights, 
[gnity,  and  Honour  of  Native  Princes  as  Our  own,  and  we  desiiv 
ttb  they  as  well  as  our  own  subjects  should  enjoy  that  prosperity 


and  that  social  advancement  which  can  only  be  secured  by  internal 
Peace  and  Good  Government. 

We  hold  Ourselves  bound  to  the  Natives  of  Our  Indian  Terri- 
tories by  the  same  obligations  of  duty  which  bind  Us  to  all. Our 
other  Subjects;  and  those  obligations,  by  the  blessing  of  Almigh^ 
Gk)d,  We  shall  faithfully  and  conscientiously  fulfil. 

Firmly  relying  Ourselves  on  the  truth  of  Christianity,  and 
acknowledging  with  gratitude  the  solace  of  Religion,  we  disdaua 
alike  the  right  and  the  desire  to  impose  Our  convictions  on  any 
of  Our  Subjects.  We  declare  it  to  be  Our  Royal  Will  and  HeaBore 
that  none  be  in  any  wise  favored,  none  molested  or  disquieted,  by 
reason  of  their  religious  faitb  or  observances,  but  that  all  flliall 
alike  enjoy  the  equal  and  impartial  protection  of  the  law ;  and.wa 
do  strictly  charge  and  enjoin  all  those,  who  may  be  in  authority 
under  Us  that  they  abstain  from  all  interference  with  the  Bell- 
gfious  Belief  or  Worship  of  any  of  our  subjects,  on  pain  of  oar 
highest  displeasure. 

And  it  is  Our  further  will  that,  so  far  as  may  be,  Our  Subjedi^ 
of  whatever  Race  or  Creed,  be  freely  and  impartially  admitted 
to  Offices  in  Our  Service,  the  duties  of  which  they  may  be  qualified 
by  their  education,  ability,  and  integrity  duly  to  discharge. 

We  know  and  respect  the  feelings  of  attachment  with  whiiai 
the  Natives  of  India,  regard  the  lands  inherited  by  them  from 
thedt  ancestors,  and  We  desire  to  protect  thwn  in  all  rights  ooo» 
bected  therewith,  subject  to  the  equitable  demands  of  the  SSaid; 
mnfl  We  will  that,  generally,  in  framing  and  administering  the 
Law,  due  regard  be  paid  to  the  ancient  Rights,  Usages,  and  Cm 
toms  of  India. 

We  deeply  lament  the  evils  and  misery,  which  have  been 
brought  upon  India  by  the  acts  of  ambdtiouBi  men,  who  have  d^ 
ceived  their  countrymen  by  falsa  reports,  and  led  them  into  opep 
rebellion.  Our  Power  has  been  shown  by  the  suppression  of  that 
Rebellion  in  the  Field.     We  desire  to  show  Our  Mercy  by  pardo^ 


ig  the  ofiEences  of  tliose  who  have  been  thus  misled,  but  who  desire 

>  return  to  the  path  of  duty. 

Alre&dy  in  one  Province,  with  a  view  to  stop  the  further 
Fusion  of  blood  and  to  hasten  the  pacification  of  our  Indian 
ominions,  Our  Viceroy  and  Governor-General  has  held  out  the 
pectation  of  pardon,  on  certain  terms  to  the  great  majority  of 
ose,  who  in  the  late  unhappy  disturbances  have  been  guilty  of 
fences  agadnst  our  Government,  and  has  declared  the  punishment 
[lich  will  be  inflicted  on  those  whose  crimes  place  them  beyond 
«  reach  of  forgivenesa.  We  approve  and  confirm  the  said  act  of 
or  Viceroy  and  Governor-General,  and  do  further  announce  and 
-odaim  as  follows: — 

Our  clemency  will  be  extended  to  all  offenders,  save  and  except 
Loae  who  have  been^  or  shall  be  convicted  of  having  directly  taken 
art  in  the  murder  of  British  subjects.  With  regard  to  such,  the 
imands  of  justice  forbid  the  exercise  of  mercy. 

To  those  who  have  willingly  given  asylum  to  murderers,  know- 
g  them,  to  be  such,  or  who  may  have  acted  as  leaders  or  instiga- 
m  in  revolt,  their  lives  alone  can  be  guaranteed ;  but  in  appor- 
oning  the  penalty  due  to  such  persons,  full  consideration  will 
I  given  to  the  circumstances  under  which  they  have  been  induced 

>  throw  off  their  allegiance,  and  large  indulgence  will  be  shown 

>  -those  whose  crimes,  may     appear  to  have    originated  in  a  too 
redulous  acceptance  of  the  false  reports  circulated  by  designdng 

.  To  all  others  in  arms  against  the  Government,  We  hereby 
touBe  unconditional  Pardon,  Amnesty,  and  Oblivion  of  all 
MeaoeB  against  Ourselves,  Our  Crown  and  Dignity,  on  their  return 
tethoiu  homes  and  peaceful  puxsiuits. 

It  is  OurHoyal  Pleasure  that  these  terms  of  Grace  and  Amnesty 
•Iwold  be  extended  to  all  those  who  comply  with  their  concGtions 
^fofPe  the  First  Day  of  January  next. 

When,  by  the  blessing  of  Providence,  internal  tranquility  shall 
^  i^tored,  it  is  Our  earnest  desire  to  stimulate  the  peaceful  in- 

814         THE   STORY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHUBOH. 

diistry  of  India,  to  promote  works  of  public  utility  and  improve- 
ment, and  to  admdnifiber  its  Government  for  the  benefit  of  all  Our 
Subjects  resident  therein.  In  thair  prosperity  will  be  Omt  etrength, 
in  their  contentment  Our  security,  and  in  their  gratitude  Our  best 
reward.  And  may  the  God  of  all  Power  grant  to  Us,  and  to  those 
in  Authority  under  Us,  strength  to  carry  out  these  Our  wishes 
for  the  good  of  Our  people. 

By  the 
Eight  Hon'ble  the  Governor-General 
of  India. 
Foreign  Department,   Allahabad,   1st  November  1858. 
Her  Majesty  The  Queen  having  declared  that  it  is  Her  gnuwHis 
pleasure  to  take  upon  Herself  the  Government  of  the  BritiA  Ter- 
ritories in  India,  the  Viceroy  and  Governor-General  hereby  not* 
fies  that  from  this  Day  all  Acts  of  the  Government  of  India  will 
be  done  in  the  name  of  the  Queen  alon«3. 

From  this  Day  all  Men  of  every  Bace  and  class  who  underlie 
administration  of  the  Hon'ble  East  India  Company  have  joinel 
to  uphold  ths>  Honor  and  Power  of  England  will  be  the  servaoiB 
•of  the  Queen  alone. 

The  Governor-General  summons  them,  one  and  all  each  in  Iiis 
degree,  and  according  to  h'is  opportunity,  and  with  his  whole  heiit 
and  strength,  to  aid  in  fulfilling  the  gracious  Will  and  Pleasure 
of  the  Queen,  as  set  forth  in  Her  Boyal  Proclamation. 

From  the  many  millions  of  Her  Majesty's  Native  Subjecte  in 
India,  the  Goveamor-General  will  now  and  at  all  times  exad>  a 
loyal  obedience  to  the  call  which,  in  words  full  of  beneYolenoe  and 
Mercy,  their  Sovereign  has  made  upon  their  allegiance  and  faiti- 

By  Order  of  the  Eight  Hon'ble  the  GoveYnor-Oeneral  of  India. 

(Sd.)    G.  P.  Edmonstomx, 
Secretary  to  the  Govermetit  of  India, 
with  the  Governor-General. 


After  tlie  Mutiny  was  all  ov«r  a  Proclamation  was  issued  by 
e  Gk)vemment  of  India,  appointing  the  28th  July  1859  to  be 
■served  as  a  day  of  General  Thanksgiving  to  Almighty  Grod  for 
is  signal  Mercies  and  Protection.  A  copy  of  the  Proclamation 
given  below. 

Fort  William,  No.  1302,   dated  the  1st  July  1859. 

The  restoration  of  Peace  and  Tranquillity  to  The  Queen's 
Dminions  in  India  makes  it  the  grateful  Duty  of  The  Viceroy 
id  Governor-General  in  Council  to  diTiect  that  a  day  be  appointed 
T  a  solemn  Thanksgiving  to  Almighty  God  for  His  signal  Merciea 
id  Pirotection. 

2.  War  is  at  an  end :  Rebellion  is  put  down,  the  nodse  of 
ms  fe  no  longer  heard  where  the  enemies  of  the  State  have  per- 
rted  in  their  last  struggle,  the  presence  of  large  forces  in  the 
W  has  ceased  to  be  necessary :  Order  is  ranestablished,  and  peace- 
1  puxBuiie  have  everywhere  been  resumed. 

3.  The  Vioaroy  and  Governor-General  in  Council  desires  that 
lursday  the  28th  July  1859  be  observed  as  a  Day  of  General 
lanksgiving  for  these  great  Blessings,  and  as  a  holiday  through- 
tit  British  India  by  all  Faithful  Subjects  of  the  Queen. 

4.  Especially  His  Excellency  in  Council  invites  all  His 
ajesty's  Christian  Subjects  to  join  in  a  humble  offering  of  grati- 
de  and  Praise  to  Almighty  God  for  the  many  Mercies  vouch- 
ed to  them. 

5.  The  Bishop  of  Calcutta  will  be  requested  to  pirepare  a 
ran  of  Prayer  to  be  used  on  the  Day  above  mentioned  by  the 
mgiregations  under  his  Lordship's  spiritual  authority. 

By  order  of  the  Govemor-Ganeral  in  Council. 

(Sd.)    W.  Grey, 

Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India. 

A  Thauksgiving  Service  was  accordingly  held  on  the  28th  July 

59,  in  the  Chapel,  when  a  collection  was  made  on  behalf  of  the 

mstian  Tract  and  Book  Society,    which  amounted  to  Rs.  791 

lich  sum  was  duly  made  over  to  Mr.  Maeleod  Wylie.     This  was 

816         THE  STOBY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAB    BAPTI8T    GHUBGH. 

in  furtherance  of  the  Society's  effort  to  supply  the  Europeao 
soldiers  with  suitable  books.  The  day  was  made  a  pubUc  holiday 
and  services  were  held  in  most  of  the  Churches  in  the  City  and 
sermons  preached  setting  forth  the  reasons  for  thankfulnees  to  the 
Lord  on  the  occasion  of  the  restoration  of  peace  in  India. 

Thus  closed  this  dark  chapter  in  Indian  History  and  in  the 
goodness  of  the  Lord  it  has  not  been  repeated  since^ 

A  copy  of  the  Eoyal  Message  that  has  recently  been  iesned 
will  now  be  given  because  of  the  spirit  that  is  at  present  mani- 
fested in  this  country  and  the  unrest  that  prevails. 

The  King's  Jubilee  Message  which  was  Proclaiked  by  thi 
Viceroy    of    India    at   Jodhpore    in   November   1908,    runs  as 

BELOW : — 

1.     It  is  now  fifty  years  since  Queen  Victoria,   my  bekyved 
mother,  and  my  august  predecessor  on  the  throne  of  these  BealxDS, 
for  divers  weighty  Treasons,  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  Parli* 
ment  took  upon  herself  the  Government  of  the  territories  there- 
tofore administered  by  the  East  India  Company.     I  deem  tins  ft 
fitting  anniversary  on  which  to  greet  the  Princes  and  peoples  of 
India  in  commemoration  of  the  exalted  task  then  solemnly  unde^ 
taken.     Half  a  century  is  but  a  brief  span  in  your  long  aimals, 
yet  this  half  century  that  ends  to-day  will  stand  amid  Uie  floodi 
of  your  historic    ages  a    far-shining  landmark.     The  ProclamaiaoB 
of  the  direct  supremacy  of  the  Crown  sealed  the  unity  of  Indian 
Government  and  opened  a  new   era.     The  journey   was  arduoos 
and  the  advance  may  have  sometimes  seemted  slow  but  the  ijioor- 
poration  of  many  strangely  diversified  communities  and  of  some 
three  hundrdd  millions  of  the  human  race  under  British  guidanoe 
and  control  has     proceeded     steadfastly  and  without  pause.     We 
survey  our  labours  of  the  past  half  century  with  clear  gaze  and  good 

The  Servants  op  the  Crown.* 
2.     Difficulties  such  as  attend  all  human  rule  in  every  age 

*  These  headings  have  been  iDserted  for  facility  of  reference. 

THE    INDIAN    MUTINY.  317 

Old  place  have  risen  up  from  day  to  day.  They  have  been  faced 
qr  tihe  servants  of  tbia  Britisih  Crown  with,  toil  and  courage  and 
jitttience^  with  deep  devotion  and  counsel  and  a  resolution  that 
IBB  never  faltered  nor  shaken.  If  errors  have  occurred  thd  Agents 
>f  my  Government  have  spared  no  pains  and  no  self-sacrifice  to 
oorrect  them;  if  abuses  have  been  proved,  vigorous  handA 
laboured  to  apply  a  remiedy. 

Internal  Peace. 

3.  No  secret  of  Empire  can  avert  the  scourge  of  drought  and 
pbgue,  but  experienced  administrators  have  done  all  that  skill 
mad  devotion  are  capable  of  doing,  to  mitigate  those  dire  calamities 
cf  Nature.  For  a  longer  period  than  was  ever  known  in  your 
land  before,  you  have  escaped  the  dire  calamities  of  war  within  your 
liorders.     Internal  peace  has  been  unbroken. 

The  Proclamation  of  1858. 

4.  In  the  great  Charter  of  1858,  Queen  Victoria  gave  you 
noble  assurance  of  her  earnest  desire  to  stimulate  the  peaceful 
industry  of  India,  to  promote  works  of  public  utility  and  improve^ 
Bent  and  to  administer  the  Gk)vemment  for  the  benefit  of  all 
xondent  therein.  The  schemes  that  have  been  diligently  framed 
and  executed  for  promoting  your  material  convenience  and  advance 
-r«chemes  unsurpassed  in  their  magnitude  and  their  boldness — 
bfMT  witness  before  the  world  to  the  zeal  with  which  that  benignant 
pjidQiise  has  been  fulfilled. 

Bights  of  Kuling  Chiefs  Respected. 

5.  The  rights  and  privileges  of  the  Feudatory  Princes  and 
Billing  Chiefs  have  been  respected,  preserved  and  guarded;  and 
the  loyalty  of  their  allegiance  has  been  unswerving.  No  man 
among  My  subjects  has  been  favoured,  molested,  or  disquieted  by 
reason  of  his  religious  belief  or  worship.  All  men  have  enjoyed 
protection  of  the  law.  The  law  itself  has  been  administered 
without  disrespect  to  creed  or  caste  or  to  usages  and  ideas  rooted 
in  your  civilisation ;  it  has  been  simplified  in  form  and  its  machin- 

318         THE   STOBY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAB    BAPTIST    CHUBOB. 

ery  adjusted  to  the  requiremeutfi  of  ancient  oommiinities  slowly 
entering  a  new  world. 

Repbession  of  "Guilty  Conspibacies." 

6.  T1l6  charge  confided  to  my  Goveamment  concerns  the  dfiB- 
tinies  of  countlefls  multitudes  of  men  now  and  for  ages  to  ooms, 
and  it  is  a  paramount  duty  to  repress  with  a  stern  arm  guilty  oott- 
spiracies  that  have  no  just  cau^e  and  no  serious  aim.  These  oon- 
spiraciee  I  know  to  be  abhorrent  to  the  loyal  and  faithful  character 
of  the  vast  hosts  of  my  Indian  subjects  and  I  will  not  suffer  them 

to  turn  Me  aside  from  My  task  of  building  up  the  fabric  of  eecanisf. 
and  order. 

The  Royal  Clemency. 

7.  Unwilling  that  this  historic  anniversary  should  pass  with- 
out some  signal  mark  of  Royal  clemency  and  grace  I  have  dineebed 
that  as  was  ordered  on  the  memorable  occasion  of  the  Coronation 
Durbar  in  1903,  the  sentences  of  persons,  whom  Our  courts  have 
duly  punished  for  offences  against  the  law,  should  be  remitted,  CC 
in  various  degrees  reduced ;  and  it  is  My  wish  that  such  wrong  doers 
may  remain  mindful  of  this  act  of  mercy,  and  may  conduct  them- 
selves  without  offence  henceforth. 

Access  to  Offices. 

8.  Steps  are  being  continuously  taken  towards  the  obliteowt 
ing  distinctions  of  race  as  the  test  for  access  to  posts  of  puMio 
authority  and  power.  In  this  path,  I  confidently  expect  and 
intend  the  progress  henceforward  to  be  steadfast  and  sure,  as  educa- 
tion spreads,  experience  ripens,  the  lessons  of  responsibility  aieweU 
learned  by  the  keen  intelligence,  and  apt  capabilities  of  India. 

Extension  op  Repbesentation. 

9.  From  the  first  the  principles  of  representative  institutiooB 
began  to  be  gradually  introduced  and  the  time  Has  come  when  in 
the  judgment  of  my  Viceroy  and  Governor-General  and  others  of 
my  counsellors,  that  principle  may  be  prudently  extended.  Im- 
portant classes  among     you,  representing    ideas  that     have    be^ 

THE    INDIAN    MUTINY.  319 

fostered  and  encouraged  by  Britisli  Rule,  claim  equality  of  citizen- 
ship and  greater  share  in  legislation  and  Grovemment.  The  politic 
satisfaction  of  such  a  claim  will  strengthen,  and  not  impair,  existing 
authority  and  power.  The  Administration  will  be  all  the  more 
efficient,  if  the  officers  who  conduct  it  have  greater,  opportunities 
of  regular  contact  with  those  whom  it  affects  and  with,  those  who 
influence  and  reflect  common  opinion  about  it.  I  will  not  spea^ 
of  the  meaeures  that  are  now  being  diligently  framed  for  those 
objecte.  They  will  speedily  be  made  known  to  you,  ?nd  will,  I 
am  very  confident,  mark  a  notable  stage  in  the  beneficent  progress 
of  your  affairs. 

Reward  to  Indian  Troops. 

10.  I  recognise  the  valour  and  fidelity  of  My  Indian  troops 
and  at  the  New  Year  I  have  ordered  that  opportunity  should  be 
taken  to  show  in  substantial  form  this,  My  high  appreciation,  of 
their  martial  instincts,  their  splendid  discipline,  and  their  faithful 
readiness  of  service. 

Royal  interest  in  India. 

11.  The  welfare  of  India  was  one  of  the  objects  dearest  to 
the  heart  of  Queen  Victoria.  By  Me  ever  since  my  visit  in  1875, 
the  interests  of  India,  its  Princes  and  peoples,  have  been  watched 
with  an  affectionate  solicitude  that  tamd  cannot  weaken.  My  dear 
Bon,  the  Prince  of  Wales,  and  the  Princess  of  Wales,  returned  from 
their  sojourn  among  you  with  warm  attachment  to  your  land,  and 
true  and  earnest  interest  in  its  well-being  and  content.  These 
sincere  feelings  of  active  sympathy  and  hope  for  India  on  the 
part  of  My  Royal  House  and  Line  only  represent,  and  they  do  most 
truly  represent,  the  deep  and  united  will  and  purpose  of  the  people 
of  this  Kingdom. 

12.  May  Divine  protection  and  favour,  strengthen  the  wisdom 
and  mutual  goodwill  that  are  needed  for  the  achievement  of 
a  task  as  gloidous  as  was  ever  committed  to  rulieirB  and  subjects  in 
any  State  or  Empire  of  recorded  time. 


The  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Sooisty. 

In  September  1815,  the  Rev.  John  Lawson,  tiie  maternal 
grandfather  of  the  present  writer,  and  the  Rev.  Eustace  Caiej 
nemoved  from  Serampore  to  canrj^  on  Missionary  work  in  Calcutta. 
Mr.  LawBon  took  up  English  work,  and  Mr.  Eustace  Carey  verna- 
cular work.  They  found  such  an  abundant  sphere  of  labour  that 
they  were  induced  to  accept  the  Co-Pafitorship  of  the  Lall  Bazar 
Church  with  the  three  Serampore  missionaries  and  were  accordingly 
set  apart  as  co-pastors  on  the  11th  January  1816. 

In  a  letter  which  Mr.  Lawson  wrote  on  that  very  day  to  the 
Serampore  missionaries,  and  which  is  printed  in  their  Cireolar 
letter  for  that  month,  he  reported ; — 

"  We  are  going  on  much  a&  usual  in  Calcutta,  I  hope  our  young 
people  are  gradually  advancing  in  Divine  things.  May  they  be 
our  joy  here  and  crown  of  rejoicing  in  glory.  We  have  set  them 
to  work  in  the  formation  of  a  Society  for  visiting  and  relieving  the 
poor,  which  is  to  be  called.  'The  Juvenile  Charitable  Institit 
tion.'  The  Rules  I  will  send  you  when  a  little  more  matured 
They  seem  to  have  .entered  upon  this  with  delight,  and  I  think 
it  will  be  the  means  of  uniting  them  together,  and  of  calling  forth 
their  gifts,  as  reading,  and  explaining  the  Sacred  Scriptures,  and 
prayer,  are  to  attend  every  visit." 

Unfortunately  no  further  ref erenod  is  made  to  the  eadd  Juvenile 
Charitable  Institution  in  any  of  the  later  Circular  Letters  nor 
were  the  Rules,  which  were  referred  to  by  Mr.  Lawson  e?er 
printed  in  those  Letters.  It  is,  however,  known  from  the  reo<^ 
of  those  days  that  Mr.  Lawson  had  a  great  influenoe  upon  young 
people  whether  youths  or  maidens.  While  he  was  Co-Pastor,  the 
youths  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Church  started  a  Missionary  Society,  a 
Sunday  School  Society,  and  also  banded  themselves  together  to 
give  a  monthly  subscription  for  deposit  in  the  Serampore  SavingB 
Bank  towards  paying  off  the  principal  of  the  debt  on  the  Chapel 


<lu€  fco  tli3  Serampore  missionaries,  who  were  the  Senior  Pafitore  of 
-the  Chxirch.  Their  pastors  used  to  draw  them  out  for  Christian  work 
Jrom  the  age  of  thirteen.  They  thus  anticipated  the  work  of  the 
Youngi  Men  8  Christian  Association,  and  the  Christian  Endeavour 
.Societies  many  years  before  they  were  started  even  in  England. 

In  October  1819,  Mr.  Lawson  and  Mr.  Eustace  Carey,  rssigned 
t^eir  Co-Pastorship  and  joined  the  Circular  Boad  Church,  Mr. 
Lawson  being  chosen  the  Pastor  of  the  new  Church.  This  will 
probably  account  for  the  silsnce  of  five  or  six  years  on  the  subject  of 
.i3u8  particular  Sociiety. 

The  next  notice  of  the  Society  was  in  December  1821,  when,  in 
.a  letter  from  the  Eev.  Mr.  Penney  of  the  Benevolent  Institution, 
it  is  stated: — 

''Many  of  the  children  attend  the  meetings  of  the  Juvenile 
Society,  which  are  held  twice  a  week,  and  hear  addresses  from 
Abraham  Pi&ters,  Pascal,  and  others  formerly  belonging  io  the 

Mr.  A.  Peters,  who  i&  referred  to  above  was  the  first  Secretary 
of  the  Society,  and  was  a  very  zealous  member  of  the  Lall  Bazar 
Church.  At  this  time,  the  services  of  the  Society  were  held  in 
a  stable  on  the  premises  of  the  Benevolent  Institution  in  which 
the  horses  of  Mr.  Penney  were  kept.  This  unobtrusive  though 
lUtefTil  institution  it  is  understood  was  extensively  encouraged  by 
fhe  Christian  public  judging  from  the  earliest  report,  which  bears 
dato  1821. 

The  Society  would  seem  to  have  been  formally  founded,  and 
established  as  ''The  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society,"  in 
February  1822,  for  the  following  reasons: — 

1.  The  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Society  used  to  be  held  in 
February  of  each  year  for  many  years  running,  and ; 

2.  Even  as  late  as  1882  the  years  of  the  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association  used  to  be  counted  as  from  1822.  However, 
tiie  Society  was  more  familiarly  known  as  the  Juvenile  Society^ 
and  was  usually  referred  to  as  such. 

21  i 

322         THE   STOBT'  of    the    tALL-BlZAB    BAPTIST    CBtTBOH. 

The  late  Mr.  Henry  Andi^wsy  a  member  of  tbd  Union  Chapel^ 
Calcutta,  who  died  on  15tli  "i/Lty  1897,  often  told  the  present 
writer  that  he  took  part  in  starting  the  Society  in  <X)tijunction  with 
Mr.  Lawson.     This  statement  is  corroborated  by  the  following:— 

1.  The  late  Rev.  Robert  Robinson  in  his  ll^morial  Sennom 
lor  Mr.  Andrews  said : — 

He  was  one  of  the  young  m«n,  who  may 
be  said  to  have  originally  started  the  Touilg  Men's  Christian 
AoBociation  in  Calcutta.  The  Society  he  helped  to  form  was  known 
in  those  early  days  as  the  Juvenile  Society,  (the  italic^  are  the 
present  writer's),  and  it  had  its  weekly  meetings  for  the  study  of 
the  Scriptures^  and  for  prayer  in  one  of  the  rooms  of  the  Beno 
volent  Institution  in  Bow  Bazar.  For  many  years,  it  had  t 
fluctuating  eodstenoe,  but  it  never  died,  and  It  has  since  devielopecP 
into  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  6f  to-day,  (1897). 

2.  In  an  article  entitled      ''A  tribute  to  the  memory  of  a 

S.    S.    Superintendent"    which    appeared   in    the   India  Sunday 

School  Journal,    shortly  after  Mr.  Andrews'    death  the  following 

statement  is  made : — 

"  He  helped  to  form  Ihe  Juvenile  Society  for 
the  mental  and  religious  improvement  of  young  people,  which 
met  in  the  Benevolent  Institution  in  Bow  Bazar,  and  which  has 
now  mei:ged  into  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association."  (The 
italics  are  the  present  writer's.) 

The  opinion  has  been  expressed  at  the  present  time,  that  Mfr 
Andrews  was,  too  young  in  February  1822,  to  take  part  in  thefornuh 
tion  of  this  Society,  but^  as  he  was  bom  on  the  5th  August  1809, 
he  was  about  12 J  years  old  at  tha  time,  which  was  just  about  tibe 
age  at  which  the  young  people  of  those  days  took  part  in  Cfarifitiaa 

The  following  were  the  Rules  of  the  Juvenile  Society : — 

Fundamental  Rules 



Of  the  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society. 
I.     That   the  Society  be  designated  The  Calcutta  ChristiMi 

Juvenile   Society. 


II.  That  tbe  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society  be  established 
en  those  Catholic  principles  in  which  all  Protestant  denominations 
are  agreed. 

III.  That  the  object  of  the  Society  be  the  spiritual  improve- 
ment of  the  youth  of  the  city  of  Calcutta. 

IV.  That  in  furtherance  of  this  objiect  the  following  means 
be  adopted,  viz. :  (1)  Divine  Service  in  the  Booma  of  the  Society, 
every  Friday  evening ;  (2)  Sabbath  Schools  in  the  Society's  Booms 
or  elsewhere;  (3)  Prayer-meetings  in  private  houses;  (4)  The  dis- 
tribution of  Bibles,  either  in  whole,  or  in  portions,  and  of  religious 
tracts,  and  (5)  the  Circulation  of  religious  books. 

Y.  That  Ministers  and  Missionaries,  as  well  as  approved  lay- 
men, of  all  Protestant  denominations  be'  invited  to  delivier  Lectures 
in  the  Society's  Booms,  and  that  no  person  be  allowed  to  discourse 
at  ita  meetings  on  the  peculiarities  of  his  own  Connection. 

VI.  That  a  President,  and  two  Vice-Presidents  be  appointed 
over  the  Society. 

Vn.  That  Christians  of  all  Protestant  denominations  h& 
eligible  as  members  of  the  Committee,  and  that  no  person  be  ad- 
mitted, who  is  not  in  full  communion  with  some  one  section  of 
the  Church  of  Christ,  and  does  not  sustain  the  reputation  of  a  fair 

VIII.  That  a  Greneral  Meeting  of  the  Members  and  Friends 
of  the  Society  be  held  annually  in  the  month  of  Deoamber,  at 
which  a  report  of  the  progress  of  the  Society,  and  the  state  of  the 
Funds  sEall  be  read,  and  Officers  elected  for  the  ensuing  year. 

IX.  That  all  the  meetings  of  this  Society  be  commenced,  and 
concluded  with  prayer,  and  that  the  Members  feel  it  a  duty  incum- 
bent on  them  to  cultivate  the  friendship  of  all  institutions  engaged 
in  evangelical    labours. 


I.  That  the  number  of  individuals  composing  the  Committee 
of  the  Society,  be  limited  to  12. 

II.  That  the  Committee  assemble  ordinarily  for  the  trans- 
action of  business,  on  the  first  Friday  evening  of  every  month,  after 
the  conclusion  of  Divine  Service. 

III.  That  in  the  absence  of  the  President  or  Vice-Presidents^ 
a  chairman  be  elected  by  the  Committee  from  among  their  number^ 
and  that  four  be  competent  to  form  a  quorum,  the  chairman 
having  the  casting  vote. 

TV.  That  the  Committee  appoint  a  Secretary  and  a  Treasuner, 
and  that  the  duties  of  thesei  officers  be  vested  either  in  one  individ- 

82^         THE   STORY    OF    THE.  LALL-BAZAB    BAPTIST    GHUBOH. 

ual,   oon jointly,   or  in  two,   s&parately,    at  the   discretion  of  the 

V.  That  the  Treasurer  furnish  a  detailed  statement  of  the 
Accounts  at  every  ordinary  meeting  of  the  Committee,  and  that 
he  obtain  their  sanction  to  all  items  of  expenditure  exceeding 
Co/s  Rs.   10. 

VI.  That  the  Committee  appoint  two  Auditors  to  check  the 

VII.  That  the  Society  keep  up  a  Circulating  Library,  con- 
sisting of  religious  and  other  useful  Books,  for  the  benefit  of  its 
Members,  and  Friends. 

VIII.  That  a  Librarian  be  appointed  to  take  charge  of  the 
Books  of  the  Society,  and  that  he  submit  a  quarterly  report  to 
the  Committee  on  the  state  of  the  Library,  and  of  any  aocessioin 
of  works  which  may  be  made  to  it,  from  time  to  time. 

Mr.  W.  Kirkpatrick  and  Mr.  P.  DeRozario  helped  with  the 
preaching.  Th&  former  subsequently  became  a  missionary  of  the 
Baptist  Missionary  Society. 

The  first  report  of  this  Society,  which  was  published  was  that 
for  1823,  as  stated  in  the  body  of  the  Report  itself.  It  has  been 
extracted  from  the  Calcutta  Baptist  Missionary  Society's  Report  of 
1824.  The  following  items  appear  in  that  report.  The  former 
Society  denominated  the  Indian  Juvenile  Society,  having  been  dis- 
solved opened  the  way  for  the  Calcutta  Juvenile  Society.  An 
appeal  for  funds  to  purchase  furniture  for  fitting  up  the  room  they 
occupied,  brought  in  sicca  Rupees  189  and  Annas  8  principally 
through  the  generous  exertions  of  Mr.  Penney  and  with  it  they 
procured  the  things  that  were  required  for  conducting  Divine 
worship.  They  then  arranged  to  hold  meetings  on  Friday  evenings, 
the  usual  routine  of  which  was  singing,  praying  and  reading  the 
Word  of  God  with  observations.  They  then  formed  a  Library  and 
the  result  of  an  appeal  on  its  behalf  they  procured  150  volumes. 
They  next  started  Conference  Meetings  on  the  2nd  and  4th  Monday 
evenings  of  each  month  when  a  text  (previously  selected)  was  dis- 
cussed and  everyone  present  was  invited  to  speak,  but  the  attendance 
at  these  was  rather  thin.     Weekly  meetings  for  lectures  on  scientific 


subjects  were  held,  but  the  attendanoe  was  eo  small  that  they  were 
obliged  to  be  given  up.  The  Calcutta  Baptist  Missionaries 
pztesented  this  Society  with  a  pair  of  new  Globes.  In  addition 
a  regular  set  of  lectures  on  Divinity  was  arranged  for.  The  Re- 
ceipts for  the  year  amounted  to  sicca  rupees  285,  9  annas  and  3 
pies  which  were  all  spent  within  the  year. 

In  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society's  Beport  of  1825  it  is  stated 
that  the  professed  object  of  the  Society  was  the  extension  of  Chris- 
tianity among  the  nominally  Christian  youths  of  this  country. 

The  Society  is  mentioned  in  the  Periodical  "Accounts  for  Janvr 
ary  to  April  1825. 

In  October  1825  some  of  the  young  people  who  were 
originally  the  fruits  of  this  Juvenile  Society  desired  to  be 
baptized  and  join  the  Circular  Boad  Baptist  Church,  but 
Mr.  Lawson,  the  first  Pastor  of  that  Church,  was  on 
his  death  bed.  When  be  was  informed  that  these  young  people 
had  expressed  their  willingness  to  defer  making  a  public  profied- 
sion  of  their  attachment  to  the  Redeemer  till  he  was  well  enough 
to  assist  thsm  through  it,  he  made  the  following  observations: — 

"  Tell  my  friends  not  to  wait  for  me ;  it  is  not  the  will  of  the 
Lord  that  I  should  recover  from  this  illness;  and  tell  them  more- 
over, that  from  the  fair  evidence  which  they  have  afforded  of  their 
own  piety,  I  am  convinced  that  the  Juvenile  Society  of  which 
tibey  are  the  happy  fruits,  must  be  owned  and  blessed  of  €k)d." 
Sucli  was  the  testimony  of  a  dying  saint  on  the  confines  of  a  blessed 
Eternity.  The  inscription  on  his  tombstone  in  the  South  Park 
Staneiet  Cemetery  states  that  "his  life  was  useful  and  his  death 
tritunphant."  He  died  on  the  22nd  October  1825  and  was  buried 
the  next  day  in  that  Cemetery  by  the  Bev.  J.  T.  Thomason  of  St. 
John's  Church. 

In  the  Beport  published  by  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society  in 
London  in  1826  there  are  the  following  references  to  the  Juvenile 
Society : — 

"  Within  the  last  two  or  thrse  years  a  Society  has  been  formed 
among  the  junior  members  of  the  Church  (i.e,,  the  Circular  Boad 


Church)  in  this  city  together  with  some  other  young  men 
of  the  class  denominated  country-bom, '  for  the  disBemination  of 
moral  and  religious  knowledge  among  individuals  of  their  own 
age  and  station,"  while  in  a  letter  from  Calcutta  to  the  Society 
dated  17th  February  1826  it  is  stated :  "  Nearly  all  the  young  men 
in  this  Society  are  members  of  the  Church  in  Circular  Road."  Hie 
Society  appealed  this  year  (1826)  to  people  in  England  for  books. 

The  annual  meeting  was  hsld  on  17tE  February  1826.  There 
was  a  great  revival  this  year,  in  large  measure  stimulated  by  the 
Society.  .  The  feeling  raised  by  Mr.  Lawson's  death  had  helped 
to  start  it.  Thirty  members  were  added  to  the  Church  (i.e.,  the 
Circular  Eoa<l  Church). 

At  the  5th  Anniversary  Meeting  of  the  Bible  AssodatioD 
which  was.  held  in  Calcutta  on  the  12fh  January  1827,  it  was 
stated  that  the  Juvenile  Society  (among  others)  had  been  assisted 
with  a  gratuitous  grant  of  English  Bibles  and  Testaments. 

The  Kev.  J.  Statham,  a  Baptist  Missionary  who  retired  m 
1827,  has  written  as  below  in  his  "Indian  Recollections"  which 
wene  published  in  London  in  1832: — 

"Many  of  the  young  persons  educated  there  (i.e.,  in  the  Bene- 
volent Institution)  ara  now  formed  into  a  Society,  called  the 
Calcutta  Juvenile  Society,  whose  object  is  the  dissemination  ol 
religious  knowledge  and  the  production  of  religious  feelings. 

The  following  statement,  written  by  one  of  the  members  of 
that  body,  will  best  illustrata  the  nature  of  their  object,  and  dis- 
play the  talent  they  possess  : — 

"  The  diffusive  nature  of  Christianity  proclaims  its  Divine  oripn 
and  superior  excelknce.  Most  systems  of  religion  that  exist  in 
th©  world,  are  entirely  local :  they  are  intended  for  certain  limits 
beyond  which  they  appear  unsuitable.  The.  Delphic  oracle,  the 
mount  of  Olympus,  and  the  fount  of  Castalia  are  heard  withoat 
veneration  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  Arctic  and  Torrid  i^ionB. 
The  waters  of  the  Ganges,  and  the  f  ame  of  Juggernath  and  the  roAs 
of  Himaloy  (:<f^c.  )  altogether  lose  their  character  and  sanctity  in 
the  steppes  of  Tartary  and  the  plains  of  Africa.  Nations  iCTiote 
from  Greece  and  India  were  precluded,  by  that  guiltless  circum- 
stance, from  the  benefits  of  the  religions  of  those  celebrated  climes: 
they  <»uld  not  hopa  to  hear  the  oracle,  or  wash  in  the  stream! 


There  have  been  systems,  too,  which  were  propagated  by  their  pro- 
leBaoiB,  but  the  mode  of  propagation  banished  from  the  mind  every 

-<ypinion  that  might  have  been  formed  of  their  sacred  chaiacter. 
The  fire  and  sword  are  objects  too  tsrrible  to  permit  ns  to  con- 
template the  religions,  which  employ  them,  with  any  feelings  of 
complacency.  At  the  unsheathing  of  the  sword  and  the  kindling 
of  the  flame,  every  appearance  of  good  vanishes,  every  expectation 
of  a  Divine  origin  is  annihilated.  It  is  the  Grospel  9in}y*that  can 
justly  claim  the  character  of  universality.  It  addresses  men,  not 
«6  distinguished  into  nations  and  tnb^,  but  ae  comprising  one 
great  family,  and  standing  equally  in  need  of  the  promise  of  mercy 
and  the  hope  of  eternal  life.  Its  doctrines  and  precepts  contain 
no  exclusive  reference,  nothing  but  what  is  applicable  to  mem  of 
^veacj  name  and  climate,  under  every  circumstance  in  which  it  is 
poflsible  for  them  to  b©  placed,  but  if  the  Goepel  aspires  to  universal 
a<Mxi^on,  it  recommends  no  equivocal  means  of  effecting  that  end. 
It  requires  not  bloody  offerings,  but  a  living  sacrifice.  Its  instru- 
ments of  conviction  are  not  fire  and  the  rack,  but  the  word  of 
power,  the  sword  of  the  Spirit. 

This  system,  so  diffusive,  and  so  calculated  for  universal  advant- 
age, is  left  to  the  exertions  of  those,  who  have  felt  its  power  to 
be  extensively  disseminated.  Willing  as  celestial  natures  would 
be,  to  be,  aa  they  were  at  the  birth  of  the  Saviour,  messengers  of 
peace  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth,  that  office  is  imposed  by 
Grod  on  His  own  people,  however,  unfitted  by  their  sins  and  weak- 
nesses for  the  performance  of  the  duty.  What  obligations  there 
are  to  constrain  God's  people  to  declare  His  salvation  to  sinners, 
and  with  what  force  may  they,  who  have  been  made  to  perceive 
the  dangers  of  their  situation,  who  have  received  mercy,  and  now 
X>0flsea8i  a  good  hope  through  grace,  represent  to  sinners  the  misery 

-of  their  situation  and  urge  them  to  fly  to  the  refuge. 

Such  are  the    objects  of  "the     Calcutta  Juvenile  Society," 

-objects  common  to  other  institutions,  but  attempted  in  a  parti- 
cular manner.  As  the  Provinces  of  an  extensive  Empire  are  divided 
into  Governments  and  distributed  to  several  individuals,   so  the 

•charge  of   different   modes  of  operation,   in   the   kingdom  of  the 

'<3k)6pel,  must  be  undertaken  by  particular  classes  of  men,  with  a 
yiow  to  bring  their  energies  to  bear  more  efficiently  on  distinct  divi- 

«ions  of  the  same  glorious  work.  There  are  various  descriptions  of 
people,  to  whom  the  Gospel  must  be  addressed  with  some  changes, 
not  indeed  in  its  essential  character,  but  in  its  external  circum- 


The  Calcutta  Juvenile  Society  have  occupied   their   ground. 

They  have  taken  the  circumstances  of  the  place  into  consideration. 

328         TH£  STORY    OF    THE    LALL-BAZAB    BAPTIST    CHUBOH. 

its  wants  and  capabilities,  and  they  have  directed  their  efforts  Uy 
its  cultivation.  The  field  is  large,  but  waste,  their  aim  is  to  render 
it  fruitful,  to  convert  the  barren  wilderness  into  a  garden  of  the- 

The  members  of  this  promising  society  are  young  men,  wLo- 
have  received  the  truths  of  the  Gospel  not  in  Word  only,  but  im 
power — and  who  are  desirous  that  a  great  reformation  should  take 
place  amongst  the  hundreds  of  countryborn  youths,  vrho  swarm  in 
Calcutta,  with  this  end  in  view  they  hold  weekly  meetings  in  a 
neat  bungalow  Chapel,  when  some  one,  before  appointed,  dfili^vers 
an  essay  or  lecture  on  some  important  subject,  and  devoiikxiial 
exercises  are  carried  oh.  On  stated  occasions,  the  Rev.  W.  Yates 
gives  a  theological  lecture,  which,  is  always  well  attended.  During 
the  week  they  hold  prayer-meetings  in  all  parts  of  the  city  aad 
suburbs,  sometimes  in  the  houses  of  Portuguese  Roman  Catholus 
by  which  means  many  have  been  led  to  renounce  the  enxm  of 
Popery.  Attached  to  the  Society  is  a  small  library,  which  coo- 
tinues  rapidly  to  increase.  One  of  their  number  is  aimnaDj 
appointed  Librarian,  and  any  youth  in  the  city,  desirous  of  wai 
ing,  is  gratutiously  provided  with  the  means.  The  establishment 
of  Sunday  Schools  is  another  object  steadily  pursu>9d  by  theB^ 
youthful  champions  of  the  Cross — and  in  one  of  their  Annual 
Reports  now  lying  before  me,  there  are  interesting  accoimta  if 
the  happy  deaths  of  two  of  the  scholars.  It  is  by  means  similar 
to  those  pursued  by  these  Indo-British  youths,  that  we  hope  to 
see  India  evangelized.  They  find  their  way  into  habitations  where 
the  missionary  has  not  access — and  born  in,  and  inured  to  the 
clime  they  do  not  fall  a  sacrifice  to  active  exertions,  as  the  Enjo- 
peans  must  do.  Thus  these  men  will  stand  preaching  to  tKe 
natives  in  the  Bazans  and  crowded  streets  beneath  the  rays  of  t 
mid-day  sun  which  would  prove  fatal  to  others. 

Thew  are  the  first  fruits  of  the  schools:  what  the  future  harvttir 
may  be,  we  know  not,  but  I  consider  that  vast  blessings  will  result 
to  India  from  the  establishment  of  them,  as  the  youths  educatecf 
there  are  sent  to  all  parts  of  the  country  as  writers  and  superin- 
tendents, and  very  pleasing  accounts  have  been  received  of  the 
zealous  efforts  of  some  to  instruct  the  children  around  them.* 

In  a  letter  from  Calcutta,  dated  21st  April  1827,  it  is  statef 
that  the  place  of  meeting  Had  become  too  small  for  the  work.  A 
collection  was  made  in  order  to  build  a  pucca  Chapel.  (See  Biy 
tist  Missionary  Society's  Report  of  1827).  There  is  also  this 
further  remark: — 


Nor  must  it  be  forgotten  that  the  Calcutta  Juvenile  Society 
who  are  zealously  engaged  in  conducting  meetings  from  house  to' 
house,  distributing  tracts  and  establishing  Sabbath  Schools  is  com- 
posed mostly  of  young  men  who  have  been  educated  here  (^.e.,  th^ 
Benevolent  Institution). 

From  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society's  Report  of  1828  it  seems? 
that  the  money  collected  for  a  pucca  Chapel  was  actually  given  to 
build  a  preaching  Chapel  in  Jaun  Bazar  for  the  Baptist  Mission: 
so  that  evidently  the  work  of  ths  Society  had  fallen  back  mean> 
while.     On  the  other  hand  the  following  remarks  are  on  record : — 

"The  members  of  the  Juvenile  Society  continue  to  prosecute 
their  laborsi  with  some  degree  of  success.  We  are  happy  to  per- 
ceive that  although  several  of  their  (original)  number  have  remove-I 
to  different  parts'* of  India  others  are  raised  up  to  occupy  their 
places.  The  prayer-meetings  conducted  in  private  houses  are  well- 
attended  and  have  proved  a  blessing  to  several.  We  expect  some 
of  their  number  will  soon  join  the  Church." 

The  work  is  referred  to  in  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society's 
Beport  of  1829.  The  Annual  Meeting  was  held  on  the  19th  Feb- 
ruaary  1829,  and  was  largely  attended.  The  report  was  sent  to 
London.  In  that  year,  Mr.  Penney  carried  on  a  Sunday  School 
assisted  by  the  members  of  the  Juvenile  Society,  which  was  attended 
by  about  30  children,  some  of  whom  were  Hindus. 

The  following  remark  is  extracted  from  Volume  1. 
of  Dr.  Cox's  (Jubilee)  History  of  the  Baptist  Mission  and  is  in- 
serted here  as  it  has  reference  to  about  this  period : — 

"  Carapiet  Aratoon  was  exceedingly  active  in  connection  with 
the  young  men  of  the  Juvenile  Society  in  ministering  to  six  nativa 
places  of  worship,  so  that  more  than  a  thousand  persons  heard  the 
Gospel  every  month  from  a  single  missionary.  The  village  of  Bans- 
tollah  particularly  shared  his  labors." 

This  was  the  commencement  of  a  work  of  grace  in  the  villages 
to  the  south-east  of  Calcutta. 

The  following  account  of  the  11th   Annual   Meeting  of  the 

Society,  which  was  held  on  the  20th  February  1834,  is  taken  from 

the  Calcutta  Christian  Observer    of  April  1834: — 

Calcutta  Juvenile  Society. 

The  11th  Annual     Meeting  of  this  Society     was  held  m  the 

Female  Department  of  the  Benevolent  Institution  on  the  20th  Feb- 

3  so 


.ruary,  Rev.  R.  C.  Mather  in  the  chair.     After  a  few  appropriaUJ 
observations  from  the  Chairman,  the  Secretary   was  called  upon 
.to  read  the  Report,  which  embraced  the  operations  of  the  Societyi  I 
in  four  distinct  branches,  viz.,  its  stated  weekly  Bervices,  its  Sabkl 
.bath  School,  its  private  prayer-meetings,   and  the   labours  of  hsI 
; auxiliary  branch  in  connection  with  the  Institution.     The  attend- 1 
anoe  at  the  weekly  services  was.  stated  to  be  good ;    the  acoounti] 
of  the  Sabbath  School  were  rather  unfavourable,  owing  to  the  un-l 
concern  of  parents  in  respect  to  tha  attendance  of  their  cliildreir] 
:and  the  inveterate  prejudice  existing  from  mistaken  views  of  thel 
objects   of    religious    instruction.     Three    private  prayer-meetings 
had  been  conducted  during  the  past  year,  with  some  little  inter- J 
ruption,   on  the   evenings  of  Tuesday,    Thursday^    and  SaturdAy, 
In  the  first  of     them,  the     service     had  been  carried  on  in  tie ( 
Bengalee  language.     Resolutions  were  moved  and  seconded  by  Dr.  I 
Corby n,  Messrs.   Byrn,   Woolaston,   Kirkpatrick,    Lorimer,  Hi 
Andrews  and  Wilson.     Very  interesting  observations  were 
by  the  gentlemen,   who  advocated  the  nature  and   objectE  of  1 
Society,  and  the  meeting,  which  it  was  gratifying  to  see  so  ntfl 
ously  attended,  broke  up  in  apparent-  satisfaction  with  the  bui 
of  the  evening. 

The  Mr.  Andrews  referred  to  above  was  Mr.  Henry  Andrews ' 
of  the  Union  Chapel,  who  has  been  previously  mentioned  in  ttij 
narrative.     Lord  Macaulay  arrived  in  Calcutta  in  November  1834, 
and  Mr.  Andrews  had  the  privilege  of  working  under  him  duTiEg  i 
1836-37  in  connection  with  ths  Indian  Law  CommiBsion. 

The  Society  was  Catholic  in  itir  constitution  and  wa«  tieftHy 
akin  to  the  City  Mission  of  after  year^.  ^ 

On  the  28th  May  1836,  the  Rsv.  Jamee  Penney  and  Mr 
William  Kirkpatrick  bought  the  land  in  Bow  Bazar  (then  CiUerf 
Lall  Bazar)  with  two  buildings  on  it  for  sicca  rupe^  3^300. 

On  the  Ist  February  1839,  Mr.  Penney  died  sind  in  consequence 
new  Trustees  were  appointed  in  1845  to  whom  the  property  was 
made  over  by  a  nominal  sale  of  Rs.  10  for  the  land  and  building. 
Of  the  latter  one  is  described  as  lower-roomed  and  the  otlier  upp^r^ 
roomed.  The  Trustees  were  Rev.  Thomas  Boaz,  Rev,  Jajnffi 
Thomas,  Manuel  Wittenbaker,  Henry  Andrews,  and  Wiihwi 
Henry  Haycock.  The  Committee  consisted  of  Mesers.  Manuel  j 
Wittenbaker,  Henry  Andrews,  John  Hawkins  Cockburn,  Leintl 
♦Gomez  and  William  Henry  Haycock. 



In  the  weekly  edition  of  the  Friend  of  India  for  the  12tli  Sep- 
mber  ISSO,  there  is  a  paragraph,  taken  from  the  Bengal  Times,  in 
bdch  eatislaoftion  is  expressed  that  a  system  of  monthly  lectures 
id  been  arranged  to  be  delivered  in  the  rooms  of  the  Calcutta 
irisiian  Juvenile  Society,  opposite  the  Benevolent  Institution. 

The  old  building  standing  close  on  the  street  was  taken  down 
.d  the  present  building  was  erected.  The  other  building  at  the 
cik  appears  to  have  been  allowed  to  stand,  but  it  fell  down  some 
IT  years  ago.  This  new  hall  which  is  described  as  the  Lecture 
wH  of  the  Society  was  opened  on  the  19th  November  1852,  and, 
x^  Macleod  Wylie  a  well-known  Christian  gentleman  of  those 
ijB,  delivered  the  opening  addrecs  on  that  occasion.  For  that 
xjod  it  was  a  commodious  and  comfortable  building  and  pre- 
lied  a  striking  contrast  to  its  ancient  humble  meeting-room  which 
lod  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road.  A  sketch  of  the  hall  as  it 
IB  a  few  years  back  is  given  below  through  the  kindness  of  the 
M.  C.  A.,  College  Branch. 

n  Lbotubb  Hall  op  thb  Calcutta  Chbistian  juvenilb  Sooibtt 

IN  Bow  Bazab  Stbbbt,  Calcutta. 
ff  hind  permMon  of  klestrs.  J,  N.  Farquhar  and  B.  R.  Bather  of  the 
Y.  M.  C.A.  College  Branch,) 


Though  the  Committee  of  the  Society  had  attained  their  great 
object  in  the  erection  of  this  Hall,  it  is  added  that  they  were  still 
exerting  themselves  to  extend  the  sphere  of  usefulness  of  the 
Society.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  of  Cal- 
cutta, was  not  so  much  as  in  ejdstenoe  at  that  time,  not  having 
been  started  till  1854.  In  fact  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  movement  began 
in  England  only  in  1844  and  had  not  spread  to  this  country,  so 
that  the  Juvenile  Society  had  been  doing  from  1822  the  kind  of 
work  that  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  took  up  in  England  in  1844  only,  or 
22  years  behind  that  Society. 

Mr.  Macleod  Wylie,  who  delivered  the  opening  addreBs  od 
the  19th  November  1852,  was  the  oldest  colleague  of  the  Committed 
and  hence  was  selected  for  the  honor.  There  is  so  much,  of  inter- 
est in  the  address  bearing  on  the  work  of  the  Juvenile  Society 
that  no  apology  is  offered  for  printing  in  extenso  the  following 
long  extract  from  it  as  given  in  the  Oriental  Baptist  for  February 
1853  :— 

"  An  examination  of  the  various  means  employed  by  the  Society 
will  be  found  in  it  its  Annual  Reports.  But,  perhaps,  it  may  be 
asked  what  good  has  this  Society  effected?  In  answer  we  make  a 
statement  of  unvarnished  facts  by  saying  that  not  a  few  have  bcien 
brou,ght  to  the  saving  knowledge  of  Christian  truth  through  its 
instrumentality.  Two  or  more  of  its  earlier  fruits  are  to  thu  day 
laboring  as  missionaries,  ons  of  whom  had  sometime  ago  the  pas- 
toral oversight  of  the  Baptist  Churches  at  Agra  and  Oawnpore 
respectively.  One  each  of  the  present  Deacons  of  the  three  Dis- 
senting Churches  at  Calcutta  are  likewise  the  fruits  of  this  Society, 
and  there  are  other  men,  who  have  been  admitted  into  the  fellow- 
ship of  these  Churches  and  who  it  is  hoped  have  adorned  and  are 
still  adorning  their  profession  by  a  consistent  ooiUBe  of  sincere 
piety.  In  respect  to  one  of  these  fruits  of  the  Society  to  whom 
allusion  has  been  made,  as  both  a  missionary  and  pastor,  our  late 
respected  friend  and  oo-adjutor,  the  Rev.  James  Penney,  bore 
many  years  ago  the  following  testimony: — 

"  We  have  been  in  deep  distress  at  Dinapore,  wrote  Mr.  Penney 
to  the  Committee,  with  your  friend  Mr.  G.  (Green way),  who  has 
lost  his  brother  by  the  jungly  fever  and  who  himself  has,  but  jaar- 
rowly  escaped.  These  very  afflictive  occurrences*  have  brought  to 
my  acquaintance  one  of  the  best  Christians  I  have  seen  in  India. 


His  gentleness,  bis  sound  sense  and  d&epeeated  piety,  have  filled 
me  with  the  highest  respact  for  him,  and  pleasing  anticipations 
that  he  is  intended  for  some  great  work  on  earth,  and,  I  trust 
an  exalted  seat  in  heaven.  If  the  Juvenile  Society,  added  Mr. 
Penney,  is  useful  in  bringing  such  men  as  Greenway  into  the 
Church  and  into  the  Ministry  long  may  it  flourish  and  prove  a 
l>le8sing  to  India.'' 

There  is  one  permanent  feature  of  this  Society  to  which  I  beg 
permission  briefly  to  advert,  namely,  its  broad  catholicity.  This 
is  stated  in  Rule  2,  which  runs  as  follows : — 

"  That  the  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society  be  established 
on  those  catholic  principles  in  which  all  Froteeitant  Denominations 
are  agreed."  To  these  principles  the  Society  has  ever  adhered  by 
preaching  the  fundamental  truth  of  salvation  through  the  blood 
of  Christ,  and  its  Committee  have  been  always  composed  of  Chris- 
tians of  all  Denominations;  it  has  been  an  Evangelical  Alliance 
in  this  land  for  upwards  of  thirty  years.  (This  would  seem  to 
imply;  that  it  was  established  before  1822).  On  my  acquainting 
that  eminent  minister  and  missionary,  Dr.  Duff,  about  twenty 
yean  ago  with,  this  Catholic  phase  of  the  Society,  he  burst  forth 
into  expnesaions  of  the  warmest  admiration  and  remarked  that  the 
Society  was  worthy  of  the  countenance  and  support  of  every  true 

But,  it  has  })een  objected,  that  since  there  are  so  many 
OhorcheB  and  religious  Societies  in  this  city,  there  is  no  necessity 
for  the  continuance  of  an  Institution  such  as  this.  If  this  objection 
be  considered  valid,  then  by  a  parity  of  reason,  all  Young  Mens' 
SodetieB  (and  there  are  many  such  both  in  Euro})e  and  j^erica) 
miut  be  discountenanced  and  condemned  as  superfluous.  Did  we 
pay  proper  heed  to  the  words  of  our  Saviour  'the  harvest  is 
plenteous,  but  the  laborers  are  few,  pray  ye  therefore  the  Lord  of 
the  harvest  that  He  may  send  more  laborers  into  the  harvest' 
"we  should  tremble  to  oppose  or  discourage,  any,  even  the  feeblest 
affort  put  forth  to  do  good.  Are  the  means  employed  in  this  great 
dty  to  diffuse  the  blessings  of  the  Gospel  at  all  proportioned  to 
the  vast  population,  and  are  there  not  diversities  of  operation  f 
Why  then  object,  to  this  Society?" 

On  the  let  August  1854,  the  Calcutta  Young  Mens  Christian 

A99oe%ation,  was  inaugurated  by  a  public  meeting,  which  was  held 

in  the  Town  Hall.     This  Association  was  entirely  distinct  from 

the  Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society  and  seems  to  have  been 

"eant     mainly    for    the    benefit    of    young    Europeans    arriving 


in  the  City  as  will  be  seen  from  Eule  6  of  its  rules  whicli  are 
printed  below.  It  is  not  known  where- it  held  its  meetings,  but 
it  SQon  died  out.  The  following  extract  regarding  the  Bules  and 
Regulations  of  this  Association  is  taken  from  the  Oriental  Baptist 
of  August  1854.  A  comparison  of  them  with  the  Rides  of  the  older 
Association  will  soon  show  the  differences  batween  the  two  sets  of 
rules: — 


We  are  happy  to  record  the  establishment  of  a  Society  bearing 
this  designation.  The  arrangements  for  conducting  it  are  not  yet 
fully  matured,  but  some  idea  of  the  merits  may  be  gathered  from 
its  Rules  and  Regulations,  which  are  as  follows : — 

I. — That  this  Society  be  called  the  "Calcutta  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association." 

II. — That  the  basis  of  the  Association  be  evangelical  and  the 
object,  the  religious  and  intallectual  improvement  of  Young  Men, 

III. — That  it  be  un->sectarian. 

IV. — ^That  the  Association  shall  consist  of  Governing  Hem* 
bers  and  Members. 

V. — That  the  Governing  Members  shall  be  members  of  C9ir» 
tian  Churches,  or  individuals  well  knowii_  to  Christian  Ministers 
and  Laymen  to  be  persons  of  religious  character. 

VI. — That  the  Governing  Members  consist  of  Honorary  Gov- 
erning, and  Subscribing  Governing  Members. 

VEI. — That  any  person  who  shall  be  nominated  by  a  Member, 
upon  payment  of  the  current  subscription,  shall  be  admittod  to 
the  privileges  of  the  Institution  subject  to  the  appsroval  of  the 
Committee.  Every  Member  shall  be  bound  to  conform  to  the 
Regulations  of  the  Institution. 

VIII. — That  the  affairs  of  the  Association  be  conducted  by 
a  Gfeneral  Committee,  to  be  elected  by  the  Governing  Memben 
from  among  themselves,  and  from  the  Honorary  Goiveming  Mem- 
bers of  the  Association. 

IX.     The  means  by  which  the  object  of  the  Associatioii  ire 

to  be  carried  out: — 


1.;  Itel^|ioii8  instruction,  comprising  every  subject  which* 
can  be  brought  to  bear  on  the  elucidation  and  illustration  of  the- 
Word  of  God. 

2.  Lectures  on  Religibus,  Scientific  and  Literary  subjecte- 
having  a  religious  bearing. 

3.  A  Library  and  Reading  Room. 

The  Library  to  consist  of  works  of  a  religious,  scientific  and' 
literary  character,  the  same  being  approved  by  the  Library  Com- 

4.  Discussion  on  Raligious,  Scientific  and  Literary  subjects, 
to  be  held  under  the  management  of  the  Committee  or  Membeis. 

5-     The  encouragement  of  devotional  and  other  meetings  cal- 
culated to  promote  the  welfare  of  Young  Men , 

6.  Obtaining  acquaintance  with  Young  Men  newly  arrived 
in  the  country,  and  introducing  them  into  Chiistian  circles. 

7.  The  co-operation  of  Ministers  of  Religion  and  the  establish- 
ment of  Bible  Classes  adapted  to  the  capacities  of  Young  Men. 

8.  The  employment  of  any  instrumentality  not  opposed  to* 
Ckrhstaan  principles,  and  which  may  be  calculated  to  promote  the 
veligiouB  and  intellectual  improvement  of  Young  Men  resident  in 
or  visiting  Calcutta. 

9.  The  neoommendation  of  respectable  places  of  residence  for 
new  arrivals*. 

10.  The  formation  of  kindred  institutions  in  other  parts  of  the- 

11.  That  the  SuBiscriptions  be  Co.'s  Rupee  1  a  month,  both' 
for  Governing  Members  and  Members,  and  that  Donations  He  Boli< 
cAed  from  the  Public. 

J.  H.  Norman,  Secretary, 

15,  Clive  Street, 

J.  Galloway,  Treasurer, 
Oriental  Bank  Corporation. 

In  the  Imperial  Library  at  Calcutta  can  be  seen  the  Report 
wliich  was  printed  at  the  beginning  of  1855,  in  which  the  Rules 
and  Bye-laws  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  are  all 
given  in  detail  as  also  a  Prospectus  of  the  Meetings  to  be  held" 


iduring  the  first  six  months  of  that  year.     A  oopy  of  the  Title  pa| 
is  given  below: — 

Calcutta  Young  Men's 

Christian  Association 

Rules,  Bye-laws 


List  of  Committee 


Prospectus  of  Meetings 

to  be  held    . 

during  6  months,  beginning  January  1855. 

Calcutta  : 

Printed  by  Sanders  Cones  and  Co., 

56,  CossitoUah. 


The  Honorary  Secretaries  are  given  as  Mr.  J.  H.  Norman, 
Mr.  C.  S.  Lexington  and  the  Treasurer  as  Mr.  Jas.  Gkdlo^y. 

In  1855  the  Calcutta  Seamen's  Friend  Society,  asked  fovi 
obtained  from  th>d  Juvenile  Society  permission  to  hold  their  a 
ings  for  seamen  in  their  Lecture  Hall  and  continued  to  1 
their  meetings  in  that  Hall  for  many  years,  after  that. 

The  following  extract,  taken  from  the  Thirty-Fourth 
Report  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  late 
Christian  Juvenile  Society  for  the  yeax  1856,  whicli  was  mA 
the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Society  which  was  held  in  their  ~ 
Hall  on  the  27th  January  1857,  explains  itself: — 

"Your  Committee  have  deemed  it  proper,  as  more  agrenHi 
with  the  objects  of  the  Society  to  changie  its  designation  from  iki 
Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society  to  that  of  the  Young  HcbV 
Christian  Association,  by  which  name  it  is  to  be  called  in  fntsore/ 

This  was  a  most  natural  step  to  take,  for  thei  Society  had  beei 
practically  a  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  from  the  momfiBl 
of  its  birth  in  1822  twenty-two  years  before  the  formaidon  of  to 
Association  of  that  name  by  Sir  George  Williams  in  Londoi- 
They  did  not  with  the  change  of  name,  however,  modify  any« 
iheir  original  Rules.  This  clearly  shows  that  the  AaMMaatJOB 
which  had  been  formed  on  1st  August  1854  had  died  out. 


After  that  the  Title  page  always  showed  the  change  of  name, 
9elow: — 


Thirty-Eighth  Annual  Eeport  of  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Aseociation, 


Calcutta  Christian  Juvenile  Society. 

For  1859  and  1860. 

Instituted  in  1822. 

Calcutta  : 

Printed  hy  A.  D'Rozario  at  the  Albion  Press. 


But  there  is  no  need  to  trace  the  history  of  the  Association 
wn  to  the  present  day,  as  we  have  only,  to  do  with  the  Juvenile 
riety.  For  very  many  years  afterwards  various  religious  meet-* 
:  tued  to  be  held  in  this  hall  in  some  of  which  the  present  writer 
oaelf  took  part,  when  ha  was  connected  with  the  Y.  M.  C.  A., 
tch  existed  in  the  latter  seventies.  In  1906,  the  hall  was  hand- 
over to  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  of  the  present' day  by  Mr.  W.  C 
fcdge,  the  sole  surviving  Trustee  of  the  property. 

No   religious  rneetings  hava,  however,  been  held  in  the  hall 

some  years  past,  and  the  premises  have  bfl^n  let  to  a  timber 

rchant  from  1st  September  1908,  for  a  peril>d  of  three  years, 

k  it  is  undesrstood  that  at  the  end  of  that  period  the  Association 

pes  to  revive  the  work  in  the?  Bow'Bbwbot.  District. 

The  writer  tenders  his  best  thanks  to  MeBsrs.  Farquhai*,  and 
rber,  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  Collegie  Brianch,  for  all  the  assistance 
f  have  rendered  him  in  thfe  oolleeibion'  of  fac^  for  this  chapter. 

.:  •:   :  r; 


Thb  Pastorate  of  toe  Rev.  JokN  SAiiE. 

{From  XH  February  1869  to  2Srd  January  1861, 
and         .  . 
2nd  December  1863  to  2ith  March  1868,) 

BsFOBi^  detailing  tlhe  events  of  Mr.  Sale's  pastorate,  it 
be  necessary  to  give  a  brief  biographical  sketch  of  both  Mr. 
Mkb.  Sale,  who  were  jointly,  and  separately  so  uaeful  m  the 
JBazar  Church,  and  did  so  much  for  its  spiritual,  temponi 
Gocial  welfare. 

i;,..  ^     .•■'■ 

}'V..t     .IF 


-      THE   PAStrORATE    OF    THE    REV,   JOHN    gAI/B.  839 

The  Rev.  John  Sale. 

He  was  bom  at  Wokingham  in  Berkshire  on  the  4th  of  Coptem- 
;r  1818.  He  received  his  education  for  the  Ministry  at  Brad' 
rd,  (now  Bawdon)  Collage  under  Dr.  Acworth,  where  he  was 
Mlow-etudent  with  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Cbown  of  Bradford  and  Blooms- 
iiry.  He  was  ordained  as  a  missionary  in  oonnection  with  the 
aptist  Missionary  Society  in  1848,  and  married  the  same  year; 
!r.  and  Mrs.  Sale  reached  Calcutta  in  1849.  His  first  station 
^  Barisal,  where  he  re«iaine4  from  1849  to  1856.  He  was  then 
raioferred  to  Jessore  where  he  was  stationed  from  1856  to  1859, 
ivvlb^ing  with  fostering  care  the  Mission  in  that  District. 
iamg  accepted  the  Pastorate  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Church,  he 
moved  from  Jessore  to  Calcutta  in  January  1859. 

In  1860,  he  was  appointed  by  the  Viceroy — Lord  Canning — 
id  the  Lieutenant-GoV'dmor  of  Bengal — Sir  John  Peter  Grant— the 
dy  missionary  member  of  the  Commission  to  investigate  the  que&- 
DOS  in  dispute  between  the  planters,  and  the  ryots,  that  led 
I  the  indigo  disturbances  that  year,  with  a  view  to  deliver  them 
Mn  the  burden  of  cultivating  indigo.  After  his  death,  Mr.  W. 
8efcon-Karr,  a  retired  Civilian,  who  was  the  President  of  that 
Kmmission,  wrote  that  he  never  ceased  to  value  the  support,  which 
ir.  Sale  gave  him  at  the  time  of  the  Commission. 

.The  order  appointing  the  Indigo  Commission  was  published 
I  page  1,071,  of  the  Calcutta  Gazette,  dated  the  16th  May  I860.' 

runs  as  below : — 
.  "Notification  dated  10th  May  1860.  Under  the  provision  of 
ttion  XII,  Act  XI  of  1860,  the  following  gentlemen  have  bean 
kfointed  Commissioners  to  enquire  into,  and  report  on  the  sys^ 
)D^  and  practice  of  indigo  planting,  and  the  relations  between 
le  indigo  planters,  and  the  ryots  and  holders  of  land  in  Bengal : — 
'  ^Tifr.  W.  S.  Seton-Karr,  President. 

Mr.  R.  Temple. 
.  ,.Mr.   W.   F.  Ferguson. 

Key.  J.  Sale. 
"Baclm  Chtmdra  Mphun  Chatterjee.*' 

'Sffom  Mr.  fiticklkhd's  book;  "  Bengal  utider  the  Lieutenanti|l 

S40         THE    STdRY  OF    THE    LALL-BAZAR    BAPTIST    CHUBOH. 

Governors,''  it  appears  that  Mr.  Ferguson  was  appointed  to  repre* 
sent  the  planting  interest,  and  the  Rev.  J.  Sale,  the  interests  of  the 
tyots.  Babu  C.  M.  Chatterjee  was  the  nominee  of  the  British 
Indian  Association  and  the  other  two  were  Bengal  Civilians. 
Mr.  R.  Temple  subsaquently  became  Sir  Richard  Temple,  and 
rose  to  be  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Bengal,  and  later  on  Governor 
of  Bombay. 

The  Cominission  examined  witnesses  from  the  18tb  May,  to 
the  4th  August  1860,  and  the  Report  submitted  by  them  beaia 
date  the  27th  August  1860. 

Sir  John  Peter  Grant,  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Bengal 
wrote  thus  in  the  last  paragraph  of  his  Minute  on  the  report  of 
the  Commission,   which  is  dated   the   17th  Deoe(mber   I860:— 

"  My  high  opinion  of  the  manner  in  which,  the  Gommission  han 
oouduct«ed  their  enquiries,  and  reported  to  Government  their  cob* 
elusions  upon  this  extensive,  and  long-controverted  subject  hai 
been  expressed  to  the  gentlemen,  who  composed  it  in  a  sepante 

Mr.  Salens  health  having  failed  in  Calcutta  after  two  years,  te 
was  ordered  to  England  at  the  beginning  of  1861,  and  madeovtf 
the  pastorate  of  the  Church  temporarily  to  Rev.  G.  Kerry.  Mr. 
Sale  returned  towards  tlie  close  of  1863,  when  he  resumed  tb 
pastorate,  which  he  held  till  the  24th  March  1868,  when  he  )ai 
to  relinquish  it  in  order  to  take  charge  of  the  work  at  Barisal  ii 
place  of  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Page,  who  had  resigned.  At  the  tinie 
of  his  leaving,  the  Church  presented  him  with  a  gold  watcfa,  an! 
a  large  family  Bible,  and  Mrs.  Sale  with  a  silver  tea  service.  Tha 
watch  bears  an  inscription,  dated  1868,  that  the  piresentatioii  waa 
in  recognition  of  his  great  services  to  the  Church,  and  congzeg^ 
tion.  These  articles  are  still  among  the  tieasiired  poimonmoiui  ^ 
the  family. 

Mr.  Sale  remained  at  Barisal  until  1874,  wli^n  he.  had  to  go 
to  England  on  account  of  his  health,  and  he  eventually  died  io^ 
denly  at  Helensburgh  in   Scotland,   at   his  spn-in-Iaiw's  jhovue  on 

THB  PASTOBATB  OF  THB  RBV.  JOHN  8ALB.         841 

llie.4tli  September  1875,  the  anniversary  of  his  birthday,  at  the 
ege  of  57  only. 

It  was  decided  on  the  28th  of  April  1880,  to  allow  his  friends 
io  put  up  a  Tablet    to  his  memory  in     the  Chapel«  which  was 
done,  and  the  inscripCon  on  it  is  as  below : — 
In  loving  Memory   of 
The  Rev.  John  Sale. 
For  26  years  a  faTthful  Missionary  in  Bengal, 
Of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society. 
He  was  for  ten  ysars  the  beloved  Pastor, 

Of  the  Church  Meeting  in  this  place, 

A.nd  left  Calcutt-a  to  resume  Mission  work 

in  Backergunge. 

In  1860. 

Lord  Canning,  and  Sir  J.  P.  Grant, 

appointed  him  the  only  Missionary  Member 

of  the  Commission,  which  investigated  the 

disturbances  between  the  Indigo  Planters, 

and  the  RyoU. 

He  died  suddenly  at  Helensburgh  in  Scotland, 

September  4th  1875 :  aged  57  years. 
Absent  from  the  body:  present  with  the  Lord. 

Mrs.  Sale. 
Hear  maiden  name  was  Elizabeth  Geale.     She  was  born  at  Orthes 
in  the  South  of  France  on  the  29th  March  1818,  but  was  brought 
•  up  in  Devonshire  in  England.     Her  parents  were  members  of  the 
r  CSiurch  of  England,  who  strongly  objected  to  Dissent,  and,  when 
ilie  Avowed  her  conviction  that  the  baptism  of  believers  only  was 
die  teaching  of  Scripture,  her  life  at  home  became  embittered  by 
controversy.  She  asked,  and  received,  permission  to  seek  some  employ- 
ment away  from  home  by  which  she  might  gain  her  own  living. 
TThrough  her  father's  influence   with  his  friend   Sir  David  Davis, 
physician  to  Que&n  Adelaide,  she  entered  the  household  of  Lady 

S4:'J  THE    STORY   OF    THE    LALL-BA2LA.R   BAPVBtt    CH^UBGU. 

Harriet  Mitchell,  to  whose  daughter,  (afterwards  Lady  LiBbtun)^ 
she  became  compauion.  This  position,  she  occupied'  about  foEF- 
teen  years,  and  during  the  latter  part  of  that  time,  thiough  the 
intervention  of  Sir  David  Davis,  she  received  instmetieiL  in  801^ 
gery  and  medicine  in  one  of  the  London  Hospitals.  In  this  waf 
Gk)d  was  fitting  her  for  her  future  work. 

Whilst  in  London,  she  was  baptized  by  the  Rev.  W.  Bowes 
of  Blandford  Street  Church,  of  which  she  became  a  member. 
With  a  glad  heart,  she  took  up  various  forms  of  Christian  work,, 
but  the  Welsh  milkmaids  in  London  were  her  special  care. 

In  1848,  she  married  the  Eev.  John  Sale,  and  left  for  India  the 
same  year  reaching  Calcutta  in  1849. 

On  arrival  in  India,  she  threw  herself  heart  and  soul  into 
the  duties  that  devolved  on  her.  While  in  Calcutta,  she  under- 
took the  teaching  of  Bengali  ladies  in  their  homes,  but  had  nol 
made  much  progress  with  the  work  when  Mr.  Sale's  health  faikd, 
and  he  was  ordered  to  England  at  the  beginning  of  1861.  As  Mn. 
Mullens  with  her  two  daughters  had  arrived  at  the  end  of  1860, 
Mrs.  Sale  arranged  with  her  to  carry  on  this  interesting  woric  lit 
her  absence,  which  she  consented  to  do. 

In  the  London  Hospital,  she  had  gained  a  little  knowledge 
of  medicine  and  nursing,  and  during  her  missionary  care^,  die- 
was  very  successful  in  the  treatment  of  cases.  One  instance  ii 
recorded   thus : — 

On  one  occasion,  a  man,  who  had  been  attacked  by  a  leopaid 
was  brought  into  the  Mission  House,  his  thigh  and  whole  leg  tarft 
by  the  claws  of  the  ferocious  beast.  The  flesh  hung  literally  in 
shreds,  and  the  bone  was  visible.  With  much  skill  and  'piBrnm 
the  wound  was  cleansed,  and  the  bits  of  flesh  gathered  carefnllf 
together,  then  the  whole  was  kept  in  place  with  strips  of  plaater, 
and  bound  with  bandages,  wet  with  calendula.  These  were  kqife 
moist  till  the  skin  began  to  heal,  and  in  due  couiBe  the  patienfe 
recovered  completely. 

-"•    'WB  ^AttfdiATK   0**   THE   REXr  JOHN   gALK. :       "  ^Mb 

'  eke  «tart«a  a  taikcr^s  class  in  Barieal  soon  after  htr  *rti^4l 
ere  and  when  in  England  in  1861,  she  advocated  a  adiemfi  lor  etiab- 
^Bg  in  Calcutta  a  Boarding  School  for  €h.e  educatiMi,  w  pay- 
flot;  of  daughters  of  Native  Christian  gonttem«k,  attd  jpropovnded 
er  scbeme  at  a  drawing-room  meeting  held  by  Lady  Peto,  when 
t  was  fairly  launched.  When  funds  came  in,  she  secured  the 
prvittds  of  a  Miss  Wheeler  as  teacher. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sale  returned  to  India  at  the  end  of  1868,  t^Ad 
ady  the  next  year,  (1864),  the  school  <^ned  with  nine  pupils. 
But  Miss  Wheeler  married  in  1865,  and  her  valuable  serviceB  were 
tephesd  by  Miss  Hebe  Bobinson,  a  daughter  of  the  Bev.  John  Bobin- 
MO,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Sale  in  the  Pastorate,  and  grand-daughter 
^Bev.  William    Bobinson,     whose  pastorate    has  already  been 
^eed.     The  school  suffered  a  great  blow  in  186g,  when  Mr.  and 
Sale  had  to  go  to  Barisal,  but  Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  Bobinson 
ved  their  residence  to  the  School,  and  at  the  end  of  the  year 
bad  20   pupils.     After  Mrs.   Bobineon's  health  failed,  and 
I  Hebe  Bobinson  married,  Mrs.  and  Miss  Leslie  took  over  the 
ol^  and  conducted  it  till  it  died  out,  after  an  existence  of 
'jefu:B,   when  Misa  Leslie's  health  failed.    Aboiii  three  years 
*  the  school  was  started  Mr.  Sale  baptized  one  of  the  girls  on 
>  profession  of  her  faith  in.  Christ.     This  was  on  the  lOth.  March 
67^  and  the  girl's  name  was  Minna. 
Mrs.  Sale  poasessed  in  a  marked  degree  what  is  tmned  sane- 
eommon-sense,  and  her  taet  equalled  her  cfetermination. 
Iii  1874,  Mr.  Sale's  health  completely  failed,  so  thev  leiPt  India 
|h  May  of  that  ysar,  after  over  25  yeaiB  of  faithful  service.     After 
yb.  Sale's  death  on  4th  September  1875,  Mrs.  Sale  remained  with 
lifc.  and  Mrs.  James  Young,  (the  latter  being  her  daughter),  and, 
ftfar  Mr.  Young's  death  in  1890,  Mrs.  Sale  r«nained  on  with  hep 
-^Mflwed  daughter,  but  ever  retained  an  interest  in  Mission  work, 
t^  bdia,  and  in  the  Lail  Bazar  Churdi.     She  was  the  means  of 
^*iteig  the  Scottish  Auxiliary  to  the  Baptist  Zenana  Society.     She 
-ftrew  herself  into  the  work  connected  with  the  Baptist  CftLurdfcL  ^ 

844         THE   8TOSY  OF   THE    UkLL-BAZAR   BAFKBT   OUUROU. 

Helensbtirgh,  which  for  the  laet  fourteen  yeaiB  of  her  life  wu  hs 
i^iritual  home. 

Her  health  had  been  failing  for  some  years,  and  on  tSe  8tk 
-February  1898,  she  entered  into  rest  within  a  few  weeks  of  eoBi' 
pleting  her  80th  year.     So  passed  away  a  Mother  in  Israel. 

She  came  out  to  Calcutta  with  her  daughter   Mrs.  Tonnf 
once  after  Mr.  Sale's  death,  and  that  was  in  the  cold 

The  following  instances  are  tokens  of  her  continued 
'in  the  Lall  Bazar  Church: — 

1.     Tn  February  1882  the  Chureb  rceived  from  her 
19}  dozen  pieces  of  Tea  meeting  crockery,  with  bads^, 

valued  at    "...  ...  ...  ...     £  5    19 

6  Damask  Table  Cloths,  valued  at  ...  ...     £  7      6 

Total         ...     £13      5  11 

and  a  vote  of  thanks  was  passed  to  her. 

2.     In  October  1882,  the  Church  received  a  gift  of  £20, 
MiB.  Sale,  and  friends  towards  the  purchase  of  the  Parsonige. 

It  is  now  necessary  to  turn  to  the  work  of  the  Churdi 
After  Mr.  Thomas'  death  on  the  20tli  July  1858,  lihe  r-rj^ 
was  supplied  by  the  missionaries  at  Calcutta  and  Serampoie.  1 
the  very  first  Church  Meeting  after  his  death,  which  was  hM  ^ 
the  26th  July  1858,  it  was  mentioned  that  an  effort  shoiold  he  nu 
to  obtain  the  temporary  oversight  of  the  Church  by  some  one 
.  the  missionary  brethren,  and  a  letter  was  read  from  the  Ber.  JA 
Bobinson  of  Serampor<e  in  which  he  tendered  his  gratidhM 
services  to  the  Church,  whenever,  they  were  needed,  profiW 
that  on  such  occasions  the  Church  would  send  Oungaram  to  Sen» 
pore  tx>  supply  his  place  to  the  native  Church.  It  was  abo  M^ 
that  both  Br.  Wenger  and  Mr.  Lewis  had  offered  to  give  all  * 
help  they  oould  to  the  Church,  and  that  if  Mr.  Sampson  of  Sen* 

.  XHB  PA8TOBATK  OF  THB  RBV.  JOHN  SALE.         345 

Knre  wcare  applied  to,  he  probably  would  be  willing  to  oome  down 
m  the  Sunday  and  week-night  provided  his  expenses  were  paid 
ind  lodgings  provided  for  him.  It  was  decided  to  apply  to  the 
Society  in  London  for  the  services  of  Mr.  Sampson  for  the  Paetor- 
ite.  Letters  were  accordingly  written  on  the  9th  August  1858  to, 
1)  the  Committee  of  the  Society,  (2)  Dr.  Underbill  its  Secretary, 
lad  (3)  Mr,  Sampson  at  Serampore  to  take  temporary  oversight 
rf  tlie  Church.  The  reply  to  the  last  was  of  course  received  first. 
Et  bears  date,  the  12th  August  1858,  and  in  it,  Mr.  Sampson, 
mispressed  regret  that  he  could  not  commit  himself  to  any  stated 
vists  himself,  but  said  that  he  and  his  colleagues  and  Mr.  John 
Robinson  were  willing  Between  them  to  taSe  the  services  on  two 
Sundays  in  each  monCh  until  a  permanent  arrangement  CtTUld  be 
made,  leaving  the  Church  to  provide  for  the  other  two  Sundays. 

An  extract  is  given  below  from  the  letter  of  19th  Aiigust 
1858,  from  the  Church  to  the  Commttec: — 

"The  Lall  Bazar  Chapel,  where  we  meet,  is  situated  im  the 
WBiJjr  heart  of  the  permanent  Christian  population  of  this  city, 
■nd  in  the  street  which  is  the  principal  resort  of  European  sea- 
QDusn.  In  former  years  both  before  and  during  the  Pastorate  of 
the  Rev.  W.  Bobinson,  the  Chapel  was  generally  well  attended; 
and,  if  the  congregation  has  much  diminished  since  that  time, 
Ok&  pirincipal  cause  of  its  decline  must  be  sought  in  the  circum- 
rtanoes  that  for  many  years  past,  whilst  Protestant  places  of  wor- 
•Inp  were  multiplied,  our  successive  Pastors  were  unable  to  devote 
fco  the  Church  more  than  a  portion  of  their  time  and  strength. 
We  believe  that  if  we  could  obtain  the  services  of  a  Pastor,  who 
WMB  likely  to  become  a  popular  preacher,  and  at  liberty  to  consider 
iub  labours  in  oiir  midst  as  his  chief,  and  most  important  work, 
with  the  Divine  blessing,  the  attendance  would  speedily  improve 
Rnd  a  larger,  congregation  be  gathered  from  which,  ever  and  anon, 
ffbeace  added  to  the  Church  such  as  shall  be  saved.  At 
■U  events  we  pan  confidently  affirm  that  the  Chapel  is  situated  in 
»  locality,  where  the  preaching  of  the  Gospel  is  most  urgently 
needed.  The  permanent  population  around  us  consists  largely 
of  Soman  Catholics,  who  are  unacquainted  with  the  way  of  salva. 
fcioD,  and,  the  European  seamen,  who  daily  pass  and  re-paes  in 
Eromt  of  it  by  hundreds,  are  almost  equally  destitute  of  the  know- 
ledge of  the  Gospel .        ' 

34G         THE    ti'l'OBY  OF    THE    LALi;^BAZAtt    BAPTI8T    SHVBOH. 

In  addition  to  this,  the  past  history  of  the  Church  supidiai 
encouraging  associations,  which  we  trust  will  lead  you  to  take  i 
wami  interest  in  our  continued  welfare.  It  has  long  been  tbe 
instrumentality  under  God  of  supplying  several  honoured  laboten 
for  the  Mission  field,  such  as  our  deceased  brethren  Leonard  voA 
Aratoon.  In  former  years  our  pulpit  was  frequently, — nay,  miof 
years,  regularly,  supplied  by  those  eminent  men  of  God,  Canji 
Marshman  and  Ward.  And  it  was  in  our  Chapel  that  Dr.  Jndaoi 
was  baptized.  Do  not  circumstances  of  such  deep  interest  couA 
tute  something  like  a  claim  upon  your  kind  attention  and  fa•(i•^ 
ing  care  ?  ' 

The  Committee  replied  on  the  14th  October  1858,  aad,  ■ 
their  reply  gives  the  terms  on  which  they  were  willing  to  lei  ttl 
Church  have  the  services  of  Rev.  John  Sale,  the  following  eztrut 
is  given  from  their  letter  in  extenso: — 

The  Committee  desire  to  express  their  deep  interest  in  the  id- 
fare  of  the  Church  Meeting  in  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel,  and  tosaythik 
it  is  their  wish  to  assist  them  in  every  practicable  way  in  ib 
acquisition  (^f  another  Pastor.  Circumstances  not  needful  ben, 
to  mention,  have  led  the  Committee  to  request  the  services  d 
the  Rev.  W.  Sampson  in  another  field,  and  they  propose  to  eoM 
him  more  fully  in  missionary  work  immediately  on  his  xeMiB 
from  his  engagements  al  Serampore.  The  Committee^  howefier, 
propose  to  invite  the  Rev.  John  Sale  of  Jessore  to  remove  to  CU- 
cutta  in  order  to  assist  in  the  missionary  labours  it  is  desired  te 
carry  on  in  that  large  city,  and  they  direct  me  to  say  that  elMynld 
his  ministry  be  acceptable  to  the  Church  in  the  Lall  Baxar,  aad  lie 
should  himself  be  willing  to  listen  to  an  invitation  from  yoa,  Ai 
Committea  will  cheerfully  sanction  his  entrance  on  t!he  F«tora(be 
among  you.  In  suggesting  this  arrangement  it  will  be  unden^^ 
that  the  Committee  desire  to  exercise  no  authority  over  the  Mm 
of  the  Church.  They  desire  to  co-operate  with  you  in  ^ilarging 
the  kingdom  of  our  Lord,  and  with  a  distinct  impression  that  die 
ministry  of  Mr.  Sale  or  of  any  other  of  our  brelbnni  unong  yeii, 
will  be  useful  alike  to  tbs  English-speaking  populatkni  of  CUenttt* 
and  to  the  natives  of  tbe  country.  They  desire  to  i^fpird  yoot 
community  as  a  Mission  Church,  and  to  see  it  and  its  Pufcor 
actively  engaged  ini  assaulting  the  strongholds  of  ttie  fridltM 
idolatries  amid  which  you  dwell. 

With  regard  to  the  pecuniary  support  of  the  Pastor,  it 

seem  that  at  present  the  Church  is  unable  to  supply  the  necenaiT 

-  THE  PASTORATE  OF  'THE  REV.  JOHN  SALE.         847 

inctei.     The   CJommft^ee    w«»uld  therefore   suggest   the  following 
carangement : — 

That  m  case  a  Missionary  of  the  Society  should  become 
Diir  Pastor,  he  should  continue  to  receive  his  support  from 
le  funds  of  the  Society,  but  that  the  Church  should  engage  to 
ay  monthly  into  the  hands  of  the  Society's  Calcutta  representa^ 
ve  or  Secretary,  such  sum  as  may  be  agreed  upon,  increasing  as 
ley  might  be  able  the  amount  until  it  shall  be  sufficient  for  the 
astor's  entire  support,  when  another  arrangement  may  mutually 
)  agreed  upon. 

The  Committee  most  earnestly  hope,  and  pray  that  the  work 
•  God  may  be  revived  among  you,  and  that  His  blessing  may 
bundautly  be  poured  out  on  the  ministry,  which  He  in  His  provi- 
5nce  may  bring  amongst  you.'' 

The  above  letter  was  received  at  t£e  end  of  November,  and 

►r.    Wenger  presided   at  the   Church    Meeting   of  7th  December 

558,  at  which  it  was  considered  when  it  was  resolved  to  invite 

[r.   Sale.     A  letter  of  invitation  accordingly  issued  on  the  30th 

leoeinber, '  the  delay  being  due  to  a  slight  misunderstanding  on 

16  p«rt   the  Church  should   take,    but  Mr.    Sale's  reply  of   3rd 

inuary  1859,  accepting  the  Pastorate,  is  so  characteristic  of  the 

an  that  it  is  felt  that  it  should  be  reproduced.     The  following. 

a  copy  of  it : — 

Dear  Brethren  in  Christ, — 

1  have  the  honour  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  kind 
id  frank  communication  dated  30th  December  1858. 

In  reply  to  it,  I  need  not  enter  into  any  lengthened  explana- 
m  regarding  the  poet,  as  I  trust  you  already  sufficiently  under- 
^nd  my  reasons  for  hesitating  to  go  to  Calcutta.  The  work  in 
880ve  is  so  important,  and  after  some  five  years  of  anxiety,  we 
D  beginning  to  see  decided  proofs  that  our  labours  and  prayers. 
ve  not  been  altogether  fruitless. 

Until  therefore,  we  were  oon^vinced  that  the  work  for  which 
>  were  called  hence  was  of  sufficint  importance  to  justify  us  in 
[inquishing  the  dutiesi  devolving  on  us  here,  we  thought  it  right 
remain  at  our  post. 

I  quite  agree  nevertheless  in  thinking  with  you  anjd  the 
ttee  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society  that  the  Pastorate  of  the 
lurch  in  Lall  Bazar  offers  a  fine  field  of  usefulness,  and  that  the 


Baptist  MiaBion  in  Calcutta,  and  in  Bengal,  may  be  much  assisted 
by  the  blessing  of  God  upon  the  efforts  of  the  Pasfor  and  the 

On  tha  receipt  therefore,  of  your  invitafion  to  labour  amongst 
you  as  your  Pastor,  I  feel  it  my  duty  in  humble  dependence  on 
Him,  who  has  said  "  My  strength  is  made  perfect  in  weakness "  to 
accept  that  invitation  with  the  understanding  tEat  I  still  continue 
an  Agent  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society. 

I  mention  this  latter  point  particularly  because  the  Secretary 
of  the  Society  (Mr.  Underbill),  in  a  letter  I  recently  received  from 
him,  tells  me  the  Committee  has  suggested  ''  that  in  case  a  Mission- 
ary of  the  Society  should  become  Pastor  (of  the  Cfhurch  in  Lall 
Bazar),  he  should  continue  to  receive  his  support  from  the  funds 
of  the  Society,  but  that  the  Church  should  engage  to  pay  montl]^ 
into  the  hands  of  the  Society's  Calcutta  representative  or  Secretary 
such  sum  as  may  be  agreed  upon  etc/'  I  have  no  apprenheosioB 
that  the  interests  of  the  Church  and  Mission  will  be  antagonistic. 
On  the  contrary  I  a^ep^  your  invitation  in)  the  hope  that  both 
as  Pastor  and  Missionary  I  shall  have  your  hearty  coK)pevation 
and  prayerful  sympathy. 

Let  me  entreat  you  brethren,  and  the  Church  of  which  you 
are  Officers,  to  pray  for  us  that  ws  may  be  taken  to  you  in  safety 
and  peace,  and  that  the  Head  of  the  Church  may  so  teach,  and 
help  us,  that  our  coming  to  you  may  be  the  occasion  of  much,  and 
lasting  good  to  all  at  present  conoarned,  and  to  many  others. 

Believe  me,    dear  Brethren,  to  be 
in  the  bonds  of  Christ's  Holy  Gospd, 
Yours  very  faithfully, 
(Sd.)     John  Sale. 
Churamoncottee,  Jessore,  Srd  January  1859, 
On   1st  January  1859,   fifty  years  were  completed  since  the 
opening  of  the  Chapel,  and  it  was  resolved  to  celebrate  the  Jubilee 
suitably,    the    Chapel   being    cleansd    up    for   the    occasion.     The 
following  extract  regarding  the  services  is  taken  from  the  Annual 
"Report  of  1859,  of  the  Society,  and  is  of  interest  in  many  ways 
at  the  present  time  with  reference  to  the  approaching  Centenary. 
Not  one  of  the  ministers  mentioned  as  having  taken  part-  in  those 
services  is  alive  at  the  presemt  time,  which  adds  a  touch  of  pathos 
to  the  record: — 

''The  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  was  originally  opened  on  the  l??t  Jan- 

Tmm  PASTOBATE    OF    THE   REV.   JOHN   SALE.  349 

'  1809.  It  wafi  resolved  to  keep  the  Jubilee  of  ite  existence 
k  smtable  service.  On  this  account  the  usual  New  Year's  Day 
Loe  beM  at  Union  Cbapel  was  beld  this  year  at  tbe  Lall  Bazar 
pel.  The  Rev.  J.  Pourie  of  the  Free  Church  preached  to  an 
ilowuig  audience  from  Ecclesiastes  ix.  10,  after  which  the 
d'ft  Supper  was  administered  by  the  Bev.  A.  F.  Lacroix  of  the 
idon  M^sion.  At  the  morning  prayex  meeting  the  Rev.  C.  B. 
m  presided,  and  an  admirable  address  was  given  by  the  Rev. 
Xeny  of  Howrah.  In  the  afternoon  there  was  a  Bengali  ser- 
I,  when  the  Rev.  J.  Wenger  preached." 

On  the  following  Lord's  Day,  the  Revs.  R.  Robinson  of  Dacca 
tW.  Sampson  occupied  the  pulpit,  the  latter  addressing  himself 
■ij^y  to  the  yoimg. 

In  writing  to  Mr.  F.  Trestrail,  tie  Secretary  of  the  Society,. 
#  the  Jubilee,  the  Deacons  in  their  letter  of  February  said : — 

"  On  the  first  day  of  the  present  year  the  Jubilee  of  the  opening 
mr  Ghax>el  was  oeifebrated  by  suitable  services.  It  is  of  the  Lord's 
XJ  that  the  Gospel  of  Christ  has  been  proclaimed  in  it  without 
raiission  for  fifty  years  and  that  the  close  of  that  period  found 
Cfhurch,  if  not  so  numerous  or  so  prosperous  as  could  have 
I  wished,  yet  in  a  peaceful,  and,  upon  the  whole,  a  healthy 
».  We  solicit  the  continuance  of  your  intercession  that  in 
as  to  come  it  may  prove  more  and  more  like  a  burning  and 
jng  light  amidst  the  surrounding  darkness." 

Mr.  Sale  entered  on  his  pastoral  duties  from  1st  February 
9  aii4  he  at  once  began  to  try  and  straighten  out  the  thinga 
■  had  got  crooked  during  the  intervening  seven  months.  On 
30th  March  1859  a  resolution  was  unanimously  agreed  to  that 
Sunday  School  should  be  recognized  by  the  Church,  that  Mr. 
Mendes  should  be  the  General  Superintendent  and  Mrs.  Sale 
Lady  Superintendent. 

In  order  that  the  Chapel  might  be  mora  generally  known  as  a 
»  of  worship  it  was  agreed  on  the  20tb  April  at  the  suygestion  of 
Pastor  that  a  board  should  be  placed  at  the  gate  showing  what 
d  of  place  it  was,  the  days  of  worship  and  the  hours  of 

On  the  22nd  June  it  was  unanimously  resolved  at  the  suygeHion  of 
Pastor  that  the  rule  which  had  hitherto  obtained  fcft  «\\  ^^^>U 


cants  for  Church  membership  to  appear  before  the  Church  should 
be  strictly  adhered  to  in  the  future  though  it  had  been,  departed 
from  in  a  few  special  cases. 

On  the  28th  July  a  Thanksgiving  Service  was  held  fop  the 
restoration  of  peace  after  the  Mutiny  in  accordance  with  the  Gov- 
ernor-General s  order  and  a  collection  was  made  on  behalf  of  tha  !tract 
Society  which  amounted  to  Rs.  791.  A  Watch  Night  Service,  the 
first  of  its  kind,  was  decided  upon  for  the  31st  December  of  that 

Instead  of  making  scattered  efforts  and  having  scattered  scSiools 
and  Chapels,  the  Church  seemed  to  think  it  desirable  to  otmoenttitie 
their  efforts  and  so  decided  on'  14th  February  1860  to  offer  the 
Chapel  at  Kidderpore  to  Rev.  G.  Pearce,  and,  if  he  declined  to 
have  it,  theni  to  sell  it  off. 

A  Register  of  Birthsi  was  started  in  June  of  tiiat  yeait,  and 
on  the  30th  of  that  month,  the  members  were  requested  to  register 
the  births  of  tlioir  children  in  it,  but  only  a  few  appear  t»  have 
availed  themselves  of  this  registration.  -   "  '"   '. 

In  1860,  Mr.  Sale  was  appointed  the  sole  Missionary  Meinber 
of  the  Government  Commission  to  investigate  the  Indigo  dispuies 
and  the  work  connected  with  this  would  seem  to  have,  l^pm  too 
niuoh  for  him,  seeing  that  witnesses  were  bein^  examined^  fhwi 
18th  May  to  4th  August.  Before  the  end  of  the  year' he  was 
ordered  to  proceed  to  England  owing  to  ill-health. 

A  letter  was  thei-efore  written  on  8th  January  1861  to  the 
Rev.  G.  Kerry  asking  if  he  would  take  the  oversight  of  the  Church 
during  Mr.  Sale's  absence  which  he  accepted  on  the  23rd  January 
and  Mr.  Sale  accordingly  made  over  charge  to  him  and  proceeded 
to  England. 

In  Hr.  Sales  report  for  1860  which  he  sent  to  the  Society  in 
England  he  wrote  as  below  : — 

•  Tlie  influx  of  EurxDpean  artizans  for  th?  Railway 
and  Gas  W<H"ks,  the  Drainage,  and  other  public  works, 
makec:    the     T«all     Bazar    Chap?l,     a     very  important     sphere  of 

THS  PASTORATE  OF  THE  REV.  JOHN  BALE.         35]. 

eyang^listic  effort,  while  it  is  admirably  adapted  for  a  missionary 
Mttioor  <it  <)entre  of  operations.'/ 

». ,  Mr.  Sale  having  returned  to  India  in  November  1863,  Mr. 
Kerry  on  the  2l8t  of  that  month  sent  m  his  resignation  of  the 
Pmtorate,  and  on  the  27th  idem  a  letter  was  addressed  to  Mr. 
Sale  asking  him  to  resume  the  Pastorate,  and  on{  the  2nd  Decem- 
ber he  consented  to  do  so.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  his  reply : — 
IDEAS  Brethren, — 

Permit  me .  to  express  my  gratatude  to  you  for  the  kind 
manner  in  which  you  have  welcomed  my  beloved  family  and  my- 
self on  our  return  from  England. 

....  Xan  0orry  to  learn  from  your  kind  letter,  dated  27th  Novem- 
ber 1863^  that  anything  I  had  said  had  left  the  impression  on  any 
<Jt  ydur  minds  that  my  feelings  had  been  hurt  on  hearing  that 
th^re  was  suome  probability,  of  your  choosing  another  Pastor.  All 
I  WHhed.'to.  convey,  to  yoii  was  an  assurance  that  I  was  very 
SUU0U8  not  to  stand  in  the  way  of  any  plan*  which  the  Church 
might  think  preferable  to  that  of  asking  me  to  resume  the  pastor- 
ate at  Lall  Ba^r. 

The  perusal  of  your  letter  has  removed  whatever  fear  I  had 
eiitl^ry^ixied  on  this  point,  and  I  now  accept  with  pleasure  the 
imaafimbous  invitation  of  the  Church  to  take  the  oversight  of  them 
in  the  Lord. 

My  hope  and  prayer  have  been  that  the  Lord  would  guide  the 
Cburdi  and  ourselves  aright  and  trust  it  will  be  seen  that  the  bless- 
ing of  tmr  Divine  Master  is  on  the  step  we  now  take,  and  that  hi 
loviii^  po<operation  with  the  Church  we  may  be  permitted  to  see 
iihe  glory  of  Christ  promoted  and  the  good  of  many  souls  secured 
feoHi  in  the'-'^^ification  of  saints,  and  the  oonversion  of  sinners. 

'    "^  I  am.  dear  Brethren,  in  the  bonds  of  Ch«stian:  love, 

Yours  very  sincerely 
4    v.        ..  '  (S<i)     John  Sale. 

.  .9f%i  I^^iM*  1863.  _, 

'^"•''  TiM  first  >^utich  Meeting  after  Mr.  Sale  resiumed  charge,  was 
iMUh'^  th€  dSih  December,  but  no  important  business  was  dis- 
dMMfd'ifrt  it,  and  in  fact  merely  formal  matters  regarding  the 
ISkipbl  bwit^tf^  we^:>di0cussed  ev«n  .in  1864,  until  unfortunately 
on  the  5th  October  1864  the  great  cyckme  smkI  storm  wave  yisitied  th^ 


city  which  was  nioet  disastrous  in  the  damage  it  did  to  the  sor- 
rounding  districts.  Damage  was  also  done  to  the  Chapel  hy  thv 
fearful  stoorm ,  the  roof  which  was  of  zinc  having  been  blown  awiy. 

On  the  6th  February  1865,  Mr.  R.  W.  Chill  a  Deacon  d 
the  Churchy  died  in  Calcutta.  He  was  a  missdonary  of  the  Cal- 
cutta Seamen's  Friend  Society  for  over  20  years  uid  need  to  ™t 
the  shipping  every  evening  and  hold  services  on  Sundays,  botk 
morning  and  evening  and  also  on  Tuesday  evenings  with  aH  tk 
sailors  who  could  be  induced  to  attend  the  Bethel.  He  had  Iwet 
a  Deacon  of  the  Church  since  31st  January  1854. 

Mr.  Sale  encountered  troublere  in  Israel  as  others  before  lui 
had  donie,  but  by  earnest  pleadings  at  the  Throne  of  Grace,  I7  ^  I 
pulpit  exhortation  and  especially  his  own  Christian  d^oitnot^  I 
he  won  over  the  members  of  the  Church.  There  used  to  be  grib^-  I 
ings  of  members  at  the  Pastor's  house  and  it  was  here  thafc  tb*  I 
personality  of  Mis.  Sale  came  in  as  a  Mother  in  Israel. 

On  the  27th  June  1866,  a  man  and  his  wife  wished  to  withdnr 
for  a  time  from  the  Communion  of  the  Church  when  it  was  lOH 
animously  resolved  that  ''the  temporary  withdrawal  of  mfmlM^ 
from  Communion  is  not  desirable  and  unlikely  to  be  ben^oil 
either  to  the  members  concerned  or  to  the  Church,''  and  in  NovemlNr 
of  that  year  the  Pastor  mentioned  that  the  names  of  several  ptf^ 
sons  were  on  the  Church  Register  who  did  not  attend  the  LonPi 
Supper  or  even  the  services  whilst  some  others  who  lived  at  a  do* 
tance  appeared  to  take  no  interest  in  the  Church,  wben  itvM 
resolved  to  take  certain  actiont  to  remedy  this  state  of  things. 

On  the  30th  October  1867,  the  Pastor  expressed  a  wish  for  a 
Christian  Instruction  Society  to  be  formed  in  oonnecfcioii  with  tta 
Church  similar  to  those  existing  in  England  but  tihe  matter '1M 
deferred  for  consultation  with  the  Deacons  and  the  fbUcmbf ' 
month  the  matter  was  referred  to  a  Committee  to  consider  in  IfM 
nianner  such  a  Society  might  be  most  usefuUj  conducted.  ]i9l«> 
the  matter  appears  to  have  dropped. 

THR   PASTORATE   OF    THE   REV.    JOHN    RALB.  853 

In  ihe  interval  another  great  cyclone  had  vidted  Calcutta  on 
)  night  of  1st  November  which  raged  the  whole  night. 

On  the  16th  March  1868,  a  special  Church  Meeting  was  held^ 

»  principal  business  being  the  resignation  by  Mr.  Sale  of    Che 

•torate  under  the  circumstances  detailed  below: — 

"The  Pastor  then  read  a  letter  to  the  Church  in  which  he 
lormed  them  that  in  consequence  of  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Page  of 
Mrisal  having  felt  himself  compelled  to  resign  his  charge  of  the 
lurches  in  that  district  it  had  appeared  to  his  brethren  in  the 
iasion  and  to  himself  to  be  his  duty  to  yield  to  the  earnest  en-« 
Mty  of  Mr.  Page  that  he  should  take  up  the  work  relinqu^ed 
'  hun  and  therefore  it  became  necessary  that  he  (Mr.  Sale)  should 
Bgn  his  office  as  Pastor  of  the  Churoh  in  Lall  Bazar.  Mr.  Sale 
ktod  that  he  did  so  with  great  regret  and  with  liv>dly  and  grateful 
membranoes  of  the  great  kindness  he  had  received  from  the 
rarch  whilst  he  had  been  its  Pastor.  He  felt  comfort,  however, 
fhe  hope  that  if  they  applied  to  the  Bev.  John  Robinson  he 
mid  be  willing  to  take  the  oversight  of  them.  Having  read  the 
bter  the  Pastor  retired  from  the  meeting." 

From  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that  the  Pastor  took  the 
itiative  in  every  matter  of  Church  d&cipline  or  Church  reform 
id  the  Church  was  just  beginning  to  look  up  and  the  old  times 
lie  returning  when  he  had  to  leave  for  Barisal.  The  admissions 
iring  the  years  of  his  Pastorate  were  as  follows: — 1859,  14 ;  1860, 
:  1864,  8;  1865,  11;  1866,  7;  1867,  11. 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  his  report  for  the  year  1867, 
idch  appears  in  the  Society's  Annual  report  of  1868 : — 

'*The  schools  have  continued  to  aid  our  interesting  Mission 
Barisal.  The  Church  and  congregation  besides  making  an 
nual  collection  for  the  Calcutta  Auxiliary  to  ihe  Baptist  Mission 
•  eontinued  to  support  two  Native  Preachers.  Help  has  also 
em  rendered  to  our  suffering  native  brethren  in  the  South  Vil- 
fOB.  The  cyclone  of  1st  November  1867,  which  rendered  this 
Ip-  &3oeasary  also  injured  our  place  of  worship  very  considerably. 
B  have,  however,  completed  the  repairs  rendered  necessary  and 
I  hope  soon  to  clear  off  a  balance  of  about  £20  still  due  on  that 

Niunbev  of  members  given  as  ...     133 

Children  in  Sunday  ^hool  given  as  ...     150 

28  ^ 


The  acting  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  Gsobgb  Ksbbt. 

(From  24th  January  1861    to  Ist  December  186i) 


Before  detailing  the  events  of  the  pastorate  it  will  be  n 
to  give  as  mucli  of  a  biographical  sketch  of  each  as  is  posB 
they  were  both  jointly  and  separately  bo  useful  in  the  ( 
but  the  materials  for  this  are  very  meagre. 

The  Rev.  George  Kbbby. 

He  was  bom  in  the  year  1826.  He  wae  already  a&  eoqx 
Pastor  at  Home  before  he  offered  himself  as  |k  IGssioniary. 

THE   ACTING   PASTORATE    OP    THE    REV.    GEORGE   KERRY,        355 

lained  on  tbe  20th  August  1856,  at  Hastings  as  a  Missionary 
the  same  time  as  Mr.  Gramble  who  went  to  Trinidad.  Mr.  Ben- 
in gave  a  description  of  Mr.  Kerry's  field  of  labor.  The  mis- 
onaries  elect  gave  interesting  state(m'3nts  of  their  experiences 
ter  which  Dr.  Angus  oflFered  the  designation  prayer  and  Dr.  Hoby 
iva  them  paternal  counsel.  An  Independent  Minister  closed  the 
teefeing  with  prayer.  He  arrived  in  India  in  January  1857  and 
as  posted  on  arrival  to  Howrah  to  replace  Mr.  Morgan  who  went 
England  for  the  first  time  after  seventeen  years  of  labor  at  Howrah. 
Aer  that  he  had  charge  of  the  Entally  Institution  for  several 
eaiB  and  also  the  supervision  of  the  City  Mission. 

In  1880,  he  was  appointed  the  Indian  Secretary  of  th©  Baptist 
iiBmonary  Society,  which  office  he  held  till  his  retirement  from 
he  Mission  in  1397.  Through  the  Press  and  by  appeals  to  the 
lovemment  he  renderied  great  service  to  the  Native  Christians  and 
he  rural  population  of  Bengal  in  times  of  distress  and  oppression. 

On  the  11th  January  1894,  his  partner  in  life  died  at  Calcutta 
fid  is  buried  in  the  Lower  Circular  Boad  Cemetery.  Mr.  Kerry 
harried  again  in  course  of  time  and,  in  1897  on  his  retiring  from 
he  Mission,  he  proceeded  to  England  in  his  70th  year,  where  he 
efctled  down,  and  where  he  served  the  Society  till  his  death  on  the 
2th  December  1906  at  the  age  of  80. 

Mrs.  Ann  Kerry. 

She  accompanied  her  husband  to  India  in  1856  and  shared  his 
boiB  whenever  he  was  stationed.  For  several  years  previous  fb 
ft  death  she  devoted  herself  to  the  work  of  looking  after  the 
stive  Christian  girls  and  women  at  Entally.  She  was  also  a 
other  in  Israel. 

The  events  of  the  Pastorate  will  now  be  detailed. 

When  Mar.  Sale  was  about  to  proceed  to  England  the  Church 
Idreesed  the  following  letter  to  Mr,  Kerry  on  the  8th  Januany 


1861^  asking  him  to  take  the  oversight  of  it  durixig  Mr.    Sale'i 
absence: — 
Deab  Sir, — 

You  are  aware  that  the  Lall  Bazar  Baptist  Ghureh  will  ahoitlj 
be  without  a  Pastor  owing  to  our  Pastor,  the  Bev.  Mr.  Sale,  leaving 
us  for  a  temporary  sojoiimt  in  England. 

The  Church  being  desirous  to  have  one  to  take  the  o^eiBglkt 
of  them  during  Mr.  Sale's  absence,  we  the  undermentioned 
Deaoons  of  the  Church  in  the  name  and  on  the  behalf  of  the  QmtA 
take  the  liberty  to  ask  you  if  you  will  have  the  kindness  to  beoQOM 
our  Pastor  till  Mr.  Sale  is  again  in  the  Providence  of  God,  broqgb 
back  to  this  country  and  to  us  the  Church. 

We  need  hardly  assure  you  that  we  shall  be  but  too  hffj 
should  this  application  to  you  meet  with  your  cordial  consent. 

We  remain.  Dear  Sir, 
On  behalf  of  the  Church, 
Youre  sincerely, 
(Sd.)    L.  Mkndes, 

R.  W.  Chill, 
„        W.  Young, 

Calcutta,  Sth  January  1861. 

To  this  Mr.  Kerry  replied  as  below: — 
My  dear  Brethren, — 

Having  received  your  invitation  given  in  the  name  of  Ab 
Church,  to  assume  the  Pastorate  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Baptist  C^rxA 
and  prayerfully  considered  the  same,  it  has  appeared  to  me  thflk 
under  present  circumstances  I  ought  to  accept  it,  subject  of  oouni 
to  the  approval  of  the  London  Committee  of  tbd  Baptist  MisBioiiirf 

In  order  to  an  eifficient  discharge  of  the  duties  of  a  Paalor  it 

will  be  necessary  that  you  should  furnish  me  with  some  mesni  ot 
moving  about  the  City,  otherwise  I  shall  not  be  able  to  pay  that 
attention  to  the  sick  and  the  members  of  the  Church  aiud  congve^ 
tion  which  I  shall  wish  to  do,  and  which,  I  trust,  yon  also  wiH 
desire.  You  will  kindly  take  this  matter  into  considen£oD  •»• 
make  what  arrangements  shall  seem  most  suitable. 

You  will,  I  trust,  remember  me  daily  in  your  prayers  to  God 

that  He  may  aid  and  assist  me  in  the  faithfid  and  effieiMit  d» 
charge  of  the  duties  to  which  you  call  Qie,  that  you  v^anel^W  lUJ 


*rfeB   A'CTIKG   PASTOHATB   OF   THE   BBV.   GBOBOE  )CBBRY.        35? 

b  blefisM  abundantly  and  that  many  may  be  brongbt  to  the  know- 
idge  of  tbe  Tmtli  aa  it  is  in  Jesus. 

I  am,  My  dear  Brethren, 

Yours  in  Christian  love, 
(Sd.)    Geo.  Keirsy. 
OkLOXTTTA,  2Srd  January  1861. 

Hie  first  Church  Meeting,  which  Mir,  Kerry  attended  was  held 
HI  tke  evening  of  30th  January  1861,  but  on  the  23rd  idem  the 
Qknrdi  bad  met,  considered  his  letter,  and  sanctioned  a  monthly 
|nat  of  Bs.  30  to  meet  the  expenses  of  his  pastoral  visitations. 

On  the  26th  June  it  was  decided  to  send  out  a  Circular  to 
EWtty  member  of  the  Church  regarding  the  proposal  to  introduce 
ft  harmonium,  and  on  tbe  27th  July,  a&  the  voting  was  in  favor 
oi  the  proposal,  one  was  presented  to  the  Church. 

]ji  May  1862  passed  away,  Mr.  Jabez  Carey  t^ho  had  been 
i%adnu{lEed  as  a  member  of  the  Church  on  tbe  10th  September 
1837.    He  was  a  remarkable  man  in  many  ways. 

Ob  tbe  2l8t  November  1863,  Mr.  Kerry  wrote  resigning  the 
pmtofate  as  Mr.  Sale  had  returned  from  England  and  on  the 
SSth  idem,  after  the  letter  had  been  read,  the  Church  resolved  to 
take  a  presentation  to  him  and  they  sent  him  a  letter  offering 
htaa  end  his  beloved  partner  the  most  siucere  and  hearty  thanks 
Sl  tJie  Church.  The  presentation  comprised  a  puree  containing 
Bs.  200  and  the  works  of  Howe  the  Divine. 

Hie  entries  in  the  Church  Minute  Book  are  very  meagre,  but 
kbe  foUowing  were  the  admissions  for  Uie  three  years,  viz.,  1861,  13 ; 
1863,  10,  1B63,  6. 

TSie  following  account  of  the  work  of  the  Church  at  this  period 
ip|Maied  in  the  Missionary  ^Herald  of  November  1861,  apparently 
bawd  on  information,  Mr.  Kerry  himself  must  have  communicated : 

Since  Mr.   Sale's  departure  the  Rev.   George  Kerrjr  has  had 
Auo^  of  flie  ChurcE  meeting  in  the^Lall  Bazar.     This  street  ^'s 
ne  <rf  tbe  main  thoroughfares  of  Calcutta,  and  is  especially    Ire^ 
attended  t>y  sailors  and  by  Europeans  having  to  do  with  the  Shi^ 
^ng  of  the  Port.    Thus  it  becomes  an  importunYi  a^\vi€t^  oWmB 

358       tHS  BTOBir  Of  the  lall-bAzab  sAFhst  osuvkiA. 

bofch  in  relation  to  EuTopeana  and  Natives,  and  the  Ghnrdl  has* 
usually  ooiusisted  of  both  theee  classes.  Originally  founded  by  the 
Serampore  brethren  the  congregation  has  had  as  its  suooeBBive 
ministers,  Drs.  Carey  and  Marshman,  the  Revs.  W.  Waid, 
E.  Carey,  J.  Lawson,  W.  Robinson  and  J.  Thomas,  under  whm 
ministry  many  souls  have  been  brought  to  God. 

At  the  present  time  there  are  encouraging  tokene  of  the  Divine 
blessing  in  the  ministry  of  the  Word.  The  congregation  continiui 
gradually  to  increase  and  there  are  gratifying  proofs  of  an  incraoeed 
zeal  and  of  the  growth  of  spiritual  life  among  the  membeiB  of  flit- 
Church.  The  vestry  at  the  week-n^ght  services  is  often  mosfc  i» 
conveniently  crowded,  so  that  seats  cannot  be  provided  for  all  the 
attendants.  One  very  pleasing  feature  is  the  large  influx  of  sailon 
and  other  seafaring  people  from  the  lodging  houses  of  the  nei^ 
bourhood.  Thirty  or  forty  men  of  this  class  are  sometimes  pneeni 
on  Lord  s  Bay  evening  and  nearly  as  many  on  Monday  and  Wed- 
nesday evenings.  This  has  npw  continued  for  the  past  two  months.' 
but  there  is  a  constant  change  in  the  individuals,  and  althott^' 
it  is  known  that  many  have  received  spiritual  benefits  f rem  tfifl 
cause,  but  few  can  be  added  to  the  Church.  Their  gtay  is  too  dwrt) 
but  they  carry  with  them  the  seed  of  etern,al  life. 

On  the  last  Sabbath  in  June,  Mr.  Kerry  had  the  pleasure  d 
baptizing  three  women,  one  of  them  was  a  Bengalee,  the  wife  of 
one  of  the  Native  Preachers :  one  was  the  daughter  of  the  BBtOfX 
Deacon  and  the  second  was  the  daught^  of  our  aged  and  esteemed 
Assistant  Missionary,  Mr.  William  Thomas.  Other  inteicstiiig 
candidates  are  preparing  for  the  sacred  rite.  One  of  theee  is  a 
Burman  youth,  a  scholar  in  the  Benevolent  Institution,  who  tp?*' 
every  sign  of  sincerity  and  true  piety.  He  has  desdred  to  be  Bap- 
tized for  the  last  three  months. 

The  Sunday  School  is  also  going  on  very  well.  Mr.  Kerr; 
pays  it  a  monthly  visit,  when  he  conducts  a  Children's  Service. 

Since  his  removal  to  Calcutta,  Mr.  Kerry  has  made  it  hie  dilfcf 
to  go  out  as  frequently  as  possible  with  the  Native  FareachecB.' 
There  are  two  who  act  under  his  direction  and  they  are  sometimce 
Joined  by  others.  The  street  congregations  vary  much  in  numbea, 
but  generally,  they  appear  to  increase.  In  the  presence  of  libe 
Missionary  the  native  brethren  preach  with  more  confidenoe  and 
are  less  interrupted  by  adversaries.  Street  preaching  in  Calcntta 
has  somewhat  increased  lately.  Mr.  Kerry  often  meets  Gooliar 
Shah,  pastor  of  the  Native  Church  in  South  Colinga,  with  some  of 
his  friends,  and,  two  or  three  of  the  brethren  of  the  EntaUy 
Church  are  active  in  the  same  way  with  Mr.  Pearoe. 


A  convert  of  th©  Free  Church,  also  joins  our  brethren  on  a 
Monday  evening  in  their  labors  at  the  gateway  of  the  Lall  Bazar 
Chapel,  and  preaches  with  great  simplicity  and  power  in  Bengali. 
But  a  preacher  is  much  wanted  in  Hindustani  as  there  are  large 
numbers  of  Mussulmans  and  North-oountry  men  who  would  prefer 
to  be  addressed  in  that  language,  constantly  resident  in  or  visiting 
Calcutta.  The  congregations  at  this  spot  may  be  from  20  to  200 
persons.  There  is  not,  however,  much  that  is  encouraging  in  these 
street  labors.  The  people  generally  do  not  ssem  to  care  about  the 
Gospel.  They  do  not  appear  to  think  that  it  concerns  their  ever- 
lasting welfare.  Scarcely  half  a  dozen  persons  will  stay  through 
an  entire  address,  which  never  lasts  more  than  a  quarter  of  an 
hour.  Even  when  a  discussion  arises,  the  man  who  originates  it 
will  sometimes  go  away  without  waiting  Co  hear  his  question  fairly 
answered.  "  It  is  a  spiritual  night,"  says  the  Missionary,  "  and  the 
night  is  very  dark.  But  the  morning  may  be  near  at  hand.  I 
trust  it  is.  Whilst  the  darkness  appears  to  me  to  be  exceedingly 
thick,  I  do  not  think  there  is  any  reason  for  relaxation  of  effort. 
I  would  that  our  efforts  could  be  increased,  and  our  laborers  mul- 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  Mr.  Kerry's  report  for  1863, 

which  was     published     in  the     Annual  Report  of    the  Sooety  in 

1864  :— 

"The  congregation  has  kept  up  well.  Several  of  the  members 
of  the  Church  have  been  in  the  habit  throughout  the  year  of  visit- 
ing the  sailors  in  their  lodging  houses  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Chapel,  half  an  hour  before  the  commencement  of  the  Sabbath 
evening  service  and  inviting  them  to  Chapel :  thus  in  addition  to 
the  usual  congregation,  from*  50  to  80  sailors  have  frequently  been 
brought  under  the  sound  of  the  Gospel. 

"  One  of  the  sailors  who  attended  for  a  while  this  year  had 
about  a  year  and  a  half  previously  when  in  Calcutta  been  in  the 
habit  of  coming  to  the  Chapel  and  seemed  more  serious  than  most 
of  the  men.  He  told  me,  and  re-called  the  fact  to  my  mind,  that 
one  of  his  shipmates  in  his  previous  visit  to  Calcutta  had  been 
deeply  impressed  by  the  word  of  God  and,  as  I  trust  by  the  spirit 
of  God.  'I  was  now  informed  that  this  man  sickened  and  died  on 
the  voyage  Home  but  died  rejoicing  in  faith  in  the  Lord  Jesus 

"The  Sabbath  School  has  gone  on  well  during  the  year." 


The  8T0BY  OF  THE   WiLLUMS'  EfiTATE. 

It  is  rather  a  remarkable  story,  so  will  bear  narrating:— 
On  the  15th  March  1831,  eight  persona  were  proposed  as  cudfr 
dates  for  baptism,  three  of  whom  were  natives.  Four  out  of  the 
other  five  were  received  for  baptism  on  the  12ht  April,  vu.,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Hajward,  Mr.  Edwards  and  Mr.  Williams,  and  on  ikl 
5th  May  1831,  a  Mr.  Cook  was  also  received  for  baptism.  Jbi 
and  MiB.  Hayward  and  Mr.  Edwards  were  baptized  on  the  3ti(: 
April  1831  and  Mr.  Cook  and  Mr.  Williams  on  the  8th  May  lollov- 
ing.  This  is  the  earliest  record  there  is  of  Mr.  J.  A.  Williani. 
He  was  only  15  years  of'  age  at  the  time  of  his  baptism. 

On  the  26th  May  1833,  his  three  maiden  sisters  were  baptiiecl 
together.     Their  names  were: — 

1.  Miss    Sarah    Williams,  the  eldest    sister. 

2.  „       Matilda  Williams    ,,   second       ,, 

3.  y,       Anna      Williams     ,,  third  ,, 
but  his  wife  Mrs.  Catherine  Matilda  Williams  was  never  a  memW 
of  the  Church. 

Miss  Anna  Williams  (the  youngest)  became  Mrs.  HatUxii  is 
1834.  On  the  10th  March  1835,  Mr.  Williams  was  permitted  lo 
withdraw  from  the  Church,  but  no  reason  whatever  is  on  reoori 
as  to  why  he  did  so,  and  on  the  14th  May  1837,  Mrs.  Hatton's  eoih 
nection  with  the  Church  ceased,  but  no  reason  for  this  is  on  reoori 
either.  The  other  two  sisters  Sarah  and  Matilda,  however,  retaiaad 
their  connexion  with  the  Church  till  their  death.  Th«t  datoi  d' 
thefr  death  were  as  below : — 

(1)  29th  January  1860  Miss  Matilda  Williams. 

(2)  24th  February  1863  Miss  Sarah  Williams. 
Mr.  Williams  became  sick  in  1842,  so,  on  the  11th  January  <rf 

that  year,  apprehending  death  to  be  near  at  hand,  he  made  hi 

*r^  fll^BT  OF   Tii!B  WILLIAMs'   E0TAtB.  $€1 

SA  in  which  he  descrihed  himself  as  "dieeafled  in  body,  but  of 
and  mind^  memory  and  undeiBtanding/'  The  end  came  not  many 
gfB  after,  hut  the  exact  date  is  not  procurable  as  it  is  not  stated 
the  Bviial  Begistev  of  the  cemetery  concerned.  That  Register 
CV9B  him  to  have  been  buried  on  the  19th  January  1842,     by 

•  Bev.  W.  W«  Evans,  so  that  he  must  have  died  on  that  day  or 

•  previous  one.  This  would  imply  that  he  had  not  joined  aay 
ber  Church  in  the  interval  between  1835  when  he  withdrew,  and 
42  when  he  died.  His  age  at  death  is  given  in  the  Burial  Certi- 
■fbe  as  26  yesas  10  months  and  2  dayst,  and  he  was  buried  in  the 
itek  Cemetery  «8  desired  in  his  Will,  but  the  grave  is  no  longer 

A  copy  of  the  Will  is  given  below  for  facility  of  reference  as  it  is 
iocoment  of  some  importance  to  the  Church,     it  runs  thus : — 
In  the  name  of  God  Amen. 

1,  John  Adolphus  Williams  now  of  Ruffick  Serang's  Lane  in 

•  Town  of  Calcutta,  being  diseased  in  body,  but  of  sound  mind 
amory  and  understanding  do  make  publish  and  declare  this  my 
in  Will  and  Testament  in  manneo:  following,  that  is  to  say : — 

■  Firstly, — I  desire  after  my  decease  my  body  be  buried  in  the 
MKsh  Burial  Ground  d»soently  and  in  a  pucca  grave  placing  a 
nA  tablet  to  mark  the  spot  with  as  littls  expense  as  possible. 

Secondly. — I  will  that  all  just  deb^  and  funeral  charges  be  convenient  after  my  decease. 

.  Thirdly, — ^I  will  that  as  to  my  worldly  goods  and  chattels  I 
pi  and  bequeath  unto  my  wife  Catherine  Matilda  Williams  all 
yckoosehold  and  moveable  property  for  her  sole  and  proper  use. 

Fourthly, — I  also  give  and  bequeath  unto  my  said  wife 
hkhfidne  Matilda  Williams  a  monthly  stipend  of  Company's 
iqpees  thirty  (30)  per  mensem  to  be  paid  monthly  and  every 
Mifa  to  her  by  my  Executors  hereinafter  named  out  of  the  rent  of 
y  two  houses  Nos.  7  and  8  situated  in  Gunga  Dhur  Baboo's  Lane, 
*w  Bazar,  within  the  Town  of  Calcutta,  as  long  as  she  remains  a 
flow  and  does  not  swerve  from  the  path  of  rectitude. 

But  in  the  event  of  my  said  wife  Catherine  Matilda  Willia.m& 
Ang  married  again,  the  said  sum  of  Company's  Tup^«a  >2t&c\x^  ^^^ 


month  is  to  be. paid  to  my  unmarried  sisters  Saivah  and '. 
Williams  share  and  share  alike  so  long  as  they  remauL  i 
and  live  virtuously  or  to  one  or  either  of  them  that  may  so  ; 
unmarried  or  to  the  survivor  so  long  as  she  will  not  depart  i 
the  path  of  virtue,  but  in  the  event  of  the  marriage  or  deiathi^i 
said  wife  Caherine  Matilda  Williams  and  my  said  maiden 
Sarah  and  Matilda,  I  request    that  the    said  sum  of  Comp 
rupees  thirty  out  of  the  said  inoome  be  appropriated  throng  i 
medium  of  the  Baptist  Chapel  at  Lall  Bazar  to  the  cause  of  H 
sions  particularly  towards  the  maintenanoe  of  preaching  the  Woi 
of  God. 

But  in  the  event  of  my  said  wife  Catherine  Matilda  Will 
bectoming  a  widow  a  second  time  and  being  left  unprovided 
the  said  allowance  of  Company's  rupees  thirty  a  month  is  toj 
to  her,  upon  the  conditions  hereinbefore  stated. 

I  also  desire  that  my  Executory  hereinafter  named  will  i 
payment  of  the  above-noted  stipend  of  Company's  rupees   ' 
per  mensem,   reserve  in  hand  all  surplus  rent  or  i^ents 
from  the  said  two  houses  towards  meeting  the  disbursemenii  < 
repairs,  taxes,  etc.,  of  the  said  two  houses  as  also  to  provide  f 
the  payment  of  the  said  stipend  in  the  event  of  the  houses  i 
ing  unlet,  as  far  as  these  funds  will  permit. 

Fifthly. — [This  clause  is  omitted  as  it  details  certain 
to  domestics  only  and  does  not  concern  the  family  or  the  Chur^l 

But  these  last  four  legacias  are  not  to  be  paid  until  my 
cutoiB  hereinafter  named  are  enabled  to  do  so  from  accumu 
of  funds  in  their  hands. 

Lastly. — I  do  heiraby  nominate  and  appoint  Mr.  Julien  \ 
Carrau  and  Lewis  Mendes  both  of  Calcutta  to  be  joint  ~ 
to  this  my  last  Will  and  Testament  hereby  revoking  all 
Will  or  Wills  by  me  at  any  time  heretofore  ig.ade  and  do 
this  to  be  my  last  Will  and  Testament.     In  witness  whereof  1 1 
hereunto  sat  my  hand  and  seal  the  11th  day  of  Januaxy  itt  ^ 
year  of  our  Lord  Christ  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  ;' 

Extract  from  the  Will  of  Mr.  L.  Mendes  of  Bentinck  I 
Calcutta  :— 

And  I  hereby  devise  and  baqueath  the  house  in  Oree  ' 
Lane,  No.  6,  and  the  Company's  paper  for  rupees  eight  hu 
v^hich  I  hold  as  Executor  of  the  Will  of  John  AdolphuB  Wil 
^>  ^he  Deacons  for  the  time  being  of  the  Lall  Bazar  Baptist. Oh 

THie  8TQRY  OF  THE  Williams'  ESTATJs.  363 

ta  hoid  upon  the  Trusts  declared  by  the  Will  of  the  «aid  John 
Adolplitis   Williams,   and  etc. 

(Sd.)     L.  Mendes. 
Dated,  25th  July  1873. 

(Sd.)     Charles  W.  Hopkins, 
,,         Henry  A.  Jewett. 

Mr.  J.  L.  Carrau  had  died  at  Hope  Town  in  May  1873. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  Will  what  the  terms  and 
oonditione  were  under  which  the  widow  and  flbe  maiden  sisters 
of  Mr.  S.  A.  Williams  were  to  get  the  monthly  stipend  of  Com- 
pany e  rupees  thirty  (30).  Well,  Mre.  Catherine  Matilda  Williams 
married  Mr.  John  Vallis,  junior,  in  June  1844,  after  which, 
in  accordance  with  the  will,  the  allowance  passed  on  to  the  two 
unmarried  sisters.  She  died  on  the  17th  March  1854.  Then  Miss 
Matilda  Williams  died  on  the  29th  January  1860  after  which  the 
allowance  passed  on  to  the  sole  surviving  sister,  Miss  Sarah 
Williams,  whb  died  on  the  24th  February  1863. 

This  last  "  life-tenant "  having  passed  away  the  Church  became 
entitled  to  the  allowance  thereafter  in  accordance  with  the  Will. 
It  was  intended  that  the  Church  should  first  be  paid  the  allowance 
and. then  the  surplus  between  that  and  the  actual  rent  realized 
kept  in  hand  to  meet  repairs,  taxes,  etc.,  so  that  the  Church  might 
get  the  allowance  even  when  the  house  was  empty.  This  arrange- 
ment,  however,  was  deviated  from  frequently  and  the  allowance 
haa  at  times  been  withheld  when  the  funds  have  not  permitted  or 
the  house  has  be^i  empty.  In  fact  at  one  time  the  allowance 
was  not  paid  for  several  years.  However,  all  things  considered 
it  was  a  gracious  Providence  that  inclined  the  Testator  to  make 
this  provision  for  the  Church,  which  is  more  or  less  of  a  certainty 
towards  the  Pastor's  support. 

Mr.  Lewis  Mendes,  from  whose  Will  an  extract  is  given  above, 
died  on  the  22nd  May  1876.  At  that  time  the  Officers  were  called 
EldeiB,  and  none  were  designated  Deacons.  The  consequence 
was    that    two    of    those    Elders    had  to  formally  be  appointed 

S44         ITHE   6T0BT  OF   fSE   LALti-^JLZAR   BkFtUB^   OSUBOtil. 

OS  Deacons.  The  first  one  so  appointed  was  Mr.  Hiomas 
Anstin,  who  was  appointed  on  28th  June  1576.  As  Mr.  Mendes 
had  used  the  plural — Deacons — a  second  had  to  be  appointed  and 
Mr.  F.  P.  Lindeman  was  so  appointed  on  the  10th  July  1876. 

The  affairs  of  th<e'  Estate  were  sutsequently  made  over  to  the 
Administrator-Greneral  of  Bengal  in  whose  hands  they  have  been 
for  years  and  the  allowance  has  been  received  for  some  years  past 
without  interruption. 

It  will  be  noticed  from  the  Will  that  the  hovse  has  not  been 
le(ft  to  the  Church,  but  only  the  allowance  of  thirty  rupees.  This 
point  has  been  raised  mora  than  once  so  that  the  Church 
might  know  for  certain  whether  if  the  property  were  sold 
the  proceeds  of  the  sale  would  come  to  it  or  not,  be- 
cause, if  the  latter,  the  Church,  might  fund  thosie  proceeds,  and  thus 
realize  more  than  thirty  rupees  a  month  by  the  investment.  To 
settle  the  matter  finally  a  reference  was  made  by  the  Administra- 
tor-General to  Counsel  towards  the  end  of  1906  at  the  request  of 
the  Church  and  the  following"  is  an  extract  from  the  opinion  he 
expressed  in  reply: — 

"  In  the  event  of  a  sale,  the  Church  authorities  in  my  opinion 
would  have  no  interest  in  the  sale  proceeds  beyond  a  charge  of  the 
Rs.  30  A  month  upon  them  and  would  not  be  entitled  to  have  the 
sale  proceeds  made  over  to  them.*' 

(Sd.)    Thomas  R.  Stokosj. 

19th  November  1906. 

This    opinion      finally    settled     the    point    involved  and  the 

Church  had  no  alternative,  but  to  accept  it.     It  is  however,  vsry 

thankful  to  receive  the  allowance  of  Rs.  30  as  regularly  as  it  does 

and  cannot  be  too  thankful  to  the  Testator  for  this  provision  in 

his  Will  by  which  the  Church  has  benefited  more  or  less  for  over 

45  years. 


Ths  Pastorate  of  the  Rev.  John  Robinson. 
(25th  March  1868  to  1st  June  1876.) 


Iefore  giving  the  details  of  the  events  of  this  period  it  will 
oeasary  to  give  a  brief  biographical  sketch  of  Mr.  Robinson. 

The  Rev.  John  Robinson. 

Ee  was  the  son  of  the  Rev.  William  Robinson,  the 
r  Pastor  of  this  Church,*  and  was  born  at  Batavia 
le  11th  December  1819,  while  his  father  was  laboring 
lat  mission  field.  He  came  up  to  Bengal  with  his 
:    in    the   early    part    of    1825    when    the   latkf    had  tq 

866         THE   erOBY  of   the    LALL-BAZAB   baptist    GHT7B0H. 

relinquish  his  work  in  the  Eastern  Islands.  He  received  his  educft- 
tion  at  Serampore.  He  was  baptized  in  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel  bj 
his  father  on  the  29th  December  1833,  when  he  was  only  14  years 
of  age.  On  the  26th  December  lSi5,  he  was  ordained  to  the  Min- 
istry in  the  Lall  Bazar  Chapel,  his  father  being  present  on  the 
occasion,  having  come  from  Dacca  for  the  purpose.  For  several 
years  he  was  Pastor  of  the  Native  Church  at  Serampore.  He  was 
appointed  Marriage  Registrar  of  Serampore  on  the  18th  February 
1856  and  held  the  post  of  Bengali  Translator  to  the  Government 
of  Bengal  from  the  18th  January  1853. 

When  the  Rev.  James  Thomas  died  in  July  1858,  Mr.  Robin- 
son offered  his  gratuitous  services  to  the  Church  whenever  he  might 
b»  required,  provided  the  Church  sent  up  a  Native  Preacher  to 
take  his  Bengali  sarvice  at  Serampore. 

He  proceeded  on  leave  to  England  on  the  8th  June  1864,  and 
left  England  to  return  to  this  country  on  the  18th  September  1865 
arriving  in  Calcutta  <mi  the  3rd  November  following.  While  in 
England  he  had  married  Miss  Annie  Grant  at  Scarborough  on  the 
9tli  September  1865,  who  is  aKve  at  the  present  time  in  Scotland. 
She  was  his  fourth  wife. 

When  Mr.  Sale  ^atgaed  the  Pastorate  at  the  beginning  of 
1868,  he  suggested  to  tiie  Churdi  to  apply  to  Mr.  Robinson  and 
he  would  probably  be  willing  to  undertake  its  overaght.  Mr. 
Robinson  consented,  but  no  kfttei^  are  on  record.  Being  BaigaH 
Translator  to  Government  as  stated  above  be  was  able  to  asEume 
the  Paotorate  gratuitoasly. 

For  same  time  prior  to  his  formaUy  severing  his  connection 
with  the  Chuitli  his  health  was  vny  poor  and  the  Churdi  had 
to  d^pmd  on  otheiB^  but  on  ihe  Isi  June  1876  he  finally  lesigDed 
the  Fastorale  and  on  the  21st  Decembev  following,  a  teatinMMiial 
and  addmns  w«rs  preBsnlsd  to  him  and  to  Mn.  SobtnEvm  in 
recofnitioii  of  their  seiwioeB  to  the  Churdi  for  eight  yeais. 

Mr.  Rohineoii,  however,  remained  on  in  C^cutta  and  at  vari- 

'     Tfl*  1»AST0BATE   OP    THE   BEV.    JOHN   ROBINSON.  867 

me8  4iook  part  in  some  of  the  meetings  and  eepedally  at  Mr 
ie's  induction  service  on  the  11th  December  1877. 
le  died  on  the  28th  August  1878,  at  Banaresi,  where  he  had 
for  a  change  and  on  the  8th  September  his  funeral  sermon 
)reached  at  the  Chapel  by  his  brother  Rdv. .  R.  Bobinson  to 
vrded  congregation.  On  the  16th  idem  a  letter  of  sympathy 
ent  by  the  Church  to  Mrs.  Robinson,  which  was  signed  by 
of  the  members. 


Al  Tablet  was     subsequently  put     up  in  th»  Cliapel  to  hia 
)ry,  the  inscription  on  which  is  as  below : — 
In  loving  memory 

Rev.  John  Robinson 
For  eight  years  Pastor  of  the  Church  .  -^^ 

Meeting  within  th^se  walls,  ^[^* 


Bom  at  Batavia  on  tho  11th  December  1819. 
Died  at  Benaree  on  the  28th  August  1878. 
The  appointment  he  held  for  many  years 
of  Bengali  Translator  to  Government 
enabled  him  to 
"  Preach  the  Gospal  of  God  freely  "  being 
''chargeable  to  no  man/'  and  it  was  the 
characteristic  of  his  life  to  be  "  always 
abounding  in  the  work  of  the  Lord." 
*'  He  being  dead  yet  speaketh ''  in  the  many 
souk  that  have  been  redeemed  and  ennobled 
by  his  earnest  ministry  and  loving  spirit. 
"  They  that  turn  many  to  righteousmees 
shall  shine  as  the  stars  for  ever  and  ever/' 
There  is  an  affecting  anecdote  about  Mr.  Robinson  in  '^i 
and  Europe  "  by  M»sredith  Townaend  (1903)  when  he  went  in 
place  of  his  father,  who  was  ill  to  visit  a  dying  leper,  whl^  n6 
to  be  read  in  ordea:  to  be  appreciated. 

Mr.  Robinson  took  over  the  Pastorate  on  th.e  25th  Ms 
1868,  and  a  recognition  Tea  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Benew) 
Institution  on  the  2nd  April. 

On  the  29th  April  it  was  decided  to  adopt  some  measure  fore 
ing  the  money  necessary  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  "Cydi 
repairs''  and  as  the  outoonLd  of  this  a  Committee  was  appcitf 
on  the  13th  of  May  to  look  into  the  accounts  and  take  up  ' 
whole  question  of  placing  the  finances  on  a  satisfactory  bi 
Their  report  was  presanted  to  the  Church  on  the  8th  July  when' 
best  thanks  of  the  GEurch  were  conveyed  to  them  for  their  tponl 

At  that  meeting  the  election  of  three  additk) 
Deacons  was  recommended  by  the  said  Committee  and  it ' 
decided  to  take  the  vote  of  every  member  by  the  issue  of  »  ^ 
cular,  but  in  the  meantime  two  special  prayer  meetings  wwe 
be  held  that  the  Church  might  be  guided  to  a  right  choice.    ! 

THE    PASTORATE    OF    THE    BEV.    JOHN    ROBINSON.  369 

'Voting  was  in  favor  of  Messrs.  W.  Thomas,  J.  Derrick  and  G.  J.  T. 
JeflFerson,  and,  on  their  expressing  their  willingness  on  the  5th  Auguat 
to  accept  office,  it  was  decided  to  hold  a  special  service  for  their 
induction,  which  duly  took  place  on  the  20th  idem,  when  prayers 
were  offered  by  Rev.  Mr.  Broadbent  of  the  Wesleyans,  Mr.  Slater 
of  the  Congregationalists,  and  Dr.  Wenger  of  the  Baptists,  and 
Addresess  were  delivered  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Murray  Mitchell  of  the 
Free  Church  and  Mr.  Williams  of  the  Circular  Road  Church. 

But  on  the  29th  July,  Mr.  Mendes  relinquished  his  connec- 
tion with  the  Church  as  a  member  and  as  a  Deacon.  He  had  been 
baptized  on  the  30th  December  1832,  and  had  been  a  Deacon  since 
18th  November  1838. 

At  this  stage  it  became  naoessary  to  consider  the  state  of  the 
Chapel  roof,  and  the  building  generally,  and  the  advisability  of 
;general  repairs  and  alterations,  so  a  Committee  was  appointed  for 
the  purpooa.  In  the  following  month  the  Committee  stated  that 
they  thought  that  the  present  roof  might  be  temporarily  repaired 
until  the  question  of  the  most  suitable  kind  of  new  roof  was  decided 
upon.  Thay  also  suggested  a  new  pulpit  or  platform  and  its  re- 
moval to  one  end  of  the  Chapel  and  that  the  advice  of  Mr.  Rowe 
of  the  Circular  Road  Church  might  be  sought. 

On  the  30th  September  the  Pastor  brought  to  notice  that 
thero  was  no  recognized  rule  as  to  membership,  in  consequence  of 
which  any  person  could  attend  another  place  of  worship  and  yet 
inetain  his  name  as  a  member.  The  outcome  of  the  discussion  that 
arose  was  the  passing  of  a  Resolution  that  resident  members,  who 
absented  themselves  from  the  services  of  the  Church  for  three  months 
or  more  without  assigning  a  sufficient  reason  should  by  so  doing 
cause  their  membership  to  lapse. 

At  the  Church  MeeWngfof  the  21st  October  1868  some  interesting 
Btatementa  were  made  regarding  a  work  of  grace  on  the  ship  Alice 
Bitson  leading  up  to  the  conversion  of  four  sailors,  who  sought 
baptism,  one  being  an  Italiaji.  These  were  baptised  on  25th 
October  and  two  more  on  the  28th  idem.     Communications  were 



received  from  tliem  after  they  left  Calcutta  intimating  that  they 
were  all  maintaining  their  consistency  and  that  two  more  had  been 
baptized  at  Rangoon. 

It  is  necessary  to  explain  that  the  ship  Alice  Ritson,  had 
arrived  in  Calcutta  the  preceding  month  (September).  She  was 
commanded  by  a  Captain  Matches,  who  was  a  member  of  a  Baptist 
Church  in  Sunderland  and  at  the  request  of  some  of  the  members 
of  that  Church  he  sought  out  this  Chapel.  He  was  a  good  man 
himself  and  walked  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord  and  sought  the  conver- 
sion of  his  crew.  His  efforts  were  crowned  with  success;  but  the 
details  are  considered  sufficiently  interesting  to  permit  of  the  fol- 
lowing extract  being  mada  in  extenso  from  the  Minute  Book  of  the 
Church : — 

Wednesday  J  21st  October. 

A  Church  meeting  was.  held  this  evening,  Mr.  Robinson  (the 
Pastor)  stated  that  he  thought  that  it  would  be  well  to-  postpone 
the  ordinary  business  of  the  Church  in  crder  that  he  might  invite 
all  present  to  remain  to  hear  the  interesting  statements  that  were 
about  to  be  made.  He  then  said  four  man  on  board  the  ship  Alice 
Ritson  had  applied  to  be  baptized,  and  stated  that  he  and  some  other 
friends  had  paid  several  visits  to  the  ship  and  had  had  a  good  deal  of 
conversation  with  the  men,  the  result  of  which  was  that  they  felt 
persuaded  that  the  men  who  sought  to  be  baptized  were  subjects 
of  Divine  grace.  He  then  invited  Captain  Matches,  of 
the  Alice  Ritson  to  give  the  Church  some  account  of  the  work  going 
on  in  his  ship,  and  also  his  opinion  regarding  the  men  who  desired 

Captain  Matches  then  made  a  very  interesting  statement.  It 
had  been  his  practice  for  the  last  seven  years  to  have  daily  worship 
with  his  crew ;  but,  for'^e  last  two  years,  he  had  been  led  to  make 
^more  earnest  efforts  for  the  good  of  his  men,  and  all  the  good  that 
had  been  done  he  felt  was  through  the  Sovereign  mercy  of  God, 
and  Iiad  been  the  result  of  earnest  prayer.  He  firmly  believed 
the  promises  of  God  and  relied  soley  upon  His  help. 
•  V  He  spoke  of  the  Sunday  services  he  had  on  board  and  felt 
they  top  had  brought  a  blessing.  A  monthly,  prayer  meeting  was 
regularly  held  on  board  in  connection  with  the  Bethel  Mission  and 
the  earnest  prayers  from  the  men  at  those  nfieetings  gave  much 
pleasure  to  all  who  joined  in  thein'.     The  effect  of  these  effor|bs>  was 

THE    PASTORATE    OF    THE    REV.    JOHN    ROBINSOlT.  371 

that  everything  went  on  pleasantly  on  board  and  he  felt  ae  if  they 
w&re  ojhB  family.  With  regard  to  the  men  who  wished  to  be  bap- 
tized he  had  eveiy  reason  to  believe  that  they  were  children  of 
God,  and  hs  had  found  a  very  marked  change  in  their  behaviour, 
since  they  were  under  serious  impressions. 

Watson,  an  apprentice  on  board  the  ship,  who  was  a  member 
of  a  Baptist  Church  in  England,  gave  his  testimony  respecting 
the  four  men,  and  stated  that  judging  from  their  general  conduct, 
he  felt  they  were  Christians. 

One  of  the  men  being  an  Italian,  Mr.  Espino  had  been  asked 
to  visit  him  and  he  stated  that  he  had  a  long  conversation  with 
him  and  found  although  he  had  but  little  knowledge  of  Scripture, 
yet  from  his  replies  to  questions  respecting  baptism  and  hia 
,  general  views  of  religion  he  had  no  doubt  that  he  possessed  the 
tFue  spirit  of  God. 

Mr.  Derrick,  who  had  also  visited  the  ship  gave  his  testimony 
respecting  those  of  the  men  he  had  spoken  with. 

Mr.  Lindeman  also  gave  favorable  testimony. 

Mr.  Eobinson  then  made  some  general  remarks  on  the 
requirements  of  the  Churdb  respecting  candidaites  for  baptisiVL 
and  cordially  recommended  these  four  men  for  baptism.  It  was 
than  arranged  that  these  persons  should  be  baptized  the  following 
Sunday,  25th  October. 

The  names  of  the  four  men  were  Thomas  D.  Hudson,  James 
L.  Downing,  Peter  Grant  and  Leopoldo  Pistoje. 

Wednesday,  28th  October. 
In  consequ3nce  of  the  sermon  preached  last  Sunday  on  the 
occasion  of  the  baptism,  Mr.  J.  Scott  and  Mr.  B.  Butler  of  the 
ship  Alice  Ritson,  who  were  both  members  of  a  Christian  Church, 
deemed  it  their  duty  to  be  baptized  and  accordingly  applied  to  Mr. 
Robinson  that  they  might  ba  baptized  this  evening,  so  as  to  enable 
them  to  sit  down  at  the  table  of  the  Lord  next  Sunday  with  their 
shipmates.  As  Captain  Matches  was  able  to  speak  very  favorably 
of  their  consistent  conduct,  their  application  was  agreed  to  and 
thev  were  both  baptized  after  the  usual  lecture. 

Sunday,  Ut  November , 

-This  day  the  four  men  mentioned  in  the  Minutes  of  2l8t  Octx>ber 
and  the  two  in  that  of  28th  October,  partook  of  the  Lord's 
Supper,  Mr.  SElobinson  taking  the  opportunity  of  addressing  to 
them  some  words  of  earnest  counsel. 

We  are  now  appfoaching  the  i>eriod  when  special  efforts  were 


.made  to  reach  the  sailors  in  the  Port,  but  it  may  be  stated  here 

that  it  ia  understood  that  1868  was  the  year  in  which  the  largest 

niimbsr  on  record  of  sailing  vessels  visited  the  Port  of  Calcutta, 

as,  after  this  year^  more  steam  vessels  come  to  the  Port  in  con* 

sequence  of  the  opening  of  the  Suez  Canal  in  1869.     The  number 

of  sailing  vessels  perceptibly  declined  after  this  and  now  the  total 

number  in  the  year  can  be  counted  on  the  fingers  of  one  hand  as 

they  are  so  few  in  number.     In   1907-08  only  one  sailing  vessel 

entered  the  Port. 

In  1868  there  were  19  admissions  in  all  to  the  Church.     In 

his  report  to     England  on  the    work  of  this    year  Mr.  Robinson 

stated: — 

"The  members  are  all  hearty  men  and  many  of  them  spend 
the  Sabbath  afternoon  preaching  the  Gospel  and  inviting  sinners 
to  come  to  Jesus." 

On  the  28th  February  1869,  Mr.  Robinson  preached  a  sermon 
to  children,  when  Mr.  Rodway,  the  Head  Master  of  the  Benevolent 
Institution  brought  his  scholars  over  to  the  service. 

On  the  28th  March  anniversary  sermons  were  preached  in 
connection  with  the  Pastor's  settlement,  in  the  morning  by  Mr. 
Trafford  of  Serampore  and  in  the  evening  by  Mr.  R.  Robinson. 
The  Anniversary  Tea  Meeting  was  held  in  a  booth  on  the  side  of 
the  Chapel  on  2nd  April  when  Rev.  C.  B.  Lewis  presided  and 
addresses  were  delivered  by  Revs.  T.  E.  Slater  and  A.  Williams. 
A  report  waa  read  by  the  Pastor,  but  no  details  from  it  are  in  record. 
The  collection  amounted  to  Rs.  218. 

On  the  12th  September  another  service  for  children  was  held. 

There  were  only  eight  admissions  in  this  year.  The  followir^ 
is  an  extract  from  Mr.  Robinson's  report  to  the  Society  of  the 
work  of  the  year : — 

During  the  year,  beside  the  Deacons,  five  or  six  of  our  brethren 
haviebeen  engaged  every  Sunday,  and  as  opportunities  have  offered, 
during  the  wedk,  in  visiting  the  homes  of  the  sick  and  the  poor, 
and  the  hospitab,  where,  as  well  as  among  the  wanderers  in  our 
streets,  they  have  distributed  tracts  and  offered  words  of  exhorta- 


tion.  Three  of  the  brethren  are  foreigners,  and  are  able  to  con- 
verse with  considerable  ease  in  Spanish,  Portuguese,  Italian, 
Danish^  Swedish  and  German,  and  have  been  able  to  distribute  a 
number  of  tracts  in  those  languages.  They  have  also  visit&d  and 
conveiBed  with  many  foreigners  in  our  hospitals. 

The  Church  also  supports  a  Native  Preacher  and  the  Pastor 
haa  the  general  supervision  of  the  labors  of  one  of  the  city  mis- 
sionaries. These  have  been  engaged  generally  in  visiting  and 
preaching  twice  a  day,  and  the  number  that  hear  the  Gospel  throiugh 
them  averages  between  800  and  1,000  weekly. 

Nimiber  of  members  given  as  136 

Nimiber  of  children  in  the  Sunday  School  given  as  155 
On  the  5th  April  1870,  it  was  resolved  that  the  repairs,  and  the 
tiPDction  of  a  new  vestry  and  lecture  room,  as  stated  in  the  estimate 
prepared  by  Messrs.  Mackintosh  Bum  and  Co.,  be  carried  out, 
with  the  exception  of  the  new  portico,  and  that  the  firm  be  re- 
quested to  undertake  the  work  forthwith.  This  they  evidently 
did  for  the  Church  Meeting  of  7th  September,  was  the  first  after 
fEe  repairs  had  been  completed,  when  it  was  reported  that  the 
firm  had  successfully  carried  out  the  repairs,  alterations,  etc.,  at 
a  total  inclusive  cost  of  lis.  9,000,  but  as  the  Church  had  only 
about  half  that  sum  in  hand  it  was  proposed  to  borrow  the  balance 
from  Mr.   Lewis. 

Mrs.  Bobinson,  who  was  in  Scotland  showed  a  practidal 
interest  in  the  Church  by  sending  out  a  remittance  for  £50,  which 
she  had  collected  in  Scotland  towards  the  Repair  Fund.  The 
announcement  of  this  donation  was  made  on  the  26th  December 

The  admission  in  1870,  were  3;  in  1871,  8;   and  in  1872,  8. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  year,  1871,  the  piece  of  ground  on 
the  west  of  the  Chapel  gateway,  viz.,  No.  30,  Bow  Bazar  Street 
waa  rented  by  the  Officers  of  the  Church.  This  piece  of  ground 
liad  originally  belonged  to  the  Church,  but  slipped  out  of  ita 
pofloeonion  many  years  before  under  drcumstanoes,  which  aie 
jfuMj  well  known,  but  no  serious  dSort  was  made  to  establish 


tlie  Church's  claim  to  it,  so  the  holder  continued  to  remain  in 
possefision  of  it. 

At  the  beginning  of  1872,  Mr.  Robinson  began  to  find  that 
his  heavy  official  duties  prevented  him  from  giving  as  much  time 
as  he  desired  to  the  Church,  so  he  proposed  that  the  Rev.  C.  Jor- 
dan should  join  him  in  the  Pastorate,  and  take  an  equal  share 
with  him  in  the  oversight  of  the  Church,  which  Mr.  Jordan  waa 
willing  to  do.  It  was  accordingly  resolved  to  write  to  Mr.  Jordan 
inviting  him  to  the  Co-Pastorship  in  the  name  of  the  Church.  On 
the  Slst  of  January  1872,  Mr.  Jordan  accepted  the  Co-Pastorship 
conditionally,  subject  to  the  arrangements  which  might  be  made 
by  his  missionary  brethren  in  regard  to  Serampore.  At  this  point 
a  diversion  may  be  made  to  outline  briefly    Mr.  Jordairs  career. 


[Rev.  Jqhn  Robinson.  , 

The  Rev.  Charles  Jordan. 
Hci  was  born  at  Dulwich,   Surrey^  on  the  let  October  1841. 
Was  educated  at  Regent's  Park  CoHege,  London,   and  afterwards 
took"  up  pastoi^al  work.     Was  dasignated  as  a  missionary  in  Atiguat 

THR  PA8T0BATB    OF    THE    BBV.    JOHN   ROBINSON.  87& 

M69,  and  arrived  in  Calcutta  on  the  8tli  Kovember  following. 
M  was  intended  that  on  has  arrival  in  this  country,  he  should 
Mrinat  Dr.  Wenger  in  his  literary  work.  Accordingly,  he  was  first 
(Utioned  at  Calcutta  till  1871,  was  at  Barisal  in  1871  and  1872; 
fNtt  Co-Pastor  at  Lall  Bazar  with  Rev.  J.  Robinson  in  1872  and 
^3.  Ait&r  leaving  Lall  Bazar,  was  Principal  of  Serampore  Ool- 
ttge  for  5  years,  i.e.,  from  1873  to  1878.  Transferred  to  Calcutta 
illd  placed  in  charge  of  the  Entally  Institution  for  one  year,  which 
iras  at  that  time  in  a  flourishing  condition.  From  there,  he  went 
M»  England  for  18  months  on  his  first  furlough  after  a  residence 
ikl  this  country  of  over  10  years.  On  return  to  India  was  stationed 
Ift  Howrah  for  3  years.  He  then  took  up  the  Pastorate  of  th-d 
Sfitcolar  Road  Church,  which  he  held  for  over  6  years.  After 
Aat,  he  availed  himself  of  a  second  furlough  for  18  months.  On' 
^tum  to  India  was  attached  to  Calcutta  and  did  vernacular  and 
wfterary  work.  Availed  himself  of  his  third  furlough  in  1900  on 
Account  of  ill-health  and  was  away  over  2  years.  He  returned 
ftt  the  end  of  1902,  but  since  then  his  health  has  not  been  good. 
Be  retired  in  consequence  with  effact  from  1st  April  1908,  after 
ii  service  of  39  years,  and  is  residing  in  Calcutta. 

\\'  On  the  3rd  April  1872,  Mr.  Jordan  reported  to  the  Church 
tibiat  the  services  of  Miss  Butler  had  been  engaged  by  the  Pastor 
ind  Deacons  as  a  missionary  to  the  neighbourhood  in  connection 
with  the  Church  and  Siinday  School,  and  those  present  at  the 
iiweting  signified  their  approval  of  the  step  taken. 
' '  On  tSe  2nd  October,  it  was  agreed  to  hold  a  series  of  morning 
payer-meetings  during  the  first  week  of  the  ensuing  puja  holidays. 

On  the  3rd  December  1873,  ths  Deacons  were  authorized  to 
obtain  from  Meesrs.  Mackintosh  Burn  and  Co.,  the  best  description 
irf-roof  that  would  be  suitable  for  the  Chapel,  and  an  estimate  of 
ihe  cost  of  the  roof  that  that  firm  recommended. 

On  the  23rd  December  Mr.  Jordan  wrote  resigning 
te  Oo-Pastorahip  as  it  had  been  arranged  for  him  to  go  to  Seram- 


pore,  and  when  this  letter  was  considered  at  the  meeting  on-titt 
following  day  the  Church  expressed  great  regret  at  his  resignatkt 
and  its  high  sense  of  his  past  services,  and  its  thankful  acknowledf- 
ments  for  his  kind  ministrations. 

On  the  24th  December  it  was  reported  that  MeesxB.  Mio> 
kintoshBum  and  Co.,  recommend sd  an  arched  roof  on  the  principle 
patented  by  Mr.  Clark,  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  4,250,  and  it  was  resolvMt 
to  ask  them  to  undertake  the  work  together  with  any  slight  rep«UB. 
that  might  be  needed. 

On  the  18th  February  1874,  a  Committee  was  appointed  toooo- 
sider  the  estimates  furnished  by  Messrs.  Mackintoeli  Bum  and  Go., 
and  Messrs  Bum  and  Co.,  and  to  arrangd  for  the  new  roof  bejnf^, 
proceeded  with  as  soon  as  practicable    by    whichever    firm    mi^- 
be  selected. 

On  the  11th  March,  it  was  decided  to  entrust  the  oonstnicto 
of  the  new  roof  to  Messrs  Burn  and  Co.,  whose  estimate  amoontet^ 
to  Rs.  3,150. 

At  that  meeting,  Mr.  Jefferson  resigned  his  office  as  Treasonr 
of  the  Repair  Fund,  and  also  that  of  Daacon,  and  at  the  followisf 
meeting,  which  was  held  on  tha  25th  idem,  Mr.  I>erri(^  rangned 
his  office  as  Deacon  and  withdrew  from  membership. 

On  the  13th  April,  Mr.  Robinson  was  requested  to  ask  Meflsn. 
Burn  and  Co.,  to  commence  the  construction  of  tbe  new  zoof', 
immediately,  and  it  was  arranged  for  the  servix^es  to  be  held  ii 
the  school  room  whilst  the  roof  was  being  done. 

On  the  20th  April,  a  vot^  of  thanks  was  passed  to  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Derrick  for  their  kind  assistance  during  the  period  of  their 
connection  (Mr.  Derrick  joined  on  the  20th  December  1853,  and 
Mrs.  Derrick  was  baptized  on  27th  October  1861),  and  for  their 
valuable  services  at  the  Choir. 

On  the  15th  June,  an  estimate  was  accepted  for  altering  tht 
gas  fittings,  and  the  completion  of  the  work  was  reported  on  the  8tk 

From  the  8th  to  the  12th  September,  a  series  of  prayer-meat- 


iqp  was  held^  the  last  being  in  the  body  of  the  Chapel,  which  was 
tow  ready  for  use.  At  the  conclusion  of  these  sendees  Miss  Callow 
Mdy  £or  use.  At  the  conclusion  of  these  services  Miss  Callow 
nm  presented  with.  Bs.  100,  and  a  set  of  Music  Books  for  having 
MRBBided  at  the  harmonium  three  years. 

The  Chapel  was  re-opened  for  Service  on  Sunday,  the  13th 
hptember  1874,  when  Dr.  House  preached  a  baptismal  sermon 
B  ihe  morning  to  a  large,  and  overflowing  congregation,  in  whose 
msenoe  twelve  individuals  were  baptized;  Mr.  Williams 
KiMched  in  the  evening.  It  may  here  be  mentioned  that 
a  1873,  twelve  persons  had  been  admitted,  but  42  were  admitted 
Ot  1874.  Such  a  large  nximber  as  12  being  baptized  at  one  time 
nd  not  occurred  since  1837.  This  served  as  an  incentive  to 
Orther  efforts,  so  evangelistic  services  were  held  from  the  14tb 
O  the  19th  September,  when  addresses  were  delivered  by  several 
MdnisteiB  and  laymen. 

A  wave  of  spiritual  blessing  passed  over  Calcutta  in  1874, 
huing  which  year  tha  sister  Church  at  Circular  !Eload  admitted 
11  in  all,  i.e.,  30  by  baptism  and  4  by  letter.  The  following  is 
m  extract  from  the  report  of  the  Pastor  of  the  Circular  Boad 
fturch  for  1874  :— 

"In  no  year  of  the  Church  a  history  have  so  many  baptisms 
place.     The  year  has  baen  one  of  great  awakening  through- 

Cidcutta,  no  less  so  perhaps  than  in  Britain.  Before  the 
"  services  which  were  held  in  June,  and  which  were  continued 
rifli  some  intermission  to  the  close  of  the  year,  a  spirit  of  great 
Kmestness,  and  prayer  pervaded  the  different  congregations  in 
k  City,  and  a  great  work  of  grace  had  been  going  on  among 
to  Methodist  brethren.  Many  in  our  midst  had  been  praying 
Hr  •  special  outpouring  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  we  believe  that 
^  ii  in  answer  to  earnest  prayer  that  wc  have  been  so  blessed^.'' 

It  may  be  mentioned  here  that  14  were  baptized  on  the  2nd 
cvgnst  1874,  at  the  Circular  Boad  Chapel. 

After  the  30th  September,  the  land  alongside  the  Chapel  on 
le  west  ceased  to  be  rented. 

On  the  6th  January  1875,  Mrs.  Charles  Howataon  was  asked 
she  would  hold  her  school  in  the  Lecture  H.«AV  Iot  V^<e 


benefit  of  tHe  Protestant  girls  of  the  neighbourhood^  who^  oodi 
pay,  the  arrangement  to  last  for  at  least  a  year.  It  was  op^ied 
a  few  days  after,  with  every  prospect  of  succesB,  but  notbing 
further  is  on  record. 

From  the  15ti:  to  the  28th  February,  a  series  of  prayet  meet* 
ings,  and  special  evangelistic  services  was  held.  Again  from  iHa^ 
14th  lo  the  17th  April  another  series  of  meetings  was  held.  These 
were  conducted  by  Messrs.  Spurgeon  and  Mintridge,  and,  it  id 
added,  that  in  the  course  of  these  services  several  sailors  were 
enlightened  and  professed  faith  in  the  Lord. 

On  the  26th  May,  it  was  decided  to  write  to  the  membflw 
whose  names  were  on  the  Church  Roll,  but  who  had  disoontinueJ 

At  this  meeting,  Mr.  William  Thomas  resigned  his  office  H 
Deacon,   and  also  his  membership. 

On  the  9th  June,  Mr.  Austin  was  unanimously  asked  to  ke^ 
the  accounts,  and  the  money  of  tha  Church  and  Mr.  Gk>rdon  Rolafr 
son  was  also  unanimously  placed  in  charge  of  the  Chapel  prenuBfll^ 
and  asked  to  look  after  all  matters,  connected  with  them.  Thert 
was  some  correspondence  he  had  during  his  incumbency  regardinf 
the  east  boundary  wall  of  the  premises  on  which  an  impcNrtaal 
decision  was  come  to  some  twelve  years  later. 

On  the  15  th  June  a  tea  meeting  was  held  at  which  there  wil 
a  large  gathering  of  members  and  their  friends.  Afterwards  tibfl 
meeting  adjourned  to  the  Chapel  to  receive  the  Pastor's  report  aft 
the  state  of  the  funds  connected  with  the  erection  of  the, new  roofi 
and  to  adopt  measures  for  paying  ojff  the  debt.  It  was  stated  tM. 
in  the  course  of  the  erection  of  the  new  roof,  it  was  found  that  bmm 
of  the  arches  over  the  doors,  and  windows  were  cracked,  and  that 
the  whole  system  of  gas  piping  needed  renewal  so  that  the  toUl 
cost  had  amounted  to  Es.  6,570,  instead  of  Bs.  4,500^  as  pM* 
viously  estimated.  Towards  this  Ks.  5,000  had  been  raised  ui 
Bs.   1,500  had  yet  to  be  raised,   which  It.i^aa  hoped  would  ht 

THE   PAflTORATB   OF    THB    EBV.    JOHIT  B0B1N80N.  379 

Dne  by  the  13tli  September,   tbe  anniversary  of  tbs  re-opening 
f  l^e  Chapel. 

From  the  19th  to  the  25th  July,  evangelistic  services  were 
yaan  held  at  which  about  18  persons,  almost  all  of  whom  were 
liloiB,  declared  themselves  on  the  Lord's  side. 

On  the  18th  August,  it  was  resolved  to  strike  off  the  Roll  the 
bsenting  members,  who  had  been  written  to  but  had  not  replied. 

On  the  13th  September,  a  large  tea  meeting  was  held,  and 
fter  it  a  public  meeting  at  which  General  Litchfield,  the  United 
bates  Consul-General  presided  and  Rev.  J.  Ross  and  Br.  Thoburn 

On  the  7th  November,  sermons  were  preached  on  bahalf  of  the 
laptifit  Missionary  Society  by  Mr.  Jordan  in  the  morning  and 
[r.  T.   Evans  in  the  evening. 

On  the  14th  November,  Mr.  Robinson  stated  that  under  medical 
ivice  he  would  have  to  give  up  a  portion  of  his  Church  work,  and 
xjuested  the  appointment  of  a  Committee  to  consult  what  measures 
lould  be  adoptad.  On  the  17th  idem,  the  Committee  presented 
leir  report  when  it  was  unanimously  decided  to  invite  Rev.  C. 
.  Brown  to  work  with  Mr.  Bx>biiison  for  the  present.  The  Oom- 
littee  thought  the  Church  might  get  a  Missionary  Pastor  for 
s.  100,  payable  by  the  Church  and  Rs.  150  by  the  Society  with 
)Tise,  after  a  year  Rs.  125,  and  so  on  until  Rs.  250  was  made  up. 
oooirdingly  a  letter  was  written  to  Mr.  Brown  on  the  19th  idem 
iviting  him  to  share  the  pastorate  with  Mr.  Robinson  pending 
ie  decision  of  t£e  Baptist  Missionary  Society,  and  on  the  24tli 
em,  Mr.  Brown  wrota  accepting  the  above,  and  this  acceptance 
IS  hailed  with  satisfaction ;  but  Mr.  Brown  went  to  Barisal  pend- 
g  the  receipt  of  the  orders  of  the  Committee  from  London. 

On  the  5th  January    1876,    it   was   decided  that   the  officers 
the  Church,  who  were  to  be  elected  should  be  calkd  Elders ,  and 
»t  Deacons.     It  was  also  decided  that  5  should  be  elected,  and 
»  following  were  so  elected:— 

1.     Mr.  Austin,  who  was  appointed  Tpaasurer. 


2.  Mr.   Aratoon. 

3.  Mr.   Francis. 

4.  Mr.  F.  P.  Lindeman. 

5.  Mr.  Gordon  Robinson,  who  was  to  supervise  everything 
in  connection  with  the  building,  viz,,  gas,  repairs  etc. ;  also  to 
be  the  representative  of  the   Church  in  the  Sunday   School. 

It  was  also  considered  desirable  to  registar  the  attendance 
of  members  at  the  Communion  by  Cards. 

On  the  17th  January,  the  reply  of  the  Society  refusing  to  enter- 
tain any  proposition  for  assisting  Mr.  Robinson  was  read  at  * 
special  meeting.  The  Society  ordered  Mr.  Brown's  immediite 
return  to  the  mofussil,  for  vernacular  work. 

The  Sykes  Brothers  having  offered  quarters  free,  Mr.  BroU 
was  asked  on  the  18th  January,  if  he  would  remain  on  Rs.  150  j^ 
quartera,  to  which  he  consented  *  subject  to  his  release  by  tb 
Society.  Accordingly,  a  letter  was  addressed  by  the  Chunk 
to  the  Society  on  the  2l6t  January,  regarding  this  matter  which  wii 
signed  by  all  the  officers  and  members. 

Mr.  R.  Robinson  consented  to  fill  the  pulpit  until  tlie  wtara 
of  his  brother  to  Calcutta. 

To  cheer  Mr.  Robinson  a  letted  was  written  to  him  on  the  26A 
January,  expressing  the  gratitude  of  the  Church  to  him  and  thitf 
sympathy  with  him. 

A  letter  of  thanks  was  written  on  the  same  day  to  the  Mbbbh* 
Sykes  for  their  offer  of  quarters. 

On  the  15th  February,  the  Pastor  personally  thanked  tfc» 
Elders  at  his  house  for  the  Church's  letter  of  30th  January,  uA 
asked  them  to  continue  to  make  arrangements  for  the  services  • 
he  was  too  weak  to  take  them  up,  so,  on  the  20th  February,  tbe 
Elders  decided  to  ask  Mr.  Kerry  to  occupy  the  pulpit. 

On  the  1st  March^  Mr.  Robinson  wrote  a  letter  to  the  ChurA 
thanking  them  for  their  good  wish>ss  and  informing  them  that  • 
friend  had  offered  to  make  good  the  amount  of  the